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* [RFC/PATCH 0/4] cat-file --batch-disk-sizes
@ 2013-07-07 10:01 Jeff King
  2013-07-07 10:03 ` [PATCH 1/4] zero-initialize object_info structs Jeff King
                   ` (4 more replies)
  0 siblings, 5 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-07 10:01 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git

When I work with alternates repositories that have the objects for many
individual forks inter-mixed, one of the questions I want to ask git is
how much space particular forks are taking up in the object database.
This is easy enough to script with `rev-list --objects $fork1 --not
$fork2`, as long as you can convert the object names into their on-disk
sizes.

Unfortunately, it's hard to get the on-disk object sizes for packs. You
can do it directly with `verify-pack -v`, which is incredibly slow. Or
you can sort and subtract offsets from the output of `show-index` (i.e.,
the same thing the pack-revindex code does internally). Instead, this
patch series exposes the revindex-generated sizes on the command line.

The fourth patch does not need to be built on top of this series, but
the early parts provide a convenient way to measure the revindex code.

  [1/4]: zero-initialize object_info structs
  [2/4]: teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query
  [3/4]: cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  [4/4]: pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 1/4] zero-initialize object_info structs
  2013-07-07 10:01 [RFC/PATCH 0/4] cat-file --batch-disk-sizes Jeff King
@ 2013-07-07 10:03 ` Jeff King
  2013-07-07 17:34   ` Junio C Hamano
  2013-07-07 10:04 ` [PATCH 2/4] teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query Jeff King
                   ` (3 subsequent siblings)
  4 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-07 10:03 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git

The sha1_object_info_extended function expects the caller to
provide a "struct object_info" which contains pointers to
"query" items that will be filled in. The purpose of
providing pointers rather than storing the response directly
in the struct is so that callers can choose not to incur the
expense in finding particular fields that they do not care
about.

Right now the only query item is "sizep", and all callers
set it explicitly to choose whether or not to query it; they
can then leave the rest of the struct uninitialized.

However, as we add new query items, each caller will have to
be updated to explicitly turn off the new ones (by setting
them to NULL).  Instead, let's teach each caller to
zero-initialize the struct, so that they do not have to
learn about each new query item added.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
Obviously I plan to add a new query type in the next patch, but this
initialization is probably a reasonable thing to be doing anyway.

 sha1_file.c | 2 +-
 streaming.c | 2 +-
 2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/sha1_file.c b/sha1_file.c
index 0af19c0..de06a97 100644
--- a/sha1_file.c
+++ b/sha1_file.c
@@ -2428,7 +2428,7 @@ int sha1_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep)
 
 int sha1_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep)
 {
-	struct object_info oi;
+	struct object_info oi = {0};
 
 	oi.sizep = sizep;
 	return sha1_object_info_extended(sha1, &oi);
diff --git a/streaming.c b/streaming.c
index cabcd9d..cac282f 100644
--- a/streaming.c
+++ b/streaming.c
@@ -135,7 +135,7 @@ struct git_istream *open_istream(const unsigned char *sha1,
 				 struct stream_filter *filter)
 {
 	struct git_istream *st;
-	struct object_info oi;
+	struct object_info oi = {0};
 	const unsigned char *real = lookup_replace_object(sha1);
 	enum input_source src = istream_source(real, type, &oi);
 
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 2/4] teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query
  2013-07-07 10:01 [RFC/PATCH 0/4] cat-file --batch-disk-sizes Jeff King
  2013-07-07 10:03 ` [PATCH 1/4] zero-initialize object_info structs Jeff King
@ 2013-07-07 10:04 ` Jeff King
  2013-07-07 10:09 ` [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option Jeff King
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  4 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-07 10:04 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git

Using sha1_object_info_extended, a caller can find out the
type of an object, its size, and information about where it
is stored. In addition to the object's "true" size, it can
also be useful to know the size that the object takes on
disk (e.g., to generate statistics about which refs consume
space).

This patch adds a "disk_sizep" field to "struct object_info",
and fills it in during sha1_object_info_extended if it is
non-NULL.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
 cache.h     |  1 +
 sha1_file.c | 20 ++++++++++++++++----
 2 files changed, 17 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)

diff --git a/cache.h b/cache.h
index dd0fb33..2d06169 100644
--- a/cache.h
+++ b/cache.h
@@ -1130,6 +1130,7 @@ struct object_info {
 struct object_info {
 	/* Request */
 	unsigned long *sizep;
+	unsigned long *disk_sizep;
 
 	/* Response */
 	enum {
diff --git a/sha1_file.c b/sha1_file.c
index de06a97..4c2365f 100644
--- a/sha1_file.c
+++ b/sha1_file.c
@@ -1697,7 +1697,8 @@ static int packed_object_info(struct packed_git *p, off_t obj_offset,
 #define POI_STACK_PREALLOC 64
 
 static int packed_object_info(struct packed_git *p, off_t obj_offset,
-			      unsigned long *sizep, int *rtype)
+			      unsigned long *sizep, int *rtype,
+			      unsigned long *disk_sizep)
 {
 	struct pack_window *w_curs = NULL;
 	unsigned long size;
@@ -1731,6 +1732,11 @@ static int packed_object_info(struct packed_git *p, off_t obj_offset,
 		}
 	}
 
+	if (disk_sizep) {
+		struct revindex_entry *revidx = find_pack_revindex(p, obj_offset);
+		*disk_sizep = revidx[1].offset - obj_offset;
+	}
+
 	while (type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA || type == OBJ_REF_DELTA) {
 		off_t base_offset;
 		/* Push the object we're going to leave behind */
@@ -2357,7 +2363,8 @@ struct packed_git *find_sha1_pack(const unsigned char *sha1,
 
 }
 
-static int sha1_loose_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep)
+static int sha1_loose_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep,
+				  unsigned long *disk_sizep)
 {
 	int status;
 	unsigned long mapsize, size;
@@ -2368,6 +2375,8 @@ static int sha1_loose_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *size
 	map = map_sha1_file(sha1, &mapsize);
 	if (!map)
 		return -1;
+	if (disk_sizep)
+		*disk_sizep = mapsize;
 	if (unpack_sha1_header(&stream, map, mapsize, hdr, sizeof(hdr)) < 0)
 		status = error("unable to unpack %s header",
 			       sha1_to_hex(sha1));
@@ -2391,13 +2400,15 @@ int sha1_object_info_extended(const unsigned char *sha1, struct object_info *oi)
 	if (co) {
 		if (oi->sizep)
 			*(oi->sizep) = co->size;
+		if (oi->disk_sizep)
+			*(oi->disk_sizep) = 0;
 		oi->whence = OI_CACHED;
 		return co->type;
 	}
 
 	if (!find_pack_entry(sha1, &e)) {
 		/* Most likely it's a loose object. */
-		status = sha1_loose_object_info(sha1, oi->sizep);
+		status = sha1_loose_object_info(sha1, oi->sizep, oi->disk_sizep);
 		if (status >= 0) {
 			oi->whence = OI_LOOSE;
 			return status;
@@ -2409,7 +2420,8 @@ int sha1_object_info_extended(const unsigned char *sha1, struct object_info *oi)
 			return status;
 	}
 
-	status = packed_object_info(e.p, e.offset, oi->sizep, &rtype);
+	status = packed_object_info(e.p, e.offset, oi->sizep, &rtype,
+				    oi->disk_sizep);
 	if (status < 0) {
 		mark_bad_packed_object(e.p, sha1);
 		status = sha1_object_info_extended(sha1, oi);
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-07 10:01 [RFC/PATCH 0/4] cat-file --batch-disk-sizes Jeff King
  2013-07-07 10:03 ` [PATCH 1/4] zero-initialize object_info structs Jeff King
  2013-07-07 10:04 ` [PATCH 2/4] teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query Jeff King
@ 2013-07-07 10:09 ` Jeff King
  2013-07-07 17:49   ` Junio C Hamano
  2013-07-07 21:15   ` brian m. carlson
  2013-07-07 10:14 ` [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
  4 siblings, 2 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-07 10:09 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git

This option is just like --batch-check, but shows the
on-disk size rather than the true object size. In other
words, it makes the "disk_size" query of sha1_object_info_extended
available via the command-line.

This can be used for rough attribution of disk usage to
particular refs, though see the caveats in the
documentation.

This patch does not include any tests, as the exact numbers
returned are volatile and subject to zlib and packing
decisions.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
I sort of tacked this onto the --batch-check format by replacing the
"real" object size with the on-disk size when this option is used. I'm
open to suggestions. Two other things I considered were:

  1. Having the option simply output an extra field with the on-disk
     size. But then you are paying for the true object size lookup, even
     if you don't necessarily care.

  2. Simply outputting the disk-size and object name. For my purposes, I
     do not care about the object type, and finding the type takes non-trivial
     resources (we have to walk delta chains to find the true type).

Perhaps we need

  git cat-file --batch-format="%(disk-size) %(object)"

or similar.

 Documentation/git-cat-file.txt | 16 ++++++++++++++++
 builtin/cat-file.c             |  9 +++++++++
 2 files changed, 25 insertions(+)

diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 30d585a..d4af1fc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -65,6 +65,22 @@ OPTIONS
 	Print the SHA-1, type, and size of each object provided on stdin. May not
 	be combined with any other options or arguments.
 
+--batch-disk-sizes::
+	Like `--batch-check`, but print the on-disk size of each object
+	(including zlib and delta compression) rather than the object's
+	true size. May not be combined with any other options or
+	arguments.
++
+NOTE: The on-disk size reported is accurate, but care should be taken in
+drawing conclusions about which refs or objects are responsible for disk
+usage. The size of a packed non-delta object be much larger than the
+size of objects which delta against it, but the choice of which object
+is the base and which is the delta is arbitrary and is subject to change
+during a repack. Note also that multiple copies of an object may be
+present in the object database; in this case, it is undefined which
+copy's size will be reported.
+
+
 OUTPUT
 ------
 If '-t' is specified, one of the <type>.
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 045cee7..5112c64 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@
 
 #define BATCH 1
 #define BATCH_CHECK 2
+#define BATCH_DISK_SIZES 3
 
 static int cat_one_file(int opt, const char *exp_type, const char *obj_name)
 {
@@ -135,6 +136,11 @@ static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, int print_contents)
 
 	if (print_contents == BATCH)
 		contents = read_sha1_file(sha1, &type, &size);
+	else if (print_contents == BATCH_DISK_SIZES) {
+		struct object_info oi = {0};
+		oi.disk_sizep = &size;
+		type = sha1_object_info_extended(sha1, &oi);
+	}
 	else
 		type = sha1_object_info(sha1, &size);
 
@@ -206,6 +212,9 @@ int cmd_cat_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 		OPT_SET_INT(0, "batch-check", &batch,
 			    N_("show info about objects fed from the standard input"),
 			    BATCH_CHECK),
+		OPT_SET_INT(0, "batch-disk-sizes", &batch,
+			    N_("show on-disk size of objects fed from standard input"),
+			    BATCH_DISK_SIZES),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-07 10:01 [RFC/PATCH 0/4] cat-file --batch-disk-sizes Jeff King
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-07 10:09 ` [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option Jeff King
@ 2013-07-07 10:14 ` Jeff King
  2013-07-07 23:52   ` Shawn Pearce
  2013-07-08 20:50   ` Brandon Casey
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
  4 siblings, 2 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-07 10:14 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git

The pack revindex stores the offsets of the objects in the
pack in sorted order, allowing us to easily find the on-disk
size of each object. To compute it, we populate an array
with the offsets from the sha1-sorted idx file, and then use
qsort to order it by offsets.

That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.

On the linux.git repo, with about 3M objects to sort, this
yields a 400% speedup. Here are the best-of-five numbers for
running "echo HEAD | git cat-file --batch-disk-size", which
is dominated by time spent building the pack revindex:

          before     after
  real    0m0.834s   0m0.204s
  user    0m0.788s   0m0.164s
  sys     0m0.040s   0m0.036s

On a smaller repo, the radix sort would not be
as impressive (and could even be worse), as we are trading
the log(n) factor for the k=4 of the radix sort. However,
even on git.git, with 173K objects, it shows some
improvement:

          before     after
  real    0m0.046s   0m0.017s
  user    0m0.036s   0m0.012s
  sys     0m0.008s   0m0.000s

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
I think there are probably still two potential issues here:

  1. My while() loop termination probably has issues when we have to use
     all 64 bits to represent the pack offset (not likely, but...)

  2. We put "int pos[65536]" on the stack. This is a little big, but is
     probably OK, as I think the usual small stack problems we have seen
     are always in threaded code. But it would not be a big deal to heap
     allocate it (it would happen once per radix step, which is only 4
     times for the whole sort).

 pack-revindex.c | 77 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
 1 file changed, 72 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
index 77a0465..d2adf36 100644
--- a/pack-revindex.c
+++ b/pack-revindex.c
@@ -59,11 +59,78 @@ static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
 	/* revindex elements are lazily initialized */
 }
 
-static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
+/*
+ * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort using a 16-bit "digit".
+ */
+static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, int n, off_t max)
 {
-	const struct revindex_entry *a = a_;
-	const struct revindex_entry *b = b_;
-	return (a->offset < b->offset) ? -1 : (a->offset > b->offset) ? 1 : 0;
+	/*
+	 * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
+	 * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
+	 * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
+	 */
+	struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));
+	struct revindex_entry *a = entries, *b = tmp;
+	int digits = 0;
+
+	/*
+	 * We want to know the bucket that a[i] will go into when we are using
+	 * the digit that is N bits from the (least significant) end.
+	 */
+#define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, digits) ((a[i].offset >> digits) & 0xffff)
+
+	while (max / (((off_t)1) << digits)) {
+		struct revindex_entry *swap;
+		int i;
+		int pos[65536] = {0};
+
+		/*
+		 * We want pos[i] to store the index of the last element that
+		 * will go in bucket "i" (actually one past the last element).
+		 * To do this, we first count the items that will go in each
+		 * bucket, which gives us a relative offset from the last
+		 * bucket. We can then cumulatively add the index from the
+		 * previous bucket to get the true index.
+		 */
+		for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
+			pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, digits)]++;
+		for (i = 1; i < ARRAY_SIZE(pos); i++)
+			pos[i] += pos[i-1];
+
+		/*
+		 * Now we can drop the elements into their correct buckets (in
+		 * our temporary array).  We iterate the pos counter backwards
+		 * to avoid using an extra index to count up. And since we are
+		 * going backwards there, we must also go backwards through the
+		 * array itself, to keep the sort stable.
+		 */
+		for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)
+			b[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, digits)]] = a[i];
+
+		/*
+		 * Now "b" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "a" and
+		 * "b" for the next iteration.
+		 */
+		swap = a;
+		a = b;
+		b = swap;
+
+		/* And bump our digits for the next round. */
+		digits += 16;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
+	 * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
+	 */
+	if (a != entries) {
+		int i;
+		for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
+			entries[i] = tmp[i];
+	}
+	free(tmp);
+
+#undef BUCKET_FOR
 }
 
 /*
@@ -108,7 +175,7 @@ static void create_pack_revindex(struct pack_revindex *rix)
 	 */
 	rix->revindex[num_ent].offset = p->pack_size - 20;
 	rix->revindex[num_ent].nr = -1;
-	qsort(rix->revindex, num_ent, sizeof(*rix->revindex), cmp_offset);
+	sort_revindex(rix->revindex, num_ent, p->pack_size);
 }
 
 struct revindex_entry *find_pack_revindex(struct packed_git *p, off_t ofs)
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 1/4] zero-initialize object_info structs
  2013-07-07 10:03 ` [PATCH 1/4] zero-initialize object_info structs Jeff King
@ 2013-07-07 17:34   ` Junio C Hamano
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2013-07-07 17:34 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git

Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:

> Obviously I plan to add a new query type in the next patch, but this
> initialization is probably a reasonable thing to be doing anyway.

Yes. Thanks.

>
>  sha1_file.c | 2 +-
>  streaming.c | 2 +-
>  2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/sha1_file.c b/sha1_file.c
> index 0af19c0..de06a97 100644
> --- a/sha1_file.c
> +++ b/sha1_file.c
> @@ -2428,7 +2428,7 @@ int sha1_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep)
>  
>  int sha1_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep)
>  {
> -	struct object_info oi;
> +	struct object_info oi = {0};
>  
>  	oi.sizep = sizep;
>  	return sha1_object_info_extended(sha1, &oi);
> diff --git a/streaming.c b/streaming.c
> index cabcd9d..cac282f 100644
> --- a/streaming.c
> +++ b/streaming.c
> @@ -135,7 +135,7 @@ struct git_istream *open_istream(const unsigned char *sha1,
>  				 struct stream_filter *filter)
>  {
>  	struct git_istream *st;
> -	struct object_info oi;
> +	struct object_info oi = {0};
>  	const unsigned char *real = lookup_replace_object(sha1);
>  	enum input_source src = istream_source(real, type, &oi);

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-07 10:09 ` [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option Jeff King
@ 2013-07-07 17:49   ` Junio C Hamano
  2013-07-07 18:19     ` Jeff King
                       ` (2 more replies)
  2013-07-07 21:15   ` brian m. carlson
  1 sibling, 3 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2013-07-07 17:49 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git

Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:

> Perhaps we need
>
>   git cat-file --batch-format="%(disk-size) %(object)"
>
> or similar.

I agree with your reasoning.  It may be simpler to give an interface
to ask for which pieces of info, e.g. --batch-cols=size,disksize,
without giving the readers a flexible "format".

> +NOTE: The on-disk size reported is accurate, but care should be taken in
> +drawing conclusions about which refs or objects are responsible for disk
> +usage. The size of a packed non-delta object be much larger than the
> +size of objects which delta against it, but the choice of which object
> +is the base and which is the delta is arbitrary and is subject to change
> +during a repack. Note also that multiple copies of an object may be
> +present in the object database; in this case, it is undefined which
> +copy's size will be reported.

This is a good note to leave to the readers. I was wondering how
valid to accuse that B is taking a lot of space compared to C when
you have three objects A, B and C (in decreasing order of on-disk
footprint) when A is huge and C is a small delta against A and B is
independent.  The role of A and C in their delta chain could easily
be swapped during the next full repack and then C will appear a lot
larger than B.

It might be interesting to measure the total disk footprint of an
entire delta "family" (the objects that delta against the same
base).  You may find out that hello.c with a manageable size have
very many revisions and overall have a larger on-disk footprint than
a single copy of unchanging help.mov clip used in the documentation
does, which may be an interesting observation to make.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-07 17:49   ` Junio C Hamano
@ 2013-07-07 18:19     ` Jeff King
  2013-07-08 11:04     ` Duy Nguyen
  2013-07-10 11:04     ` Jeff King
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-07 18:19 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: git

On Sun, Jul 07, 2013 at 10:49:46AM -0700, Junio C Hamano wrote:

> Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:
> 
> > Perhaps we need
> >
> >   git cat-file --batch-format="%(disk-size) %(object)"
> >
> > or similar.
> 
> I agree with your reasoning.  It may be simpler to give an interface
> to ask for which pieces of info, e.g. --batch-cols=size,disksize,
> without giving the readers a flexible "format".

Yeah, that is probably a lot more sane. That would be sufficient for my
use, I doubt anyone really wants the full format, and it would be easy
to add it later if we are wrong. It would also be easy to add other
items from the sha1_object_info_extended list, too (e.g.,
loose/cached/packed).

I'll do that in my re-roll.

> > +NOTE: The on-disk size reported is accurate, but care should be taken in
> > +drawing conclusions about which refs or objects are responsible for disk
> > +usage. [...]
> 
> This is a good note to leave to the readers. I was wondering how
> valid to accuse that B is taking a lot of space compared to C when
> you have three objects A, B and C (in decreasing order of on-disk
> footprint) when A is huge and C is a small delta against A and B is
> independent.  The role of A and C in their delta chain could easily
> be swapped during the next full repack and then C will appear a lot
> larger than B.

Yeah. I exercise a lot of human analysis when I use this tool myself.
What I am usually looking for is that somebody has forked a 100M repo,
and then dumped 2G of extra data on top. Those cases are not all that
hard to spot, and would not usually change too much in a repack.

> It might be interesting to measure the total disk footprint of an
> entire delta "family" (the objects that delta against the same
> base).  You may find out that hello.c with a manageable size have
> very many revisions and overall have a larger on-disk footprint than
> a single copy of unchanging help.mov clip used in the documentation
> does, which may be an interesting observation to make.

Yeah, that is an interesting stat, though I have not had a need for it
myself. Certainly you could do:

  git rev-list --objects --all |
  grep ' hello.c$' |
  cut -d' ' -f1 |
  git cat-file --batch-disk-sizes

to see hello.c's size. But I cannot think offhand of a way to get the
list of objects that are in a delta chain together (potentially crossing
path boundaries), short of parsing verfiy-pack output myself. I think it
is orthogonal to this patch, though. This exposes more information about
objects themselves; it would be up to another patch to help discover and
narrow the list of interesting objects.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-07 10:09 ` [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option Jeff King
  2013-07-07 17:49   ` Junio C Hamano
@ 2013-07-07 21:15   ` brian m. carlson
  2013-07-10 10:57     ` Jeff King
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: brian m. carlson @ 2013-07-07 21:15 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git

[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 554 bytes --]

On Sun, Jul 07, 2013 at 06:09:49AM -0400, Jeff King wrote:
> +NOTE: The on-disk size reported is accurate, but care should be taken in
> +drawing conclusions about which refs or objects are responsible for disk
> +usage. The size of a packed non-delta object be much larger than the

You probably meant "may be" here.               ^

-- 
brian m. carlson / brian with sandals: Houston, Texas, US
+1 832 623 2791 | http://www.crustytoothpaste.net/~bmc | My opinion only
OpenPGP: RSA v4 4096b: 88AC E9B2 9196 305B A994 7552 F1BA 225C 0223 B187

[-- Attachment #2: Digital signature --]
[-- Type: application/pgp-signature, Size: 836 bytes --]

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-07 10:14 ` [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
@ 2013-07-07 23:52   ` Shawn Pearce
  2013-07-08  7:57     ` Jeff King
  2013-07-08 20:50   ` Brandon Casey
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Shawn Pearce @ 2013-07-07 23:52 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git

On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 3:14 AM, Jeff King <peff@peff.net> wrote:
> The pack revindex stores the offsets of the objects in the
> pack in sorted order, allowing us to easily find the on-disk
> size of each object. To compute it, we populate an array
> with the offsets from the sha1-sorted idx file, and then use
> qsort to order it by offsets.
>
> That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
> that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
> we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
> that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
> is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
> using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.

Did you try the simple bucket sort Colby now uses in JGit?

The sort is pretty simple:

  bucket_size = pack_length / object_count;
  buckets[] = malloc(object_count * sizeof(int));

  foreach obj in idx:
    push_chain(buckets[obj.offset / bucket_size], obj.idx_nth);

  foreach bucket:
    insertion sort by offset

https://eclipse.googlesource.com/jgit/jgit/+/master/org.eclipse.jgit/src/org/eclipse/jgit/internal/storage/file/PackReverseIndex.java

We observed on linux.git that most buckets have an average number of
objects. IIRC the bucket_size was ~201 bytes and most buckets had very
few objects each. For lookups we keep the bucket_size parameter and a
bucket index table. This arrangement uses 8 bytes per object in the
reverse index, making it very memory efficient. Searches are typically
below O(log N) time because each bucket has <log N entries.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-07 23:52   ` Shawn Pearce
@ 2013-07-08  7:57     ` Jeff King
  2013-07-08 15:38       ` Shawn Pearce
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-08  7:57 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Shawn Pearce; +Cc: git

On Sun, Jul 07, 2013 at 04:52:23PM -0700, Shawn O. Pearce wrote:

> On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 3:14 AM, Jeff King <peff@peff.net> wrote:
> > The pack revindex stores the offsets of the objects in the
> > pack in sorted order, allowing us to easily find the on-disk
> > size of each object. To compute it, we populate an array
> > with the offsets from the sha1-sorted idx file, and then use
> > qsort to order it by offsets.
> >
> > That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
> > that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
> > we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
> > that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
> > is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
> > using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.
> 
> Did you try the simple bucket sort Colby now uses in JGit?
> 
> The sort is pretty simple:
> 
>   bucket_size = pack_length / object_count;
>   buckets[] = malloc(object_count * sizeof(int));
> 
>   foreach obj in idx:
>     push_chain(buckets[obj.offset / bucket_size], obj.idx_nth);
> 
>   foreach bucket:
>     insertion sort by offset

I did do something similar (though I flattened my buckets into a single
list afterwards), but I ended up closer to 700ms (down from 830ms, but
with the radix sort around 200ms). It's entirely possible I screwed up
something in the implementation (the bucket insertion can be done in a
lot of different ways, many of which are terrible), but I didn't keep a
copy of that attempt. If you try it and have better numbers, I'd be
happy to see them.

> We observed on linux.git that most buckets have an average number of
> objects. IIRC the bucket_size was ~201 bytes and most buckets had very
> few objects each. For lookups we keep the bucket_size parameter and a
> bucket index table. This arrangement uses 8 bytes per object in the
> reverse index, making it very memory efficient. Searches are typically
> below O(log N) time because each bucket has <log N entries.

I didn't measure lookups at all; I was focused on time to build the
index. So if there were benefits there that make up for a longer setup
time, I wouldn't have measured them (of course, we also care about the
case with few lookups, so it would be a tradeoff). You could also leave
each bucket unsorted and only lazily sort it when a lookup hits the
bucket, which might help that case (I didn't look to see if you do that
in JGit).

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-07 17:49   ` Junio C Hamano
  2013-07-07 18:19     ` Jeff King
@ 2013-07-08 11:04     ` Duy Nguyen
  2013-07-08 12:00       ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-10 11:04     ` Jeff King
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Duy Nguyen @ 2013-07-08 11:04 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Jeff King; +Cc: Git Mailing List, Junio C Hamano

un Mon, Jul 8, 2013 at 12:49 AM, Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> wrote:
> Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:
>
>> Perhaps we need
>>
>>   git cat-file --batch-format="%(disk-size) %(object)"
>>
>> or similar.

This is what I wanted to do with the in for-each-ref's pretty
formatting [1]. I used to hack cat-file --batch to extract info I
needed for experimenting with various pack index extensions. If you
are not in hurry, maybe we can introduce something similar to your
syntax, but applicable for all for-each-ref, branch and log family.
Ram, are you still interested in the awesome branch series?

> I agree with your reasoning.  It may be simpler to give an interface
> to ask for which pieces of info, e.g. --batch-cols=size,disksize,
> without giving the readers a flexible "format".

[1] http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/227057/focus=227223
--
Duy

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-08 11:04     ` Duy Nguyen
@ 2013-07-08 12:00       ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-08 13:13         ` Duy Nguyen
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Ramkumar Ramachandra @ 2013-07-08 12:00 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Duy Nguyen; +Cc: Jeff King, Git Mailing List, Junio C Hamano

Duy Nguyen wrote:
> Ram, are you still interested in the awesome branch series?

Yep, but it got stalled due to lack of reviewer-interest :/

I'm a bit under the weather at the moment, but it's good to see that
you're back: let's finish this soon.

>>> Perhaps we need
>>>
>>>   git cat-file --batch-format="%(disk-size) %(object)"
>>>
>>> or similar.
>
> This is what I wanted to do with the in for-each-ref's pretty
> formatting [1]. I used to hack cat-file --batch to extract info I
> needed for experimenting with various pack index extensions. If you
> are not in hurry, maybe we can introduce something similar to your
> syntax, but applicable for all for-each-ref, branch and log family.

I'm still quite confused about this "grand plan".  We have short
commit-specific format specifiers that don't work with refs, among
several other quirks in [1].  I personally think we should absolutely
stay away from short format-specifiers (like %H, %f, %e; we'll soon
run out of letters, and nobody can tell what they are without the
documentation anyway) for the new options, and just start adding new
long-form ones as and when they are necessary.  I think refname:short,
upstream:track, upstream:trackshort are very sensible choices, and
that we should continue along that line.  I'm fine with
format-specifiers having meanings only in certain contexts as long as
we document it properly (how can we possibly get %(refname) to mean
something sensible in cat-file?).

As far as this series is concerned, I think Peff can implement %H and
%(object:[disk-]size) locally without worrying about code-sharing or
waiting for us.  Then, after the for-each-ref-pretty thing matures, we
can just replace the code underneath.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-08 12:00       ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
@ 2013-07-08 13:13         ` Duy Nguyen
  2013-07-08 13:37           ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-08 16:40           ` Junio C Hamano
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Duy Nguyen @ 2013-07-08 13:13 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ramkumar Ramachandra; +Cc: Jeff King, Git Mailing List, Junio C Hamano

On Mon, Jul 8, 2013 at 7:00 PM, Ramkumar Ramachandra <artagnon@gmail.com> wrote:
>> This is what I wanted to do with the in for-each-ref's pretty
>> formatting [1]. I used to hack cat-file --batch to extract info I
>> needed for experimenting with various pack index extensions. If you
>> are not in hurry, maybe we can introduce something similar to your
>> syntax, but applicable for all for-each-ref, branch and log family.
>
> I'm still quite confused about this "grand plan".  We have short
> commit-specific format specifiers that don't work with refs, among
> several other quirks in [1].  I personally think we should absolutely
> stay away from short format-specifiers (like %H, %f, %e; we'll soon
> run out of letters, and nobody can tell what they are without the
> documentation anyway) for the new options, and just start adding new
> long-form ones as and when they are necessary.  I think refname:short,
> upstream:track, upstream:trackshort are very sensible choices, and
> that we should continue along that line.  I'm fine with
> format-specifiers having meanings only in certain contexts as long as
> we document it properly (how can we possibly get %(refname) to mean
> something sensible in cat-file?).

The short/long naming is the least I worry about. We could add long
names to pretty specifiers. The thing about the last attempt is, you
add some extra things on top elsewhere, but format_commit_item code
may need to be aware of those changes, which are not obvious when
sombody just focuses on format_commit_item. Having all specifiers in
one place would be better (hence no hooks, no callbacks) because we
get a full picture. And yes we need to deal with specifers that make
no sense in certain context.

All that makes changes bigger, but when format_commit_item (now just
"format_item") knows how to deal with all kinds of objects and refs,
it becomes a small declaration language to extract things out of git.
You can use it for pretty printing or mass extraction in the case of
"cat-file --batch". "cat-file --batch" is just some bonus on top,
mostly to exercise that we do it right.

> As far as this series is concerned, I think Peff can implement %H and
> %(object:[disk-]size) locally without worrying about code-sharing or
> waiting for us.  Then, after the for-each-ref-pretty thing matures, we
> can just replace the code underneath.

There's also syntax sharing. I don't think each command should have
its own syntax. f-e-r already has %(objectsize). If we plan to have a
common syntax, perhaps %(disk-size) should be %(objectsize:disk) or
something. Adding formatting to cat-file --batch from scratch could be
another big chunk of code (that also comes with bugs, usually) and may
or may not be compatible with the common syntax because of some
oversight. --batch-cols=... or --batch-disk-size would be simpler, but
we might never be able to remove that code.
--
Duy

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-08 13:13         ` Duy Nguyen
@ 2013-07-08 13:37           ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-09  2:55             ` Duy Nguyen
  2013-07-10 11:16             ` Jeff King
  2013-07-08 16:40           ` Junio C Hamano
  1 sibling, 2 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Ramkumar Ramachandra @ 2013-07-08 13:37 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Duy Nguyen; +Cc: Jeff King, Git Mailing List, Junio C Hamano

Duy Nguyen wrote:
> The short/long naming is the least I worry about. We could add long
> names to pretty specifiers. The thing about the last attempt is, you
> add some extra things on top elsewhere, but format_commit_item code
> may need to be aware of those changes, which are not obvious when
> sombody just focuses on format_commit_item. Having all specifiers in
> one place would be better (hence no hooks, no callbacks) because we
> get a full picture. And yes we need to deal with specifers that make
> no sense in certain context.

Yeah, it would certainly be nice to have all the format-specifiers
that one unified parser acts on, but isn't this just a matter of
refactoring?  Shouldn't we be starting with cheap callbacks, get
things working, and guard against regressions in the refactoring phase
first?  How else do you propose to start out?

> There's also syntax sharing. I don't think each command should have
> its own syntax. f-e-r already has %(objectsize). If we plan to have a
> common syntax, perhaps %(disk-size) should be %(objectsize:disk) or
> something.

Ofcourse.  I didn't notice %(objectsize); %(objectsize[:disk]) is a
fine suggestion.

> Adding formatting to cat-file --batch from scratch could be
> another big chunk of code (that also comes with bugs, usually) and may
> or may not be compatible with the common syntax because of some
> oversight.

Oh, I'm proposing that Peff implements just %H and
%(objectsize[:disk]) for _now_, because that's what he wants.  It
should be a tiny 20-line parser that's easy to swap out.

> --batch-cols=... or --batch-disk-size would be simpler, but
> we might never be able to remove that code.

Agreed.  The approach paints us into a design-corner, and must
therefore be avoided.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-08  7:57     ` Jeff King
@ 2013-07-08 15:38       ` Shawn Pearce
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Shawn Pearce @ 2013-07-08 15:38 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git

On Mon, Jul 8, 2013 at 12:57 AM, Jeff King <peff@peff.net> wrote:
> On Sun, Jul 07, 2013 at 04:52:23PM -0700, Shawn O. Pearce wrote:
>
>> On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 3:14 AM, Jeff King <peff@peff.net> wrote:
>> > The pack revindex stores the offsets of the objects in the
>> > pack in sorted order, allowing us to easily find the on-disk
>> > size of each object. To compute it, we populate an array
>> > with the offsets from the sha1-sorted idx file, and then use
>> > qsort to order it by offsets.
>> >
>> > That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
>> > that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
>> > we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
>> > that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
>> > is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
>> > using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.
>>
>> Did you try the simple bucket sort Colby now uses in JGit?
>>
>> The sort is pretty simple:
>>
>>   bucket_size = pack_length / object_count;
>>   buckets[] = malloc(object_count * sizeof(int));
>>
>>   foreach obj in idx:
>>     push_chain(buckets[obj.offset / bucket_size], obj.idx_nth);
>>
>>   foreach bucket:
>>     insertion sort by offset
>
> I did do something similar (though I flattened my buckets into a single
> list afterwards), but I ended up closer to 700ms (down from 830ms, but
> with the radix sort around 200ms). It's entirely possible I screwed up
> something in the implementation (the bucket insertion can be done in a
> lot of different ways, many of which are terrible), but I didn't keep a
> copy of that attempt. If you try it and have better numbers, I'd be
> happy to see them.

Colby's sort in Java is coming in around 450ms for linux.git, so
sounds like your implementation was doing something suboptimal.

But as I thought about it this morning, a radix sort for most pack
files should run with k=2 and take only O(2*N) time. It is a very
efficient sort for the data. Colby and I didn't even try a radix sort,
and I suspect it would out-perform the bucket sort we do now.

>> We observed on linux.git that most buckets have an average number of
>> objects. IIRC the bucket_size was ~201 bytes and most buckets had very
>> few objects each. For lookups we keep the bucket_size parameter and a
>> bucket index table. This arrangement uses 8 bytes per object in the
>> reverse index, making it very memory efficient. Searches are typically
>> below O(log N) time because each bucket has <log N entries.
>
> I didn't measure lookups at all; I was focused on time to build the
> index. So if there were benefits there that make up for a longer setup
> time, I wouldn't have measured them (of course, we also care about the
> case with few lookups, so it would be a tradeoff).

We didn't measure lookup times either. Colby did compute a histogram
of bucket sizes and showed nearly all buckets were significantly
smaller than log N, so lookups are <log N time even though they are a
simple iteration through the elements. Colby considered doing binary
search within a bucket but didn't bother given how small the buckets
are.

So our lookup time benefit is theoretical. The way JGit implements
clones we tend not to perform N lookups in revidx, its usually sub
1000 lookups in revidx. That makes it harder to have any noticeable
benefit from decreased lookup time.

> You could also leave
> each bucket unsorted and only lazily sort it when a lookup hits the
> bucket, which might help that case (I didn't look to see if you do that
> in JGit).

We didn't do that in JGit, the sort is done at initialization. But
given the remark I just made about clones doing only a few lookups we
may want to defer the sort. IIRC the sort is about half of our
initialization cost.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-08 13:13         ` Duy Nguyen
  2013-07-08 13:37           ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
@ 2013-07-08 16:40           ` Junio C Hamano
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2013-07-08 16:40 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Duy Nguyen; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Jeff King, Git Mailing List

Duy Nguyen <pclouds@gmail.com> writes:

> There's also syntax sharing. I don't think each command should have
> its own syntax. f-e-r already has %(objectsize). If we plan to have a
> common syntax, perhaps %(disk-size) should be %(objectsize:disk) or
> something. Adding formatting to cat-file --batch from scratch could be
> another big chunk of code (that also comes with bugs, usually) and may
> or may not be compatible with the common syntax because of some
> oversight. --batch-cols=... or --batch-disk-size would be simpler, but
> we might never be able to remove that code.

True, but cat-file being a low-level plumbing, I actually am not all
that convinced that it should even know the custom formatting.
Configurability and customizability may look always good, but that
is true only until one realizes that they come with associated cost.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-07 10:14 ` [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
  2013-07-07 23:52   ` Shawn Pearce
@ 2013-07-08 20:50   ` Brandon Casey
  2013-07-08 21:35     ` Brandon Casey
  2013-07-10 10:52     ` Jeff King
  1 sibling, 2 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Brandon Casey @ 2013-07-08 20:50 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git

On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 3:14 AM, Jeff King <peff@peff.net> wrote:
> The pack revindex stores the offsets of the objects in the
> pack in sorted order, allowing us to easily find the on-disk
> size of each object. To compute it, we populate an array
> with the offsets from the sha1-sorted idx file, and then use
> qsort to order it by offsets.
>
> That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
> that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
> we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
> that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
> is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
> using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.
>
> On the linux.git repo, with about 3M objects to sort, this
> yields a 400% speedup. Here are the best-of-five numbers for
> running "echo HEAD | git cat-file --batch-disk-size", which
> is dominated by time spent building the pack revindex:
>
>           before     after
>   real    0m0.834s   0m0.204s
>   user    0m0.788s   0m0.164s
>   sys     0m0.040s   0m0.036s
>
> On a smaller repo, the radix sort would not be
> as impressive (and could even be worse), as we are trading
> the log(n) factor for the k=4 of the radix sort. However,
> even on git.git, with 173K objects, it shows some
> improvement:
>
>           before     after
>   real    0m0.046s   0m0.017s
>   user    0m0.036s   0m0.012s
>   sys     0m0.008s   0m0.000s
>
> Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
> ---
> I think there are probably still two potential issues here:
>
>   1. My while() loop termination probably has issues when we have to use
>      all 64 bits to represent the pack offset (not likely, but...)
>
>   2. We put "int pos[65536]" on the stack. This is a little big, but is
>      probably OK, as I think the usual small stack problems we have seen
>      are always in threaded code. But it would not be a big deal to heap
>      allocate it (it would happen once per radix step, which is only 4
>      times for the whole sort).
>
>  pack-revindex.c | 77 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
>  1 file changed, 72 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
> index 77a0465..d2adf36 100644
> --- a/pack-revindex.c
> +++ b/pack-revindex.c
> @@ -59,11 +59,78 @@ static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
>         /* revindex elements are lazily initialized */
>  }
>
> -static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
> +/*
> + * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort using a 16-bit "digit".
> + */
> +static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, int n, off_t max)

If 'n' is the number of objects in the pack, shouldn't it be unsigned?

The data type for struct packed_git.num_objects is uint32_t.  Looks
like create_pack_revindex uses the wrong datatype when it captures
num_objects in the int num_ent and passes it to sort_revindex.  So, it
looks like that function needs to be updated too.

>  {
> -       const struct revindex_entry *a = a_;
> -       const struct revindex_entry *b = b_;
> -       return (a->offset < b->offset) ? -1 : (a->offset > b->offset) ? 1 : 0;
> +       /*
> +        * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
> +        * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
> +        * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
> +        */
> +       struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));
> +       struct revindex_entry *a = entries, *b = tmp;
> +       int digits = 0;
> +
> +       /*
> +        * We want to know the bucket that a[i] will go into when we are using
> +        * the digit that is N bits from the (least significant) end.
> +        */
> +#define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, digits) ((a[i].offset >> digits) & 0xffff)
> +
> +       while (max / (((off_t)1) << digits)) {

Is there any reason this shouldn't be simplified to just:

       while (max >> digits) {

I glanced briefly at the assembly and it appears that gcc does
actually emit a divide instruction to accomplish this, which I think
we can avoid by just rearranging the operation.

> +               struct revindex_entry *swap;
> +               int i;
> +               int pos[65536] = {0};
> +
> +               /*
> +                * We want pos[i] to store the index of the last element that
> +                * will go in bucket "i" (actually one past the last element).
> +                * To do this, we first count the items that will go in each
> +                * bucket, which gives us a relative offset from the last
> +                * bucket. We can then cumulatively add the index from the
> +                * previous bucket to get the true index.
> +                */
> +               for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
> +                       pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, digits)]++;
> +               for (i = 1; i < ARRAY_SIZE(pos); i++)
> +                       pos[i] += pos[i-1];
> +
> +               /*
> +                * Now we can drop the elements into their correct buckets (in
> +                * our temporary array).  We iterate the pos counter backwards
> +                * to avoid using an extra index to count up. And since we are
> +                * going backwards there, we must also go backwards through the
> +                * array itself, to keep the sort stable.
> +                */
> +               for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)
> +                       b[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, digits)]] = a[i];
> +
> +               /*
> +                * Now "b" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "a" and
> +                * "b" for the next iteration.
> +                */
> +               swap = a;
> +               a = b;
> +               b = swap;
> +
> +               /* And bump our digits for the next round. */
> +               digits += 16;
> +       }
> +
> +       /*
> +        * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
> +        * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
> +        */
> +       if (a != entries) {
> +               int i;
> +               for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
> +                       entries[i] = tmp[i];

I think I recall that somebody investigated whether a for loop like
you have above was faster for copying structures than memcpy.  I
forget whether it was conclusive.  Did you happen to compare them?

<snip>

-Brandon

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-08 20:50   ` Brandon Casey
@ 2013-07-08 21:35     ` Brandon Casey
  2013-07-10 10:57       ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 10:52     ` Jeff King
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Brandon Casey @ 2013-07-08 21:35 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git

On Mon, Jul 8, 2013 at 1:50 PM, Brandon Casey <drafnel@gmail.com> wrote:
> On Sun, Jul 7, 2013 at 3:14 AM, Jeff King <peff@peff.net> wrote:

>> diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
>> index 77a0465..d2adf36 100644
>> --- a/pack-revindex.c
>> +++ b/pack-revindex.c
>> @@ -59,11 +59,78 @@ static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
>>         /* revindex elements are lazily initialized */
>>  }
>>
>> -static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
>> +/*
>> + * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort using a 16-bit "digit".
>> + */
>> +static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, int n, off_t max)
>
> If 'n' is the number of objects in the pack, shouldn't it be unsigned?
>
> The data type for struct packed_git.num_objects is uint32_t.  Looks
> like create_pack_revindex uses the wrong datatype when it captures
> num_objects in the int num_ent and passes it to sort_revindex.  So, it
> looks like that function needs to be updated too.

Hmm.  It seems more than just create_pack_revindex holds num_objects
in a signed int.  Don't we support 4G objects in packs?

find_pack_revindex uses a signed int for the index variables in its
binary search which means it will fail when num_objects >= 2^31.

-Brandon

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-08 13:37           ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
@ 2013-07-09  2:55             ` Duy Nguyen
  2013-07-09 10:32               ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-10 11:16             ` Jeff King
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Duy Nguyen @ 2013-07-09  2:55 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ramkumar Ramachandra; +Cc: Jeff King, Git Mailing List, Junio C Hamano

On Mon, Jul 8, 2013 at 8:37 PM, Ramkumar Ramachandra <artagnon@gmail.com> wrote:
> Duy Nguyen wrote:
>> The short/long naming is the least I worry about. We could add long
>> names to pretty specifiers. The thing about the last attempt is, you
>> add some extra things on top elsewhere, but format_commit_item code
>> may need to be aware of those changes, which are not obvious when
>> sombody just focuses on format_commit_item. Having all specifiers in
>> one place would be better (hence no hooks, no callbacks) because we
>> get a full picture. And yes we need to deal with specifers that make
>> no sense in certain context.
>
> Yeah, it would certainly be nice to have all the format-specifiers
> that one unified parser acts on, but isn't this just a matter of
> refactoring?  Shouldn't we be starting with cheap callbacks, get
> things working, and guard against regressions in the refactoring phase
> first?  How else do you propose to start out?

I prefer a series merged to master is a complete change. If
refactoring is needed, it should be done as part of the series as
well. Two reasons:
 - We might overlook something. The best way to avoid missing is
finish and verify it.
 - A promise to do things later could happen really late, or never
happens. As you are sastisfied with the functionality you have less
motivation to clean the code. Meanwhile the maintainer takes extra
maintenance cost.
--
Duy

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-09  2:55             ` Duy Nguyen
@ 2013-07-09 10:32               ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Ramkumar Ramachandra @ 2013-07-09 10:32 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Duy Nguyen; +Cc: Jeff King, Git Mailing List, Junio C Hamano

Duy Nguyen wrote:
>  - We might overlook something. The best way to avoid missing is
> finish and verify it.
>  - A promise to do things later could happen really late, or never
> happens. As you are sastisfied with the functionality you have less
> motivation to clean the code. Meanwhile the maintainer takes extra
> maintenance cost.

I know.  You know what my counter-argument looks like already:

A promise to deliver a perfect series sometime in the future risks
never reaching that perfection, and stalling everyone else's work.
Even if we do manage to complete that perfect series, there is no
guarantee that we'll get sufficient reviewer-interest or traction for
merge.  You think people are more likely to look at a 50-part series
than a 15-part series?

Either way, I'm not interested in arguing: for now, I'll repost the
old 15-part series and try to get some reviews.  Start writing code,
and let's finish this thing.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-08 20:50   ` Brandon Casey
  2013-07-08 21:35     ` Brandon Casey
@ 2013-07-10 10:52     ` Jeff King
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 10:52 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Brandon Casey; +Cc: git

On Mon, Jul 08, 2013 at 01:50:41PM -0700, Brandon Casey wrote:

> > +static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, int n, off_t max)
> 
> If 'n' is the number of objects in the pack, shouldn't it be unsigned?

Yes. I inherited that bug from the rest of the revindex code.

> The data type for struct packed_git.num_objects is uint32_t.  Looks
> like create_pack_revindex uses the wrong datatype when it captures
> num_objects in the int num_ent and passes it to sort_revindex.  So, it
> looks like that function needs to be updated too.

Yep. And the binary search in find_pack_revindex, too (which even has an
integer overflow!). I'll add a patch to my series to fix it (and switch
mine).

> > +       while (max / (((off_t)1) << digits)) {
> 
> Is there any reason this shouldn't be simplified to just:
> 
>        while (max >> digits) {

No, yours is much more readable. In case you are wondering how I ended
up with that monstrosity, I originally did not keep the "digits" field
as a number of bits, but rather a running total that bit-shifted 16 bits
each time through the loop. I'll change it in the re-roll.

> I glanced briefly at the assembly and it appears that gcc does
> actually emit a divide instruction to accomplish this, which I think
> we can avoid by just rearranging the operation.

Yep, although it almost certainly doesn't matter. We hit that loop
condition check at most 5 times for a 64-bit integer. I'm more concerned
with readability.

> > +       if (a != entries) {
> > +               int i;
> > +               for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
> > +                       entries[i] = tmp[i];
> 
> I think I recall that somebody investigated whether a for loop like
> you have above was faster for copying structures than memcpy.  I
> forget whether it was conclusive.  Did you happen to compare them?

It was me, actually, but the comparison was for memcmp rather than an
open-coded loop. And the conclusion was that memcmp is way faster on
glibc 2.13 and higher.

I think memcpy probably is going to be faster (especially in recent
versions of glibc), given the size of the array (the other memcmp
discussion was for 20-byte hashes, where the function call and setup
time was much more relevant).

But I don't think this was even timed at all in my tests. Since we go
back-and-forth between the original array and the tmp storage, we have a
"50%" chance of not needing to swap back anyway. So for packfiles up to
64K, we do the swap (but they are not that interesting to measure), and
then from 64K to 4G, we do not.

Note that we also use struct assignment in the sort itself to drop
elements into their buckets. That could potentially use memcpy, though I
would expect the compiler to generate pretty decent instructions for
such a small struct.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-08 21:35     ` Brandon Casey
@ 2013-07-10 10:57       ` Jeff King
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 10:57 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Brandon Casey; +Cc: git

On Mon, Jul 08, 2013 at 02:35:10PM -0700, Brandon Casey wrote:

> > If 'n' is the number of objects in the pack, shouldn't it be unsigned?
> >
> > The data type for struct packed_git.num_objects is uint32_t.  Looks
> > like create_pack_revindex uses the wrong datatype when it captures
> > num_objects in the int num_ent and passes it to sort_revindex.  So, it
> > looks like that function needs to be updated too.
> 
> Hmm.  It seems more than just create_pack_revindex holds num_objects
> in a signed int.  Don't we support 4G objects in packs?
> 
> find_pack_revindex uses a signed int for the index variables in its
> binary search which means it will fail when num_objects >= 2^31.

Yes, I didn't make a test case, but I suspect it is just completely
broken at that scale. But nobody hits it because having 2^31 objects is
somewhat insane (we are still only in the 2^22 range for the kernel, and
most large repos I've seen have large objects, but not necessarily more
of them). So if development keeps up, the kernel should hit the bug in
another few thousand years. :)

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-07 21:15   ` brian m. carlson
@ 2013-07-10 10:57     ` Jeff King
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 10:57 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: brian m. carlson; +Cc: git

On Sun, Jul 07, 2013 at 09:15:41PM +0000, brian m. carlson wrote:

> On Sun, Jul 07, 2013 at 06:09:49AM -0400, Jeff King wrote:
> > +NOTE: The on-disk size reported is accurate, but care should be taken in
> > +drawing conclusions about which refs or objects are responsible for disk
> > +usage. The size of a packed non-delta object be much larger than the
> 
> You probably meant "may be" here.               ^

Thanks, fixed in my re-roll.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-07 17:49   ` Junio C Hamano
  2013-07-07 18:19     ` Jeff King
  2013-07-08 11:04     ` Duy Nguyen
@ 2013-07-10 11:04     ` Jeff King
  2013-07-11 16:35       ` Junio C Hamano
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:04 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: git

On Sun, Jul 07, 2013 at 10:49:46AM -0700, Junio C Hamano wrote:

> Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:
> 
> > Perhaps we need
> >
> >   git cat-file --batch-format="%(disk-size) %(object)"
> >
> > or similar.
> 
> I agree with your reasoning.  It may be simpler to give an interface
> to ask for which pieces of info, e.g. --batch-cols=size,disksize,
> without giving the readers a flexible "format".

I started on this, and it turned out not to really be any simpler. In
particular there is the question of whether

  git cat-file --batch-cols=size,type

is different from

  git cat-file --batch-cols=type,size

If so, then you are basically implementing the equivalent of a macro
format anyway (you have to parse it left to right to know the order).
And if not, you end up translating the column list into a bit-field, and
the boilerplate for adding a new item is about the same as for a macro
format.

So I went ahead with the full formats for my re-roll. It turned out
pretty reasonable, I think.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-08 13:37           ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-09  2:55             ` Duy Nguyen
@ 2013-07-10 11:16             ` Jeff King
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:16 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ramkumar Ramachandra; +Cc: Duy Nguyen, Git Mailing List, Junio C Hamano

On Mon, Jul 08, 2013 at 07:07:01PM +0530, Ramkumar Ramachandra wrote:

> > There's also syntax sharing. I don't think each command should have
> > its own syntax. f-e-r already has %(objectsize). If we plan to have a
> > common syntax, perhaps %(disk-size) should be %(objectsize:disk) or
> > something.
> 
> Ofcourse.  I didn't notice %(objectsize); %(objectsize[:disk]) is a
> fine suggestion.
> 
> > Adding formatting to cat-file --batch from scratch could be
> > another big chunk of code (that also comes with bugs, usually) and may
> > or may not be compatible with the common syntax because of some
> > oversight.
> 
> Oh, I'm proposing that Peff implements just %H and
> %(objectsize[:disk]) for _now_, because that's what he wants.  It
> should be a tiny 20-line parser that's easy to swap out.

I went with %(objectname), %(objectsize), and %(objectsize:disk). The
former match for-each-ref, and the latter extends it in a natural-ish
way (though it is arguable whether "foo:modifier" should mean "do
something with the foo value" or "this is like foo, but not quite"). In
the long run, I would like to see long names for each atom, with short
aliases (so "%H" and "%h" for "%(objectname) and "%(objectname:short)",
available everywhere).

But I think it is OK to start without the aliases, and then pick them up
as the implementations and interfaces are unified. IOW, it is OK to say
"cat-file has not learned about %H yet", and later add it; we cannot
teach it "%H" now and then change our minds later.

> > --batch-cols=... or --batch-disk-size would be simpler, but
> > we might never be able to remove that code.
> 
> Agreed.  The approach paints us into a design-corner, and must
> therefore be avoided.

I would say it is worth one of the other routes if it turned out to be
dramatically simpler. But having just done the work to add formats for
cat-file, it is really not too bad. It lacks some of the niceties of the
other formatters (e.g., colors), but again, we can always add them in
later as the implementations unify.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes
  2013-07-07 10:01 [RFC/PATCH 0/4] cat-file --batch-disk-sizes Jeff King
                   ` (3 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-07 10:14 ` [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:34 ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:35   ` [PATCH 01/10] zero-initialize object_info structs Jeff King
                     ` (9 more replies)
  4 siblings, 10 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:34 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

Here's a re-roll of the cat-file --batch-disk-sizes series.

The main change is that it replaces the --batch-disk-sizes option with a
format string for --batch-check, syntactically modeled after the
for-each-ref format string.

  [01/10]: zero-initialize object_info structs
  [02/10]: teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query

These two are the same as before.

  [03/10]: t1006: modernize output comparisons

New. Cleanup since I add some related tests later on.

  [04/10]: cat-file: teach --batch to stream blob objects

New. I think this is a sane thing to be doing, and it helps reorganize
the code for later changes. But note the performance caveat in the
commit message.

  [05/10]: cat-file: refactor --batch option parsing
  [06/10]: cat-file: add --batch-check=<format>

These ones add the formatting code.

  [07/10]: cat-file: add %(objectsize:disk) format atom

And this is the format analog of my original 3/4.

  [08/10]: cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace

New. This makes certain types of analysis simpler when you pipe
"rev-list --objects" into "cat-file --batch-check", because you can
retain the object paths through the pipe.

  [09/10]: pack-revindex: use unsigned to store number of objects

New. Addresses the 2^31 bug that Brandon noticed.

  [10/10]: pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex

>From the old 4/4, but with cleanups and addressing comments from the
list (details along with the patch).

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 01/10] zero-initialize object_info structs
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:35   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:35   ` [PATCH 02/10] teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query Jeff King
                     ` (8 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:35 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

The sha1_object_info_extended function expects the caller to
provide a "struct object_info" which contains pointers to
"query" items that will be filled in. The purpose of
providing pointers rather than storing the response directly
in the struct is so that callers can choose not to incur the
expense in finding particular fields that they do not care
about.

Right now the only query item is "sizep", and all callers
set it explicitly to choose whether or not to query it; they
can then leave the rest of the struct uninitialized.

However, as we add new query items, each caller will have to
be updated to explicitly turn off the new ones (by setting
them to NULL).  Instead, let's teach each caller to
zero-initialize the struct, so that they do not have to
learn about each new query item added.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
 sha1_file.c | 2 +-
 streaming.c | 2 +-
 2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/sha1_file.c b/sha1_file.c
index 0af19c0..de06a97 100644
--- a/sha1_file.c
+++ b/sha1_file.c
@@ -2428,7 +2428,7 @@ int sha1_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep)
 
 int sha1_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep)
 {
-	struct object_info oi;
+	struct object_info oi = {0};
 
 	oi.sizep = sizep;
 	return sha1_object_info_extended(sha1, &oi);
diff --git a/streaming.c b/streaming.c
index cabcd9d..cac282f 100644
--- a/streaming.c
+++ b/streaming.c
@@ -135,7 +135,7 @@ struct git_istream *open_istream(const unsigned char *sha1,
 				 struct stream_filter *filter)
 {
 	struct git_istream *st;
-	struct object_info oi;
+	struct object_info oi = {0};
 	const unsigned char *real = lookup_replace_object(sha1);
 	enum input_source src = istream_source(real, type, &oi);
 
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 02/10] teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:35   ` [PATCH 01/10] zero-initialize object_info structs Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:35   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:36   ` [PATCH 03/10] t1006: modernize output comparisons Jeff King
                     ` (7 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:35 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

Using sha1_object_info_extended, a caller can find out the
type of an object, its size, and information about where it
is stored. In addition to the object's "true" size, it can
also be useful to know the size that the object takes on
disk (e.g., to generate statistics about which refs consume
space).

This patch adds a "disk_sizep" field to "struct object_info",
and fills it in during sha1_object_info_extended if it is
non-NULL.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
 cache.h     |  1 +
 sha1_file.c | 20 ++++++++++++++++----
 2 files changed, 17 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)

diff --git a/cache.h b/cache.h
index dd0fb33..2d06169 100644
--- a/cache.h
+++ b/cache.h
@@ -1130,6 +1130,7 @@ struct object_info {
 struct object_info {
 	/* Request */
 	unsigned long *sizep;
+	unsigned long *disk_sizep;
 
 	/* Response */
 	enum {
diff --git a/sha1_file.c b/sha1_file.c
index de06a97..4c2365f 100644
--- a/sha1_file.c
+++ b/sha1_file.c
@@ -1697,7 +1697,8 @@ static int packed_object_info(struct packed_git *p, off_t obj_offset,
 #define POI_STACK_PREALLOC 64
 
 static int packed_object_info(struct packed_git *p, off_t obj_offset,
-			      unsigned long *sizep, int *rtype)
+			      unsigned long *sizep, int *rtype,
+			      unsigned long *disk_sizep)
 {
 	struct pack_window *w_curs = NULL;
 	unsigned long size;
@@ -1731,6 +1732,11 @@ static int packed_object_info(struct packed_git *p, off_t obj_offset,
 		}
 	}
 
+	if (disk_sizep) {
+		struct revindex_entry *revidx = find_pack_revindex(p, obj_offset);
+		*disk_sizep = revidx[1].offset - obj_offset;
+	}
+
 	while (type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA || type == OBJ_REF_DELTA) {
 		off_t base_offset;
 		/* Push the object we're going to leave behind */
@@ -2357,7 +2363,8 @@ struct packed_git *find_sha1_pack(const unsigned char *sha1,
 
 }
 
-static int sha1_loose_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep)
+static int sha1_loose_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *sizep,
+				  unsigned long *disk_sizep)
 {
 	int status;
 	unsigned long mapsize, size;
@@ -2368,6 +2375,8 @@ static int sha1_loose_object_info(const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long *size
 	map = map_sha1_file(sha1, &mapsize);
 	if (!map)
 		return -1;
+	if (disk_sizep)
+		*disk_sizep = mapsize;
 	if (unpack_sha1_header(&stream, map, mapsize, hdr, sizeof(hdr)) < 0)
 		status = error("unable to unpack %s header",
 			       sha1_to_hex(sha1));
@@ -2391,13 +2400,15 @@ int sha1_object_info_extended(const unsigned char *sha1, struct object_info *oi)
 	if (co) {
 		if (oi->sizep)
 			*(oi->sizep) = co->size;
+		if (oi->disk_sizep)
+			*(oi->disk_sizep) = 0;
 		oi->whence = OI_CACHED;
 		return co->type;
 	}
 
 	if (!find_pack_entry(sha1, &e)) {
 		/* Most likely it's a loose object. */
-		status = sha1_loose_object_info(sha1, oi->sizep);
+		status = sha1_loose_object_info(sha1, oi->sizep, oi->disk_sizep);
 		if (status >= 0) {
 			oi->whence = OI_LOOSE;
 			return status;
@@ -2409,7 +2420,8 @@ int sha1_object_info_extended(const unsigned char *sha1, struct object_info *oi)
 			return status;
 	}
 
-	status = packed_object_info(e.p, e.offset, oi->sizep, &rtype);
+	status = packed_object_info(e.p, e.offset, oi->sizep, &rtype,
+				    oi->disk_sizep);
 	if (status < 0) {
 		mark_bad_packed_object(e.p, sha1);
 		status = sha1_object_info_extended(sha1, oi);
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 03/10] t1006: modernize output comparisons
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:35   ` [PATCH 01/10] zero-initialize object_info structs Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:35   ` [PATCH 02/10] teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:36   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:38   ` [PATCH 04/10] cat-file: teach --batch to stream blob objects Jeff King
                     ` (6 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:36 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

In modern tests, we typically put output into a file and
compare it with test_cmp. This is nicer than just comparing
via "test", and much shorter than comparing via "test" and
printing a custom message.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
I didn't do the whole file, just the ones of a particular style close to
what I was touching.

 t/t1006-cat-file.sh | 61 ++++++++++++++++-------------------------------------
 1 file changed, 18 insertions(+), 43 deletions(-)

diff --git a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
index 9cc5c6b..c2f2503 100755
--- a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
+++ b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
@@ -36,66 +36,41 @@ $content"
     '
 
     test_expect_success "Type of $type is correct" '
-        test $type = "$(git cat-file -t $sha1)"
+	echo $type >expect &&
+	git cat-file -t $sha1 >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
     '
 
     test_expect_success "Size of $type is correct" '
-        test $size = "$(git cat-file -s $sha1)"
+	echo $size >expect &&
+	git cat-file -s $sha1 >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
     '
 
     test -z "$content" ||
     test_expect_success "Content of $type is correct" '
-	expect="$(maybe_remove_timestamp "$content" $no_ts)"
-	actual="$(maybe_remove_timestamp "$(git cat-file $type $sha1)" $no_ts)"
-
-        if test "z$expect" = "z$actual"
-	then
-		: happy
-	else
-		echo "Oops: expected $expect"
-		echo "but got $actual"
-		false
-        fi
+	maybe_remove_timestamp "$content" $no_ts >expect &&
+	maybe_remove_timestamp "$(git cat-file $type $sha1)" $no_ts >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
     '
 
     test_expect_success "Pretty content of $type is correct" '
-	expect="$(maybe_remove_timestamp "$pretty_content" $no_ts)"
-	actual="$(maybe_remove_timestamp "$(git cat-file -p $sha1)" $no_ts)"
-        if test "z$expect" = "z$actual"
-	then
-		: happy
-	else
-		echo "Oops: expected $expect"
-		echo "but got $actual"
-		false
-        fi
+	maybe_remove_timestamp "$pretty_content" $no_ts >expect &&
+	maybe_remove_timestamp "$(git cat-file -p $sha1)" $no_ts >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
     '
 
     test -z "$content" ||
     test_expect_success "--batch output of $type is correct" '
-	expect="$(maybe_remove_timestamp "$batch_output" $no_ts)"
-	actual="$(maybe_remove_timestamp "$(echo $sha1 | git cat-file --batch)" $no_ts)"
-        if test "z$expect" = "z$actual"
-	then
-		: happy
-	else
-		echo "Oops: expected $expect"
-		echo "but got $actual"
-		false
-        fi
+	maybe_remove_timestamp "$batch_output" $no_ts >expect &&
+	maybe_remove_timestamp "$(echo $sha1 | git cat-file --batch)" $no_ts >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
     '
 
     test_expect_success "--batch-check output of $type is correct" '
-	expect="$sha1 $type $size"
-	actual="$(echo_without_newline $sha1 | git cat-file --batch-check)"
-        if test "z$expect" = "z$actual"
-	then
-		: happy
-	else
-		echo "Oops: expected $expect"
-		echo "but got $actual"
-		false
-        fi
+	echo "$sha1 $type $size" >expect &&
+	echo_without_newline $sha1 | git cat-file --batch-check >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
     '
 }
 
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 04/10] cat-file: teach --batch to stream blob objects
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
                     ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-10 11:36   ` [PATCH 03/10] t1006: modernize output comparisons Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:38   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:38   ` [PATCH 05/10] cat-file: refactor --batch option parsing Jeff King
                     ` (5 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:38 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

The regular "git cat-file -p" and "git cat-file blob" code
paths already learned to stream large blobs. Let's do the
same here.

Note that this means we look up the type and size before
making a decision of whether to load the object into memory
or stream (just like the "-p" code path does). That can lead
to extra work, but it should be dwarfed by the cost of
actually accessing the object itself. In my measurements,
there was a 1-2% slowdown when using "--batch" on a large
number of objects.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
 builtin/cat-file.c | 41 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------
 1 file changed, 28 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-)

diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 045cee7..70dd8c8 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -117,12 +117,36 @@ static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, int print_contents)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static void print_object_or_die(int fd, const unsigned char *sha1,
+				enum object_type type, unsigned long size)
+{
+	if (type == OBJ_BLOB) {
+		if (stream_blob_to_fd(fd, sha1, NULL, 0) < 0)
+			die("unable to stream %s to stdout", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+	}
+	else {
+		enum object_type rtype;
+		unsigned long rsize;
+		void *contents;
+
+		contents = read_sha1_file(sha1, &rtype, &rsize);
+		if (!contents)
+			die("object %s disappeared", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+		if (rtype != type)
+			die("object %s changed type!?", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+		if (rsize != size)
+			die("object %s change size!?", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+
+		write_or_die(fd, contents, size);
+		free(contents);
+	}
+}
+
 static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, int print_contents)
 {
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
 	enum object_type type = 0;
 	unsigned long size;
-	void *contents = NULL;
 
 	if (!obj_name)
 	   return 1;
@@ -133,16 +157,10 @@ static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, int print_contents)
 		return 0;
 	}
 
-	if (print_contents == BATCH)
-		contents = read_sha1_file(sha1, &type, &size);
-	else
-		type = sha1_object_info(sha1, &size);
-
+	type = sha1_object_info(sha1, &size);
 	if (type <= 0) {
 		printf("%s missing\n", obj_name);
 		fflush(stdout);
-		if (print_contents == BATCH)
-			free(contents);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
@@ -150,12 +168,9 @@ static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, int print_contents)
 	fflush(stdout);
 
 	if (print_contents == BATCH) {
-		write_or_die(1, contents, size);
-		printf("\n");
-		fflush(stdout);
-		free(contents);
+		print_object_or_die(1, sha1, type, size);
+		write_or_die(1, "\n", 1);
 	}
-
 	return 0;
 }
 
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 05/10] cat-file: refactor --batch option parsing
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
                     ` (3 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-10 11:38   ` [PATCH 04/10] cat-file: teach --batch to stream blob objects Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:38   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:45   ` [PATCH 06/10] cat-file: add --batch-check=<format> Jeff King
                     ` (4 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:38 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

We currently use an int to tell us whether --batch parsing
is on, and if so, whether we should print the full object
contents. Let's instead factor this into a struct, filled in
by callback, which will make further batch-related options
easy to add.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
 builtin/cat-file.c | 56 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------------
 1 file changed, 38 insertions(+), 18 deletions(-)

diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 70dd8c8..5254fe8 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -13,9 +13,6 @@
 #include "userdiff.h"
 #include "streaming.h"
 
-#define BATCH 1
-#define BATCH_CHECK 2
-
 static int cat_one_file(int opt, const char *exp_type, const char *obj_name)
 {
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
@@ -142,7 +139,12 @@ static void print_object_or_die(int fd, const unsigned char *sha1,
 	}
 }
 
-static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, int print_contents)
+struct batch_options {
+	int enabled;
+	int print_contents;
+};
+
+static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, struct batch_options *opt)
 {
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
 	enum object_type type = 0;
@@ -167,19 +169,19 @@ static int batch_objects(int print_contents)
 	printf("%s %s %lu\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1), typename(type), size);
 	fflush(stdout);
 
-	if (print_contents == BATCH) {
+	if (opt->print_contents) {
 		print_object_or_die(1, sha1, type, size);
 		write_or_die(1, "\n", 1);
 	}
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int batch_objects(int print_contents)
+static int batch_objects(struct batch_options *opt)
 {
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 	while (strbuf_getline(&buf, stdin, '\n') != EOF) {
-		int error = batch_one_object(buf.buf, print_contents);
+		int error = batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt);
 		if (error)
 			return error;
 	}
@@ -201,10 +203,28 @@ int cmd_cat_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 	return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
 }
 
+static int batch_option_callback(const struct option *opt,
+				 const char *arg,
+				 int unset)
+{
+	struct batch_options *bo = opt->value;
+
+	if (unset) {
+		memset(bo, 0, sizeof(*bo));
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	bo->enabled = 1;
+	bo->print_contents = !strcmp(opt->long_name, "batch");
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
 int cmd_cat_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
-	int opt = 0, batch = 0;
+	int opt = 0;
 	const char *exp_type = NULL, *obj_name = NULL;
+	struct batch_options batch = {0};
 
 	const struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_GROUP(N_("<type> can be one of: blob, tree, commit, tag")),
@@ -215,12 +235,12 @@ int cmd_cat_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 		OPT_SET_INT('p', NULL, &opt, N_("pretty-print object's content"), 'p'),
 		OPT_SET_INT(0, "textconv", &opt,
 			    N_("for blob objects, run textconv on object's content"), 'c'),
-		OPT_SET_INT(0, "batch", &batch,
-			    N_("show info and content of objects fed from the standard input"),
-			    BATCH),
-		OPT_SET_INT(0, "batch-check", &batch,
-			    N_("show info about objects fed from the standard input"),
-			    BATCH_CHECK),
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "batch", &batch, NULL,
+			N_("show info and content of objects fed from the standard input"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, batch_option_callback },
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "batch-check", &batch, NULL,
+			N_("show info about objects fed from the standard input"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, batch_option_callback },
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
@@ -237,19 +257,19 @@ int cmd_cat_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 		else
 			usage_with_options(cat_file_usage, options);
 	}
-	if (!opt && !batch) {
+	if (!opt && !batch.enabled) {
 		if (argc == 2) {
 			exp_type = argv[0];
 			obj_name = argv[1];
 		} else
 			usage_with_options(cat_file_usage, options);
 	}
-	if (batch && (opt || argc)) {
+	if (batch.enabled && (opt || argc)) {
 		usage_with_options(cat_file_usage, options);
 	}
 
-	if (batch)
-		return batch_objects(batch);
+	if (batch.enabled)
+		return batch_objects(&batch);
 
 	return cat_one_file(opt, exp_type, obj_name);
 }
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 06/10] cat-file: add --batch-check=<format>
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
                     ` (4 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-10 11:38   ` [PATCH 05/10] cat-file: refactor --batch option parsing Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:45   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:57     ` Eric Sunshine
  2013-07-10 14:51     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-10 11:46   ` [PATCH 07/10] cat-file: add %(objectsize:disk) format atom Jeff King
                     ` (3 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 2 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:45 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

The `cat-file --batch-check` command can be used to quickly
get information about a large number of objects. However, it
provides a fixed set of information.

This patch adds an optional <format> option to --batch-check
to allow a caller to specify which items they are interested
in, and in which order to output them. This is not very
exciting for now, since we provide the same limited set that
you could already get. However, it opens the door to adding
new format items in the future without breaking backwards
compatibility (or forcing callers to pay the cost to
calculate uninteresting items).

Since the --batch option shares code with --batch-check, it
receives the same feature, though it is less likely to be of
interest there.

The format atom names are chosen to match their counterparts
in for-each-ref. Though we do not (yet) share any code with
for-each-ref's formatter, this keeps the interface as
consistent as possible, and may help later on if the
implementations are unified.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
If the 1% slowdown in the streaming blob patch is too much, the simplest
thing would be to have this formatting apply only to --batch-check, and
let --batch follow its own simpler code path. I doubt anybody really
cares about having custom formats for --batch, as it is less about
analysis and more about getting enough information to recreate the
objects.

Also note that there is no %(contents) atom that one could use to
emulate --batch via --batch-check. I don't see much point, and it would
mean we would not want to build the formatting on strbuf_expand (because
we don't want to copy a large blob into the strbuf). We can add it later
if somebody finds an actual use.

 Documentation/git-cat-file.txt |  55 ++++++++++++++++-----
 builtin/cat-file.c             | 107 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------
 t/t1006-cat-file.sh            |   6 +++
 3 files changed, 142 insertions(+), 26 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 30d585a..dd5d6e4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -58,12 +58,16 @@ OPTIONS
 	to apply the filter to the content recorded in the index at <path>.
 
 --batch::
-	Print the SHA-1, type, size, and contents of each object provided on
-	stdin. May not be combined with any other options or arguments.
+--batch=<format>::
+	Print object information and contents for each object provided
+	on stdin.  May not be combined with any other options or arguments.
+	See the section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
 
 --batch-check::
-	Print the SHA-1, type, and size of each object provided on stdin. May not
-	be combined with any other options or arguments.
+--batch-check=<format>::
+	Print object information for each object provided on stdin.  May
+	not be combined with any other options or arguments.  See the
+	section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
 
 OUTPUT
 ------
@@ -78,23 +82,52 @@ each object specified on stdin:
 If <type> is specified, the raw (though uncompressed) contents of the <object>
 will be returned.
 
-If '--batch' is specified, output of the following form is printed for each
-object specified on stdin:
+BATCH OUTPUT
+------------
+
+If `--batch` or `--batch-check` is given, `cat-file` will read objects
+from stdin, one per line, and print information about them.
+
+Each line is considered as a whole object name, and is parsed as if
+given to linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
+
+You can specify the information shown for each object by using a custom
+`<format>`. The `<format>` is copied literally to stdout for each
+object, with placeholders of the form `%(atom)` expanded, followed by a
+newline. The available atoms are:
+
+`objectname`::
+	The sha1 hash of the object.
+
+`objecttype`::
+	The type of of the object (the same as `cat-file -t` reports).
+
+`objectsize`::
+	The size, in bytes, of the object (the same as `cat-file -s`
+	reports).
+
+If no format is specified, the default format is `%(objectname)
+%(objecttype) %(objectsize)`.
+
+If `--batch` is specified, the object information is followed by the
+object contents (consisting of `%(objectsize)` bytes), followed by a
+newline.
+
+For example, `--batch` without a custom format would produce:
 
 ------------
 <sha1> SP <type> SP <size> LF
 <contents> LF
 ------------
 
-If '--batch-check' is specified, output of the following form is printed for
-each object specified on stdin:
+Whereas `--batch-check='%(objectname) %(objecttype)'` would produce:
 
 ------------
-<sha1> SP <type> SP <size> LF
+<sha1> SP <type> LF
 ------------
 
-For both '--batch' and '--batch-check', output of the following form is printed
-for each object specified on stdin that does not exist in the repository:
+If a name is specified on stdin that cannot be resolved to an object in
+the repository, then `cat-file` will ignore any custom format and print:
 
 ------------
 <object> SP missing LF
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 5254fe8..b43a0c5 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -114,6 +114,66 @@ static int cat_one_file(int opt, const char *exp_type, const char *obj_name)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+struct expand_data {
+	unsigned char sha1[20];
+	enum object_type type;
+	unsigned long size;
+
+	/*
+	 * If mark_query is true, we do not expand anything, but rather
+	 * just mark the object_info with items we wish to query.
+	 */
+	int mark_query;
+
+	/*
+	 * After a mark_query run, this object_info is set up to be
+	 * passed to sha1_object_info_extended. It will point to the data
+	 * elements above, so you can retrieve the response from there.
+	 */
+	struct object_info info;
+};
+
+static int is_atom(const char *atom, const char *s, int slen)
+{
+	int alen = strlen(atom);
+	return alen == slen && !memcmp(atom, s, alen);
+}
+
+static void expand_atom(struct strbuf *sb, const char *atom, int len,
+			void *vdata)
+{
+	struct expand_data *data = vdata;
+
+	if (is_atom("objectname", atom, len)) {
+		if (!data->mark_query)
+			strbuf_addstr(sb, sha1_to_hex(data->sha1));
+	} else if (is_atom("objecttype", atom, len)) {
+		if (!data->mark_query)
+			strbuf_addstr(sb, typename(data->type));
+	} else if (is_atom("objectsize", atom, len)) {
+		if (data->mark_query)
+			data->info.sizep = &data->size;
+		else
+			strbuf_addf(sb, "%lu", data->size);
+	} else
+		die("unknown format element: %.*s", len, atom);
+}
+
+static size_t expand_format(struct strbuf *sb, const char *start, void *data)
+{
+	const char *end;
+
+	if (*start != '(')
+		return 0;
+	end = strchr(start + 1, ')');
+	if (!end)
+		die("format element '%s' does not end in ')'", start);
+
+	expand_atom(sb, start + 1, end - start - 1, data);
+
+	return end - start + 1;
+}
+
 static void print_object_or_die(int fd, const unsigned char *sha1,
 				enum object_type type, unsigned long size)
 {
@@ -142,35 +202,37 @@ static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, struct batch_options *opt)
 struct batch_options {
 	int enabled;
 	int print_contents;
+	const char *format;
 };
 
-static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, struct batch_options *opt)
+static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, struct batch_options *opt,
+			    struct expand_data *data)
 {
-	unsigned char sha1[20];
-	enum object_type type = 0;
-	unsigned long size;
+	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 	if (!obj_name)
 	   return 1;
 
-	if (get_sha1(obj_name, sha1)) {
+	if (get_sha1(obj_name, data->sha1)) {
 		printf("%s missing\n", obj_name);
 		fflush(stdout);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
-	type = sha1_object_info(sha1, &size);
-	if (type <= 0) {
+	data->type = sha1_object_info_extended(data->sha1, &data->info);
+	if (data->type <= 0) {
 		printf("%s missing\n", obj_name);
 		fflush(stdout);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
-	printf("%s %s %lu\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1), typename(type), size);
-	fflush(stdout);
+	strbuf_expand(&buf, opt->format, expand_format, data);
+	strbuf_addch(&buf, '\n');
+	write_or_die(1, buf.buf, buf.len);
+	strbuf_release(&buf);
 
 	if (opt->print_contents) {
-		print_object_or_die(1, sha1, type, size);
+		print_object_or_die(1, data->sha1, data->type, data->size);
 		write_or_die(1, "\n", 1);
 	}
 	return 0;
@@ -179,9 +241,23 @@ static int batch_objects(struct batch_options *opt)
 static int batch_objects(struct batch_options *opt)
 {
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct expand_data data;
+
+	if (!opt->format)
+		opt->format = "%(objectname) %(objecttype) %(objectsize)";
+
+	/*
+	 * Expand once with our special mark_query flag, which will prime the
+	 * object_info to be handed to sha1_object_info_extended for each
+	 * object.
+	 */
+	memset(&data, 0, sizeof(data));
+	data.mark_query = 1;
+	strbuf_expand(&buf, opt->format, expand_format, &data);
+	data.mark_query = 0;
 
 	while (strbuf_getline(&buf, stdin, '\n') != EOF) {
-		int error = batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt);
+		int error = batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt, &data);
 		if (error)
 			return error;
 	}
@@ -216,6 +292,7 @@ static int batch_option_callback(const struct option *opt,
 
 	bo->enabled = 1;
 	bo->print_contents = !strcmp(opt->long_name, "batch");
+	bo->format = arg;
 
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -235,12 +312,12 @@ int cmd_cat_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 		OPT_SET_INT('p', NULL, &opt, N_("pretty-print object's content"), 'p'),
 		OPT_SET_INT(0, "textconv", &opt,
 			    N_("for blob objects, run textconv on object's content"), 'c'),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "batch", &batch, NULL,
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "batch", &batch, "format",
 			N_("show info and content of objects fed from the standard input"),
-			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, batch_option_callback },
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "batch-check", &batch, NULL,
+			PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, batch_option_callback },
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "batch-check", &batch, "format",
 			N_("show info about objects fed from the standard input"),
-			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, batch_option_callback },
+			PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, batch_option_callback },
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
diff --git a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
index c2f2503..4e911fb 100755
--- a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
+++ b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
@@ -72,6 +72,12 @@ $content"
 	echo_without_newline $sha1 | git cat-file --batch-check >actual &&
 	test_cmp expect actual
     '
+
+    test_expect_success "custom --batch-check format" '
+	echo "$type $sha1" >expect &&
+	echo $sha1 | git cat-file --batch-check="%(objecttype) %(objectname)" >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+    '
 }
 
 hello_content="Hello World"
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 07/10] cat-file: add %(objectsize:disk) format atom
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
                     ` (5 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-10 11:45   ` [PATCH 06/10] cat-file: add --batch-check=<format> Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:46   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:48   ` [PATCH 08/10] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace Jeff King
                     ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:46 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

This atom is just like %(objectsize), except that it shows
the on-disk size of the object rather than the object's true
size. In other words, it makes the "disk_size" query of
sha1_object_info_extended available via the command-line.

This can be used for rough attribution of disk usage to
particular refs, though see the caveats in the
documentation.

This patch does not include any tests, as the exact numbers
returned are volatile and subject to zlib and packing
decisions. We cannot even reliably guarantee that the
on-disk size is smaller than the object content (though in
general this should be the case for non-trivial objects).

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
 Documentation/git-cat-file.txt | 18 ++++++++++++++++++
 builtin/cat-file.c             |  6 ++++++
 2 files changed, 24 insertions(+)

diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index dd5d6e4..06bdc43 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -106,6 +106,10 @@ newline. The available atoms are:
 	The size, in bytes, of the object (the same as `cat-file -s`
 	reports).
 
+`objectsize:disk`::
+	The size, in bytes, that the object takes up on disk. See the
+	note about on-disk sizes in the `CAVEATS` section below.
+
 If no format is specified, the default format is `%(objectname)
 %(objecttype) %(objectsize)`.
 
@@ -133,6 +137,20 @@ the repository, then `cat-file` will ignore any custom format and print:
 <object> SP missing LF
 ------------
 
+
+CAVEATS
+-------
+
+Note that the sizes of objects on disk are reported accurately, but care
+should be taken in drawing conclusions about which refs or objects are
+responsible for disk usage. The size of a packed non-delta object may be
+much larger than the size of objects which delta against it, but the
+choice of which object is the base and which is the delta is arbitrary
+and is subject to change during a repack. Note also that multiple copies
+of an object may be present in the object database; in this case, it is
+undefined which copy's size will be reported.
+
+
 GIT
 ---
 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index b43a0c5..11fa8c0 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -118,6 +118,7 @@ struct expand_data {
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
 	enum object_type type;
 	unsigned long size;
+	unsigned long disk_size;
 
 	/*
 	 * If mark_query is true, we do not expand anything, but rather
@@ -155,6 +156,11 @@ static void expand_atom(struct strbuf *sb, const char *atom, int len,
 			data->info.sizep = &data->size;
 		else
 			strbuf_addf(sb, "%lu", data->size);
+	} else if (is_atom("objectsize:disk", atom, len)) {
+		if (data->mark_query)
+			data->info.disk_sizep = &data->disk_size;
+		else
+			strbuf_addf(sb, "%lu", data->disk_size);
 	} else
 		die("unknown format element: %.*s", len, atom);
 }
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 08/10] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
                     ` (6 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-10 11:46   ` [PATCH 07/10] cat-file: add %(objectsize:disk) format atom Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:48   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 15:29     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-10 11:50   ` [PATCH 09/10] pack-revindex: use unsigned to store number of objects Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:55   ` [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
  9 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:48 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

If we get an input line to --batch or --batch-check that
looks like "HEAD foo bar", we will currently feed the whole
thing to get_sha1(). This means that to use --batch-check
with `rev-list --objects`, one must pre-process the input,
like:

  git rev-list --objects HEAD |
  cut -d' ' -f1 |
  git cat-file --batch-check

Besides being more typing and slightly less efficient to
invoke `cut`, the result loses information: we no longer
know which path each object was found at.

This patch teaches cat-file to split input lines at the
first whitespace. Everything to the left of the whitespace
is considered an object name, and everything to the right is
made available as the %(text) atom. So you can now do:

  git rev-list --objects HEAD |
  git cat-file --batch-check='%(objectsize) %(text)'

to collect object sizes at particular paths.

Even if %(text) is not used, we always do the whitespace
split (which means you can simply eliminate the `cut`
command from the first example above).

This whitespace split is backwards compatible for any
reasonable input. Object names cannot contain spaces, so any
input with spaces would have resulted in a "missing" line.
The only input hurt is if somebody really expected input of
the form "HEAD is a fine-looking ref!" to fail; it will now
parse HEAD, and make "is a fine-looking ref!" available as
%(text).

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
I have often found myself cross-referencing object sha1s with rev-list
--objects output in order to find out which paths are bloating
repository size. You can do it manually, or by post-processing the
output of cat-file with "join", but it is way more efficient to simply
not lose the information in the first place.

 Documentation/git-cat-file.txt | 10 ++++++++--
 builtin/cat-file.c             | 20 +++++++++++++++++++-
 t/t1006-cat-file.sh            |  7 +++++++
 3 files changed, 34 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 06bdc43..6b0b2de 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -88,8 +88,10 @@ from stdin, one per line, and print information about them.
 If `--batch` or `--batch-check` is given, `cat-file` will read objects
 from stdin, one per line, and print information about them.
 
-Each line is considered as a whole object name, and is parsed as if
-given to linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
+Each line is split at the first whitespace boundary. All characters
+before that whitespace are considered as a whole object name, and are
+parsed as if given to linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]. Characters after that
+whitespace can be accessed using the `%(text)` atom (see below).
 
 You can specify the information shown for each object by using a custom
 `<format>`. The `<format>` is copied literally to stdout for each
@@ -110,6 +112,10 @@ newline. The available atoms are:
 	The size, in bytes, that the object takes up on disk. See the
 	note about on-disk sizes in the `CAVEATS` section below.
 
+`text`::
+	The text (if any) found after the first run of whitespace on the
+	input line.
+
 If no format is specified, the default format is `%(objectname)
 %(objecttype) %(objectsize)`.
 
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 11fa8c0..36f8159 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -119,6 +119,7 @@ struct expand_data {
 	enum object_type type;
 	unsigned long size;
 	unsigned long disk_size;
+	const char *text;
 
 	/*
 	 * If mark_query is true, we do not expand anything, but rather
@@ -161,6 +162,9 @@ static void expand_atom(struct strbuf *sb, const char *atom, int len,
 			data->info.disk_sizep = &data->disk_size;
 		else
 			strbuf_addf(sb, "%lu", data->disk_size);
+	} else if (is_atom("text", atom, len)) {
+		if (!data->mark_query && data->text)
+			strbuf_addstr(sb, data->text);
 	} else
 		die("unknown format element: %.*s", len, atom);
 }
@@ -263,7 +267,21 @@ static int batch_objects(struct batch_options *opt)
 	data.mark_query = 0;
 
 	while (strbuf_getline(&buf, stdin, '\n') != EOF) {
-		int error = batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt, &data);
+		char *p;
+		int error;
+
+		/*
+		 * Split at first whitespace, tying off the beginning of the
+		 * string and saving the remainder (or NULL) in data.text.
+		 */
+		p = strpbrk(buf.buf, " \t");
+		if (p) {
+			while (*p && strchr(" \t", *p))
+				*p++ = '\0';
+		}
+		data.text = p;
+
+		error = batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt, &data);
 		if (error)
 			return error;
 	}
diff --git a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
index 4e911fb..315da6f 100755
--- a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
+++ b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
@@ -78,6 +78,13 @@ $content"
 	echo $sha1 | git cat-file --batch-check="%(objecttype) %(objectname)" >actual &&
 	test_cmp expect actual
     '
+
+    test_expect_success '--batch-check with %(text)' '
+	echo "$type this is some extra content" >expect &&
+	echo "$sha1    this is some extra content" |
+		git cat-file --batch-check="%(objecttype) %(text)" >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+    '
 }
 
 hello_content="Hello World"
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 09/10] pack-revindex: use unsigned to store number of objects
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
                     ` (7 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-10 11:48   ` [PATCH 08/10] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:50   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:55   ` [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
  9 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:50 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

A packfile may have up to 2^32-1 objects in it, so the
"right" data type to use is uint32_t. We currently use a
signed int, which means that we may behave incorrectly for
packfiles with more than 2^31-1 objects on 32-bit systems.

Nobody has noticed because having 2^31 objects is pretty
insane. The linux.git repo has on the order of 2^22 objects,
which is hundreds of times smaller than necessary to trigger
the bug.

Let's bump this up to an "unsigned". On 32-bit systems, this
gives us the correct data-type, and on 64-bit systems, it is
probably more efficient to use the native "unsigned" than a
true uint32_t.

While we're at it, we can fix the binary search not to
overflow in such a case if our unsigned is 32 bits.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
I didn't look farther in the pack code to see if we have other
problematic instances. So there may be others lurking, but these ones
were close to the area I was working in.

 pack-revindex.c | 8 ++++----
 1 file changed, 4 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)

diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
index 77a0465..1aa9754 100644
--- a/pack-revindex.c
+++ b/pack-revindex.c
@@ -72,8 +72,8 @@ static void create_pack_revindex(struct pack_revindex *rix)
 static void create_pack_revindex(struct pack_revindex *rix)
 {
 	struct packed_git *p = rix->p;
-	int num_ent = p->num_objects;
-	int i;
+	unsigned num_ent = p->num_objects;
+	unsigned i;
 	const char *index = p->index_data;
 
 	rix->revindex = xmalloc(sizeof(*rix->revindex) * (num_ent + 1));
@@ -114,7 +114,7 @@ struct revindex_entry *find_pack_revindex(struct packed_git *p, off_t ofs)
 struct revindex_entry *find_pack_revindex(struct packed_git *p, off_t ofs)
 {
 	int num;
-	int lo, hi;
+	unsigned lo, hi;
 	struct pack_revindex *rix;
 	struct revindex_entry *revindex;
 
@@ -132,7 +132,7 @@ struct revindex_entry *find_pack_revindex(struct packed_git *p, off_t ofs)
 	lo = 0;
 	hi = p->num_objects + 1;
 	do {
-		int mi = (lo + hi) / 2;
+		unsigned mi = lo + (hi - lo) / 2;
 		if (revindex[mi].offset == ofs) {
 			return revindex + mi;
 		} else if (ofs < revindex[mi].offset)
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
                     ` (8 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-10 11:50   ` [PATCH 09/10] pack-revindex: use unsigned to store number of objects Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:55   ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 12:00     ` Jeff King
                       ` (3 more replies)
  9 siblings, 4 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 11:55 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

The pack revindex stores the offsets of the objects in the
pack in sorted order, allowing us to easily find the on-disk
size of each object. To compute it, we populate an array
with the offsets from the sha1-sorted idx file, and then use
qsort to order it by offsets.

That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.

On the linux.git repo, with about 3M objects to sort, this
yields a 400% speedup. Here are the best-of-five numbers for
running "echo HEAD | git cat-file --batch-disk-size", which
is dominated by time spent building the pack revindex:

          before     after
  real    0m0.834s   0m0.204s
  user    0m0.788s   0m0.164s
  sys     0m0.040s   0m0.036s

On a smaller repo, the radix sort would not be
as impressive (and could even be worse), as we are trading
the log(n) factor for the k=4 of the radix sort. However,
even on git.git, with 173K objects, it shows some
improvement:

          before     after
  real    0m0.046s   0m0.017s
  user    0m0.036s   0m0.012s
  sys     0m0.008s   0m0.000s

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
I changed a few things from the original, including:

  1. We take an "unsigned" number of objects to match the fix in the
     last patch.

  2. The 16-bit "digit" size is factored out to a single place, which
     avoids magic numbers and repeating ourselves.

  3. The "digits" variable is renamed to "bits", which is more accurate.

  4. The outer loop condition uses the simpler "while (max >> bits)".

  5. We use memcpy instead of an open-coded loop to copy the whole array
     at the end. The individual bucket-assignment is still done by
     struct assignment. I haven't timed if memcpy would make a
     difference there.

  6. The 64K*sizeof(int) "pos" array is now heap-allocated, in case
     there are platforms with a small stack.

I re-ran my timings to make sure none of the above impacted them; it
turned out the same.

 pack-revindex.c | 84 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
 1 file changed, 79 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
index 1aa9754..9365bc2 100644
--- a/pack-revindex.c
+++ b/pack-revindex.c
@@ -59,11 +59,85 @@ static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
 	/* revindex elements are lazily initialized */
 }
 
-static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
+/*
+ * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort.
+ */
+static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
 {
-	const struct revindex_entry *a = a_;
-	const struct revindex_entry *b = b_;
-	return (a->offset < b->offset) ? -1 : (a->offset > b->offset) ? 1 : 0;
+	/*
+	 * We use a "digit" size of 16 bits. That keeps our memory
+	 * usage reasonable, and we can generally (for a 4G or smaller
+	 * packfile) quit after two rounds of radix-sorting.
+	 */
+#define DIGIT_SIZE (16)
+#define BUCKETS (1 << DIGIT_SIZE)
+	/*
+	 * We want to know the bucket that a[i] will go into when we are using
+	 * the digit that is N bits from the (least significant) end.
+	 */
+#define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits) (((a)[(i)].offset >> (bits)) & (BUCKETS-1))
+
+	/*
+	 * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
+	 * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
+	 * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
+	 */
+	struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));
+	struct revindex_entry *a = entries, *b = tmp;
+	int bits = 0;
+	unsigned *pos = xmalloc(BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
+
+	while (max >> bits) {
+		struct revindex_entry *swap;
+		int i;
+
+		memset(pos, 0, BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
+
+		/*
+		 * We want pos[i] to store the index of the last element that
+		 * will go in bucket "i" (actually one past the last element).
+		 * To do this, we first count the items that will go in each
+		 * bucket, which gives us a relative offset from the last
+		 * bucket. We can then cumulatively add the index from the
+		 * previous bucket to get the true index.
+		 */
+		for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
+			pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]++;
+		for (i = 1; i < BUCKETS; i++)
+			pos[i] += pos[i-1];
+
+		/*
+		 * Now we can drop the elements into their correct buckets (in
+		 * our temporary array).  We iterate the pos counter backwards
+		 * to avoid using an extra index to count up. And since we are
+		 * going backwards there, we must also go backwards through the
+		 * array itself, to keep the sort stable.
+		 */
+		for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)
+			b[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]] = a[i];
+
+		/*
+		 * Now "b" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "a" and
+		 * "b" for the next iteration.
+		 */
+		swap = a;
+		a = b;
+		b = swap;
+
+		/* And bump our bits for the next round. */
+		bits += DIGIT_SIZE;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
+	 * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
+	 */
+	if (a != entries)
+		memcpy(entries, tmp, n * sizeof(*entries));
+	free(tmp);
+	free(pos);
+
+#undef BUCKET_FOR
 }
 
 /*
@@ -108,7 +182,7 @@ static void create_pack_revindex(struct pack_revindex *rix)
 	 */
 	rix->revindex[num_ent].offset = p->pack_size - 20;
 	rix->revindex[num_ent].nr = -1;
-	qsort(rix->revindex, num_ent, sizeof(*rix->revindex), cmp_offset);
+	sort_revindex(rix->revindex, num_ent, p->pack_size);
 }
 
 struct revindex_entry *find_pack_revindex(struct packed_git *p, off_t ofs)
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 06/10] cat-file: add --batch-check=<format>
  2013-07-10 11:45   ` [PATCH 06/10] cat-file: add --batch-check=<format> Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 11:57     ` Eric Sunshine
  2013-07-10 14:51     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Eric Sunshine @ 2013-07-10 11:57 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King
  Cc: Git List, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey,
	Junio C Hamano

On Wed, Jul 10, 2013 at 7:45 AM, Jeff King <peff@peff.net> wrote:
> The `cat-file --batch-check` command can be used to quickly
> get information about a large number of objects. However, it
> provides a fixed set of information.
>
> This patch adds an optional <format> option to --batch-check
> to allow a caller to specify which items they are interested
> in, and in which order to output them. This is not very
> exciting for now, since we provide the same limited set that
> you could already get. However, it opens the door to adding
> new format items in the future without breaking backwards
> compatibility (or forcing callers to pay the cost to
> calculate uninteresting items).
>
> The format atom names are chosen to match their counterparts
> in for-each-ref. Though we do not (yet) share any code with
> for-each-ref's formatter, this keeps the interface as
> consistent as possible, and may help later on if the
> implementations are unified.
>
> Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
> diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
> index 30d585a..dd5d6e4 100644
> --- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
> @@ -78,23 +82,52 @@ each object specified on stdin:
>  If <type> is specified, the raw (though uncompressed) contents of the <object>
>  will be returned.
>
> -If '--batch' is specified, output of the following form is printed for each
> -object specified on stdin:
> +BATCH OUTPUT
> +------------
> +
> +You can specify the information shown for each object by using a custom
> +`<format>`. The `<format>` is copied literally to stdout for each
> +object, with placeholders of the form `%(atom)` expanded, followed by a
> +newline. The available atoms are:
> +
> +`objectname`::
> +       The sha1 hash of the object.

For consistency with (d5fa1f1; The name of the hash function is
"SHA-1", not "SHA1"):

s/sha1/SHA-1/

> +
> +`objecttype`::
> +       The type of of the object (the same as `cat-file -t` reports).
> +
> +`objectsize`::
> +       The size, in bytes, of the object (the same as `cat-file -s`
> +       reports).
> +
> +If no format is specified, the default format is `%(objectname)
> +%(objecttype) %(objectsize)`.
> +
> +If `--batch` is specified, the object information is followed by the
> +object contents (consisting of `%(objectsize)` bytes), followed by a
> +newline.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-10 11:55   ` [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 12:00     ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 13:17     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
                       ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  3 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-10 12:00 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

On Wed, Jul 10, 2013 at 07:55:57AM -0400, Jeff King wrote:

>   5. We use memcpy instead of an open-coded loop to copy the whole array
>      at the end. The individual bucket-assignment is still done by
>      struct assignment. I haven't timed if memcpy would make a
>      difference there.

I just timed this, and I can't measure any difference. I think the
struct assignment is the more readable option, and I do not think any
compilers should have trouble with it. But if they do, we can switch it
for a memcpy.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-10 11:55   ` [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
  2013-07-10 12:00     ` Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 13:17     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-11 11:03       ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 17:10     ` Brandon Casey
  2013-07-11 12:16     ` [PATCHv3 " Jeff King
  3 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Ramkumar Ramachandra @ 2013-07-10 13:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

Jeff King wrote:
> That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
> that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
> we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
> that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
> is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
> using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.

Wait, isn't off_t a signed data type?  Did you account for that in
your algorithm?

> On the linux.git repo, with about 3M objects to sort, this
> yields a 400% speedup. Here are the best-of-five numbers for
> running "echo HEAD | git cat-file --batch-disk-size", which
> is dominated by time spent building the pack revindex:

Okay.

> diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
> index 1aa9754..9365bc2 100644
> --- a/pack-revindex.c
> +++ b/pack-revindex.c
> @@ -59,11 +59,85 @@ static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
>         /* revindex elements are lazily initialized */
>  }
>
> -static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
> +/*
> + * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort.
> + */

Any particular reason for choosing LSD, and not MSD?

> +#define DIGIT_SIZE (16)
> +#define BUCKETS (1 << DIGIT_SIZE)

Okay, NUMBER_OF_BUCKETS = 2^RADIX, and you choose a hex radix.  Is
off_t guaranteed to be fixed-length though?  I thought only the ones
in stdint.h were guaranteed to be fixed-length?

> +       /*
> +        * We want to know the bucket that a[i] will go into when we are using
> +        * the digit that is N bits from the (least significant) end.
> +        */
> +#define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits) (((a)[(i)].offset >> (bits)) & (BUCKETS-1))

Ouch!  This is unreadable.  Just write an inline function instead?  A
% would've been easier on the eyes, but you chose base-16.

> +       /*
> +        * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
> +        * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
> +        * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
> +        */
> +       struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));

Shouldn't this be sizeof (struct revindex_entry), since tmp hasn't
been declared yet?  Also, s/n/revindex_nr/, and something more
appropriate for tmp?

> +       struct revindex_entry *a = entries, *b = tmp;

It's starting to look like you have something against descriptive names ;)

> +       int bits = 0;
> +       unsigned *pos = xmalloc(BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));

sizeof(unsigned int), for clarity, if not anything else.  You picked
malloc over calloc here, because you didn't want to incur the extra
cost of zero-initializing the memory?  Also, pos is the actual buckets
array, I presume (hence unsigned, because there can't be a negative
number of keys in any bucket)?

> +       while (max >> bits) {

No clue what max is.  Looked at the caller and figured out that it's
the pack-size, although I'm still clueless about why it's appearing
here.

> +               struct revindex_entry *swap;
> +               int i;
> +
> +               memset(pos, 0, BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));

Ah, so that's why you used malloc there.  Wait, shouldn't this be
memset(pos, 0, sizeof(*pos))?

> +               for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
> +                       pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]++;

Okay, so you know how many numbers are in each bucket.

> +               for (i = 1; i < BUCKETS; i++)
> +                       pos[i] += pos[i-1];

Cumulative sums; right.

> +               for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)
> +                       b[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]] = a[i];

Classical queue.  You could've gone for something more complex, but I
don't think it would have been worth the extra complexity.

> +               swap = a;
> +               a = b;
> +               b = swap;

Wait a minute: why don't you just throw away b?  You're going to
rebuild the queue in the next iteration anyway, no?  a is what is
being sorted.

> +               /* And bump our bits for the next round. */
> +               bits += DIGIT_SIZE;

I'd have gone for a nice for-loop.

> +       /*
> +        * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
> +        * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
> +        */
> +       if (a != entries)
> +               memcpy(entries, tmp, n * sizeof(*entries));

How could a be different from entries?  It has no memory allocated for
itself, no?  Why did you even create a, and not directly operate on
entries?

> +       free(tmp);
> +       free(pos);

Overall, I found it quite confusing :(

> +#undef BUCKET_FOR

Why not DIGIT_SIZE and BUCKETS too, while at it?

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 06/10] cat-file: add --batch-check=<format>
  2013-07-10 11:45   ` [PATCH 06/10] cat-file: add --batch-check=<format> Jeff King
  2013-07-10 11:57     ` Eric Sunshine
@ 2013-07-10 14:51     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-11 11:24       ` Jeff King
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Ramkumar Ramachandra @ 2013-07-10 14:51 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

Jeff King wrote:
> +If `--batch` or `--batch-check` is given, `cat-file` will read objects
> +from stdin, one per line, and print information about them.
> +
> +You can specify the information shown for each object by using a custom
> +`<format>`. The `<format>` is copied literally to stdout for each
> +object, with placeholders of the form `%(atom)` expanded, followed by a
> +newline. The available atoms are:
> +
> +If no format is specified, the default format is `%(objectname)
> +%(objecttype) %(objectsize)`.
> +
> +If `--batch` is specified, the object information is followed by the
> +object contents (consisting of `%(objectsize)` bytes), followed by a
> +newline.

I find this slightly hideous, and would have expected an
%(objectcontents) or similar.

Perhaps --batch-check should become a non-configurable alias for
--batch="%(objectname) %(objecttype) %(objectsize)", and let --batch
default to the format "%(objectname) %(objecttype) %(objectsize)
%(objectcontents)".

I'm frankly okay with not having --pretty, and making the output in
the non-batch mode non-configurable (does anyone care?).

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 08/10] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace
  2013-07-10 11:48   ` [PATCH 08/10] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace Jeff King
@ 2013-07-10 15:29     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
  2013-07-11 11:36       ` Jeff King
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Ramkumar Ramachandra @ 2013-07-10 15:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

Jeff King wrote:
>   git rev-list --objects HEAD |
>   git cat-file --batch-check='%(objectsize) %(text)'

If anything, I would have expected %(rest), not %(text).  This atom is
specific to commands that accept input via stdin (i.e. not log, f-e-r,
branch, or anything else I can think of).

Also, this makes me wonder if %(field:0), %(field:1), and probably
%(field:@) are good ideas.  Even if we go down that road, I don't
think %(rest) is a problem per-se.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-10 11:55   ` [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
  2013-07-10 12:00     ` Jeff King
  2013-07-10 13:17     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
@ 2013-07-10 17:10     ` Brandon Casey
  2013-07-11 11:17       ` Jeff King
  2013-07-11 12:16     ` [PATCHv3 " Jeff King
  3 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Brandon Casey @ 2013-07-10 17:10 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Junio C Hamano

On Wed, Jul 10, 2013 at 4:55 AM, Jeff King <peff@peff.net> wrote:
> The pack revindex stores the offsets of the objects in the
> pack in sorted order, allowing us to easily find the on-disk
> size of each object. To compute it, we populate an array
> with the offsets from the sha1-sorted idx file, and then use
> qsort to order it by offsets.
>
> That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
> that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
> we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
> that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
> is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
> using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.
>
> On the linux.git repo, with about 3M objects to sort, this
> yields a 400% speedup. Here are the best-of-five numbers for
> running "echo HEAD | git cat-file --batch-disk-size", which
> is dominated by time spent building the pack revindex:
>
>           before     after
>   real    0m0.834s   0m0.204s
>   user    0m0.788s   0m0.164s
>   sys     0m0.040s   0m0.036s
>
> On a smaller repo, the radix sort would not be
> as impressive (and could even be worse), as we are trading
> the log(n) factor for the k=4 of the radix sort. However,
> even on git.git, with 173K objects, it shows some
> improvement:
>
>           before     after
>   real    0m0.046s   0m0.017s
>   user    0m0.036s   0m0.012s
>   sys     0m0.008s   0m0.000s

k should only be 2 for git.git.  I haven't packed in a while, but I
think it should all fit within 4G.  :)  The pathological case would be
a pack file with very few very very large objects, large enough to
push the pack size over the 2^48 threshold so we'd have to do all four
radixes.

It's probably worth mentioning here and/or in the code that k is
dependent on the pack file size and that we can jump out early for
small pack files.  That's my favorite part of this code by the way. :)

> Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
> ---
> I changed a few things from the original, including:
>
>   1. We take an "unsigned" number of objects to match the fix in the
>      last patch.
>
>   2. The 16-bit "digit" size is factored out to a single place, which
>      avoids magic numbers and repeating ourselves.
>
>   3. The "digits" variable is renamed to "bits", which is more accurate.
>
>   4. The outer loop condition uses the simpler "while (max >> bits)".
>
>   5. We use memcpy instead of an open-coded loop to copy the whole array
>      at the end. The individual bucket-assignment is still done by
>      struct assignment. I haven't timed if memcpy would make a
>      difference there.
>
>   6. The 64K*sizeof(int) "pos" array is now heap-allocated, in case
>      there are platforms with a small stack.
>
> I re-ran my timings to make sure none of the above impacted them; it
> turned out the same.
>
>  pack-revindex.c | 84 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
>  1 file changed, 79 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
> index 1aa9754..9365bc2 100644
> --- a/pack-revindex.c
> +++ b/pack-revindex.c
> @@ -59,11 +59,85 @@ static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
>         /* revindex elements are lazily initialized */
>  }
>
> -static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
> +/*
> + * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort.
> + */
> +static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
>  {
> -       const struct revindex_entry *a = a_;
> -       const struct revindex_entry *b = b_;
> -       return (a->offset < b->offset) ? -1 : (a->offset > b->offset) ? 1 : 0;
> +       /*
> +        * We use a "digit" size of 16 bits. That keeps our memory
> +        * usage reasonable, and we can generally (for a 4G or smaller
> +        * packfile) quit after two rounds of radix-sorting.
> +        */
> +#define DIGIT_SIZE (16)
> +#define BUCKETS (1 << DIGIT_SIZE)
> +       /*
> +        * We want to know the bucket that a[i] will go into when we are using
> +        * the digit that is N bits from the (least significant) end.
> +        */
> +#define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits) (((a)[(i)].offset >> (bits)) & (BUCKETS-1))
> +
> +       /*
> +        * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
> +        * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
> +        * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
> +        */
> +       struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));

Didn't notice it the first time I read this, but do we really need
calloc here?  Or will malloc do?

> +       struct revindex_entry *a = entries, *b = tmp;
> +       int bits = 0;
> +       unsigned *pos = xmalloc(BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
> +
> +       while (max >> bits) {
> +               struct revindex_entry *swap;
> +               int i;

You forgot to make i unsigned.  See below too...

> +
> +               memset(pos, 0, BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
> +
> +               /*
> +                * We want pos[i] to store the index of the last element that
> +                * will go in bucket "i" (actually one past the last element).
> +                * To do this, we first count the items that will go in each
> +                * bucket, which gives us a relative offset from the last
> +                * bucket. We can then cumulatively add the index from the
> +                * previous bucket to get the true index.
> +                */
> +               for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
> +                       pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]++;
> +               for (i = 1; i < BUCKETS; i++)
> +                       pos[i] += pos[i-1];
> +
> +               /*
> +                * Now we can drop the elements into their correct buckets (in
> +                * our temporary array).  We iterate the pos counter backwards
> +                * to avoid using an extra index to count up. And since we are
> +                * going backwards there, we must also go backwards through the
> +                * array itself, to keep the sort stable.
> +                */
> +               for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)
> +                       b[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]] = a[i];

...which is why the above loop still works.

> +
> +               /*
> +                * Now "b" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "a" and
> +                * "b" for the next iteration.
> +                */
> +               swap = a;
> +               a = b;
> +               b = swap;
> +
> +               /* And bump our bits for the next round. */
> +               bits += DIGIT_SIZE;
> +       }
> +
> +       /*
> +        * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
> +        * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
> +        */
> +       if (a != entries)
> +               memcpy(entries, tmp, n * sizeof(*entries));
> +       free(tmp);
> +       free(pos);
> +
> +#undef BUCKET_FOR
>  }
>
>  /*
> @@ -108,7 +182,7 @@ static void create_pack_revindex(struct pack_revindex *rix)
>          */
>         rix->revindex[num_ent].offset = p->pack_size - 20;
>         rix->revindex[num_ent].nr = -1;
> -       qsort(rix->revindex, num_ent, sizeof(*rix->revindex), cmp_offset);
> +       sort_revindex(rix->revindex, num_ent, p->pack_size);
>  }
>
>  struct revindex_entry *find_pack_revindex(struct packed_git *p, off_t ofs)
> --
> 1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-10 13:17     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
@ 2013-07-11 11:03       ` Jeff King
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-11 11:03 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ramkumar Ramachandra; +Cc: git, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

On Wed, Jul 10, 2013 at 06:47:49PM +0530, Ramkumar Ramachandra wrote:

> > For a 64-bit off_t, using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.
> 
> Wait, isn't off_t a signed data type?  Did you account for that in
> your algorithm?

It is signed, but the values we are storing in the revindex are all
positive file offsets. Right-shifting a positive signed type is
explicitly allowed in C.

> > -static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
> > +/*
> > + * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort.
> > + */
> 
> Any particular reason for choosing LSD, and not MSD?

Simplicity. An MSD implementation should have the same algorithmic
complexity and in theory, one can do MSD in-place. I'm happy enough with
the speedup here, but if you want to take a stab at beating my times
with MSD, please feel free.

The other "usual" downside of MSD is that it is typically not stable,
but we don't care about that here. We know that our sort keys are
unique.

> > +#define DIGIT_SIZE (16)
> > +#define BUCKETS (1 << DIGIT_SIZE)
> 
> Okay, NUMBER_OF_BUCKETS = 2^RADIX, and you choose a hex radix.  Is
> off_t guaranteed to be fixed-length though?  I thought only the ones
> in stdint.h were guaranteed to be fixed-length?

I'm not sure what you mean by fixed-length. If you mean does it have the
same size on every platform, then no. It will typically be 32-bit on
platforms without largefile support, and 64-bit elsewhere. But it
shouldn't matter. We'll first sort the entries by the lower 16 bits, and
then if we have more bits, by the next 16 bits, and so on. We quit when
the maximum value to sort (which we know ahead of time from the size of
the packfile) is smaller than the 16-bits we are on. So we don't need to
know the exact size of off_t, only the maximum value in our list (which
must, by definition, be smaller than what can be represented by off_t).

> > +       /*
> > +        * We want to know the bucket that a[i] will go into when we are using
> > +        * the digit that is N bits from the (least significant) end.
> > +        */
> > +#define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits) (((a)[(i)].offset >> (bits)) & (BUCKETS-1))
> 
> Ouch!  This is unreadable.  Just write an inline function instead?  A
> % would've been easier on the eyes, but you chose base-16.

I specifically avoided an inline function because they are subject to
compiler settings. This isn't just "it would be a bit faster if this got
inlined, and OK otherwise" but "this would be horribly slow if not
inlined".

I'm also not sure that

  static inline unsigned bucket_for(const struct revindex *a,
                                    unsigned i,
                                    unsigned bits)
  {
          return a[i].offset >> bits & (BUCKETS-1);
  }

is actually any more readable.

I'm not sure what you mean by base-16. No matter the radix digit size,
as long as it is an integral number of bits, we can mask it off, which
is more efficient than modulo. A good compiler should see that it
is a constant and convert it to a bit-mask, but I'm not sure I agree
that modular arithmetic is more readable. This is fundamentally a
bit-twiddling operation, as we are shifting and masking.

I tried to explain it in the comment; suggestions to improve that are
welcome.

> > +       /*
> > +        * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
> > +        * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
> > +        * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
> > +        */
> > +       struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));
> 
> Shouldn't this be sizeof (struct revindex_entry), since tmp hasn't
> been declared yet?

No, the variable is declared (but uninitialized) in its initializer.
Despite its syntax, sizeof() is not a function and does not care about
the state of the variable, only its type.

> Also, s/n/revindex_nr/, and something more appropriate for tmp?

What name would you suggest be be more appropriate for tmp?

> > +       int bits = 0;
> > +       unsigned *pos = xmalloc(BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
> 
> sizeof(unsigned int), for clarity, if not anything else.

I disagree; in general, I prefer using sizeof(*var) rather than
sizeof(type), because it avoids repeating ourselves, and there is no
compile-time check that you have gotten it right.

In the initializer it is less important, because the type is right
there. But when you are later doing:

  memset(pos, 0, BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));

this is much more robust. If somebody changes the type of pos, the
memset line does not need changed. If you used sizeof(unsigned), then
the code is now buggy (and the compiler cannot notice).

> You picked malloc over calloc here, because you didn't want to incur
> the extra cost of zero-initializing the memory?

Yes. We have to zero-initialize in each loop, so there is no point
spending the extra effort on calloc.

We could also xcalloc inside each loop iteration, but since we need the
same-size allocation each time, I hoisted the malloc out of the loop.

> Also, pos is the actual buckets array, I presume (hence unsigned,
> because there can't be a negative number of keys in any bucket)?

Exactly. I called it "pos" rather than "buckets" because the goal is to
get the start-position of each bucket (as explained in the comment in
the loop).

> > +       while (max >> bits) {
> 
> No clue what max is.  Looked at the caller and figured out that it's
> the pack-size, although I'm still clueless about why it's appearing
> here.

It's larger than the largest sort key in the array. On an LSD radix
sort, we can stop sorting when we are looking at a radix digit whose
value is larger than the max, because we know all of the entries will
simply have "0" in that digit.

So even if off_t is 64-bit, we can quit after the 32nd bit (i.e., k=2)
if the packfile is smaller than 4G.

An MSD radix sort could do the same trick, but would obviously skip the
zero digits at the beginning rather than the end.

> > +               struct revindex_entry *swap;
> > +               int i;
> > +
> > +               memset(pos, 0, BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
> 
> Ah, so that's why you used malloc there.  Wait, shouldn't this be
> memset(pos, 0, sizeof(*pos))?

No, that would zero only the first entry of the array. We allocated
BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos) bytes, and we want to zero them all.

> > +               swap = a;
> > +               a = b;
> > +               b = swap;
> 
> Wait a minute: why don't you just throw away b?  You're going to
> rebuild the queue in the next iteration anyway, no?  a is what is
> being sorted.

For each iteration, we need to sort into temporary storage. So you can
do it like:

  1. sort entries into tmp

  2. copy tmp back into entries

  3. bump radix digit and goto 1

But you can eliminate the copy in step 2 if you instead go back and
forth, like:

  1. sort entries into tmp

  2. bump radix digit

  3. sort tmp into entries

  ...etc

To do that in a loop, we need an alias for "the thing we are sorting
from" and "the thing we are sorting to". Hence the "a" and "b" pointers.
Perhaps these comments make more sense now:

+       /*
+        * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
+        * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
+        * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
+        */
+       struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));
+       struct revindex_entry *a = entries, *b = tmp;
[...]
+               /*
+                * Now "b" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "a" and
+                * "b" for the next iteration.
+                */

> > +               /* And bump our bits for the next round. */
> > +               bits += DIGIT_SIZE;
> 
> I'd have gone for a nice for-loop.

Yeah, that would look like:

  for (bits = 0; max >> bits; bits += DIGIT_SIZE) {
     ...
  }

I don't really find one more readable than the other.

> > +       /*
> > +        * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
> > +        * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
> > +        */
> > +       if (a != entries)
> > +               memcpy(entries, tmp, n * sizeof(*entries));
> 
> How could a be different from entries?  It has no memory allocated for
> itself, no?  Why did you even create a, and not directly operate on
> entries?

See the back-and-forth explanation above.

> > +       free(tmp);
> > +       free(pos);
> 
> Overall, I found it quite confusing :(

Clearly. It was confusing to write (especially because there are a
number of optimizations, and because radix sort is not well known, at
least to me), which is why I tried to comment profusely. It seems quite
a few of them didn't help, as the answers to your questions were there.
If you have suggestions for improvement to the comments, I'm all ears.

> > +#undef BUCKET_FOR
> 
> Why not DIGIT_SIZE and BUCKETS too, while at it?

I forgot.  I added them later (they were originally magic numbers in the
code). Will add.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-10 17:10     ` Brandon Casey
@ 2013-07-11 11:17       ` Jeff King
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-11 11:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Brandon Casey; +Cc: git, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Junio C Hamano

On Wed, Jul 10, 2013 at 10:10:16AM -0700, Brandon Casey wrote:

> > On the linux.git repo, with about 3M objects to sort, this
> > yields a 400% speedup. Here are the best-of-five numbers for
> > running "echo HEAD | git cat-file --batch-disk-size", which
> > is dominated by time spent building the pack revindex:
> >
> >           before     after
> >   real    0m0.834s   0m0.204s
> >   user    0m0.788s   0m0.164s
> >   sys     0m0.040s   0m0.036s
> >
> > On a smaller repo, the radix sort would not be
> > as impressive (and could even be worse), as we are trading
> > the log(n) factor for the k=4 of the radix sort. However,
> > even on git.git, with 173K objects, it shows some
> > improvement:
> >
> >           before     after
> >   real    0m0.046s   0m0.017s
> >   user    0m0.036s   0m0.012s
> >   sys     0m0.008s   0m0.000s
> 
> k should only be 2 for git.git.  I haven't packed in a while, but I
> think it should all fit within 4G.  :)  The pathological case would be
> a pack file with very few very very large objects, large enough to
> push the pack size over the 2^48 threshold so we'd have to do all four
> radixes.

Yeah, even linux.git fits into k=2. And that does more or less explain
the numbers in both cases.

For git.git, With 173K objects, log(n) is ~18, so regular sort is 18n.
With a radix sort of k=2, which has a constant factor of 2 (you can see
by looking at the code that we go through the list twice per radix), we
have 4n. So there should be a 4.5x speedup. We don't quite get that,
which is probably due to the extra bookkeeping on the buckets.

For linux.git, with 3M objects, log(n) is ~22, so the speedup we hope
for is 5.5x. We end up with 4x.

> It's probably worth mentioning here and/or in the code that k is
> dependent on the pack file size and that we can jump out early for
> small pack files.  That's my favorite part of this code by the way. :)

Yeah, I agree it is probably worth mentioning along with the numbers; it
is where half of our speedup is coming from. I think the "max >> bits"
loop condition deserves to be commented, too. I'll add that.

Also note that my commit message still refers to "--batch-disk-size"
which does not exist anymore. :) I didn't update the timings in the
commit message for my re-roll, but I did confirm that they are the same.

> > +       /*
> > +        * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
> > +        * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
> > +        * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
> > +        */
> > +       struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));
> 
> Didn't notice it the first time I read this, but do we really need
> calloc here?  Or will malloc do?

No, a malloc should be fine. I doubt it matters much, but there's no
reason not to go the cheap route.

> > +       struct revindex_entry *a = entries, *b = tmp;
> > +       int bits = 0;
> > +       unsigned *pos = xmalloc(BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
> > +
> > +       while (max >> bits) {
> > +               struct revindex_entry *swap;
> > +               int i;
> 
> You forgot to make i unsigned.  See below too...

Oops. Thanks for catching.

> > +               /*
> > +                * Now we can drop the elements into their correct buckets (in
> > +                * our temporary array).  We iterate the pos counter backwards
> > +                * to avoid using an extra index to count up. And since we are
> > +                * going backwards there, we must also go backwards through the
> > +                * array itself, to keep the sort stable.
> > +                */
> > +               for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)
> > +                       b[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]] = a[i];
> 
> ...which is why the above loop still works.

Since we are iterating by ones, I guess I can just compare to UINT_MAX.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 06/10] cat-file: add --batch-check=<format>
  2013-07-10 14:51     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
@ 2013-07-11 11:24       ` Jeff King
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-11 11:24 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ramkumar Ramachandra; +Cc: git, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

On Wed, Jul 10, 2013 at 08:21:15PM +0530, Ramkumar Ramachandra wrote:

> Jeff King wrote:
> > +If `--batch` or `--batch-check` is given, `cat-file` will read objects
> > +from stdin, one per line, and print information about them.
> > +
> > +You can specify the information shown for each object by using a custom
> > +`<format>`. The `<format>` is copied literally to stdout for each
> > +object, with placeholders of the form `%(atom)` expanded, followed by a
> > +newline. The available atoms are:
> > +
> > +If no format is specified, the default format is `%(objectname)
> > +%(objecttype) %(objectsize)`.
> > +
> > +If `--batch` is specified, the object information is followed by the
> > +object contents (consisting of `%(objectsize)` bytes), followed by a
> > +newline.
> 
> I find this slightly hideous, and would have expected an
> %(objectcontents) or similar.

I looked into doing that, but it makes the code significantly more
complicated, assuming you do not want to copy the full object contents
in memory. You cannot use strbuf_expand, and you need to worry about
buffering/flushing more (you do not want to write() each individual
item, but if you are using printf(), you need to flush before using the
unbuffered streaming interface).

My thinking was to leave it until somebody actually wants it, at which
point they can do the necessary refactoring (and hopefully this would be
part of unifying it with other format-parsers).

If we were designing from scratch and this was the difference between
having "--batch-check" and "--batch", or having a single "--batch", I'd
care more about doing %(objectcontents) right away. But because we must
support the historical --batch/--batch-check distinction anyway, I don't
think this is any worse.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 08/10] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace
  2013-07-10 15:29     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
@ 2013-07-11 11:36       ` Jeff King
  2013-07-11 17:42         ` Junio C Hamano
  2013-07-11 20:45         ` [PATCHv3 " Jeff King
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-11 11:36 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ramkumar Ramachandra; +Cc: git, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

On Wed, Jul 10, 2013 at 08:59:51PM +0530, Ramkumar Ramachandra wrote:

> Jeff King wrote:
> >   git rev-list --objects HEAD |
> >   git cat-file --batch-check='%(objectsize) %(text)'
> 
> If anything, I would have expected %(rest), not %(text).  This atom is
> specific to commands that accept input via stdin (i.e. not log, f-e-r,
> branch, or anything else I can think of).

I considered %(rest) as well. I don't have a strong preference.

> Also, this makes me wonder if %(field:0), %(field:1), and probably
> %(field:@) are good ideas.  Even if we go down that road, I don't
> think %(rest) is a problem per-se.

I don't have a use for them, and even if we want to add them later, you
would still want to support %(rest) for when the user wants to take the
rest of the line verbatim without caring about field-splitting.

To be honest, I do not see %(field) as all that useful. If you want to
go about rearranging or selecting fields, that is what "cut" (or "awk")
is for.  Having fields means you need to specify field separators, and
how runs of separators are treated. Other tools already do this.

So it would (at best) save you from an extra cut invocation, whereas
%(rest) gets you out of doing something much more difficult. Without it,
information is lost from your pipeline (so you have to have tee to a
separate pipeline, and then reassemble the pieces).

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCHv3 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-10 11:55   ` [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
                       ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2013-07-10 17:10     ` Brandon Casey
@ 2013-07-11 12:16     ` Jeff King
  2013-07-11 21:12       ` Brandon Casey
  3 siblings, 1 reply; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-11 12:16 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

  Here's an update of the radix-sort patch. It fixes the "unsigned" issue
  Brandon pointed out, along with a few other comment/naming/style fixes.
  I also updated the commit message with more explanation of the
  timings.
  
  The interdiff is:
  
  diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
  index 9365bc2..b4d2b35 100644
  --- a/pack-revindex.c
  +++ b/pack-revindex.c
  @@ -61,6 +61,10 @@ static void init_pack_revindex(void)
   
   /*
    * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort.
  + *
  + * It sorts each of the "n" items in "entries" by its offset field. The "max"
  + * parameter must be at least as large as the largest offset in the array,
  + * and lets us quit the sort early.
    */
   static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
   {
  @@ -78,18 +82,25 @@ static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
   #define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits) (((a)[(i)].offset >> (bits)) & (BUCKETS-1))
   
   	/*
  -	 * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
  -	 * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
  -	 * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
  +	 * We need O(n) temporary storage. Rather than do an extra copy of the
  +	 * partial results into "entries", we sort back and forth between the
  +	 * real array and temporary storage. In each iteration of the loop, we
  +	 * keep track of them with alias pointers, always sorting from "from"
  +	 * to "to".
   	 */
  -	struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));
  -	struct revindex_entry *a = entries, *b = tmp;
  -	int bits = 0;
  +	struct revindex_entry *tmp = xmalloc(n * sizeof(*tmp));
  +	struct revindex_entry *from = entries, *to = tmp;
  +	int bits;
   	unsigned *pos = xmalloc(BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
   
  -	while (max >> bits) {
  +	/*
  +	 * If (max >> bits) is zero, then we know that the radix digit we are
  +	 * on (and any higher) will be zero for all entries, and our loop will
  +	 * be a no-op, as everybody lands in the same zero-th bucket.
  +	 */
  +	for (bits = 0; max >> bits; bits += DIGIT_SIZE) {
   		struct revindex_entry *swap;
  -		int i;
  +		unsigned i;
   
   		memset(pos, 0, BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
   
  @@ -102,7 +113,7 @@ static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
   		 * previous bucket to get the true index.
   		 */
   		for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
  -			pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]++;
  +			pos[BUCKET_FOR(from, i, bits)]++;
   		for (i = 1; i < BUCKETS; i++)
   			pos[i] += pos[i-1];
   
  @@ -112,32 +123,37 @@ static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
   		 * to avoid using an extra index to count up. And since we are
   		 * going backwards there, we must also go backwards through the
   		 * array itself, to keep the sort stable.
  +		 *
  +		 * Note that we use an unsigned iterator to make sure we can
  +		 * handle 2^32-1 objects, even on a 32-bit system. But this
  +		 * means we cannot use the more obvious "i >= 0" loop condition
  +		 * for counting backwards, and must instead check for
  +		 * wrap-around with UINT_MAX.
   		 */
  -		for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)
  -			b[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]] = a[i];
  +		for (i = n - 1; i != UINT_MAX; i--)
  +			to[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(from, i, bits)]] = from[i];
   
   		/*
  -		 * Now "b" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "a" and
  -		 * "b" for the next iteration.
  +		 * Now "to" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "from" and
  +		 * "to" for the next iteration.
   		 */
  -		swap = a;
  -		a = b;
  -		b = swap;
  -
  -		/* And bump our bits for the next round. */
  -		bits += DIGIT_SIZE;
  +		swap = from;
  +		from = to;
  +		to = swap;
   	}
   
   	/*
   	 * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
   	 * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
   	 */
  -	if (a != entries)
  +	if (from != entries)
   		memcpy(entries, tmp, n * sizeof(*entries));
   	free(tmp);
   	free(pos);
   
   #undef BUCKET_FOR
  +#undef BUCKETS
  +#undef DIGIT_SIZE
   }
   
   /*

-- >8 --
Subject: [PATCH] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex

The pack revindex stores the offsets of the objects in the
pack in sorted order, allowing us to easily find the on-disk
size of each object. To compute it, we populate an array
with the offsets from the sha1-sorted idx file, and then use
qsort to order it by offsets.

That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.

On the linux.git repo, with about 3M objects to sort, this
yields a 400% speedup. Here are the best-of-five numbers for
running

  echo HEAD | git cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)

on a fully packed repository, which is dominated by time
spent building the pack revindex:

          before     after
  real    0m0.834s   0m0.204s
  user    0m0.788s   0m0.164s
  sys     0m0.040s   0m0.036s

This matches our algorithmic expectations. log(3M) is ~21.5,
so a traditional sort is ~21.5n. Our radix sort runs in k*n,
where k is the number of radix digits. In the worst case,
this is k=4 for a 64-bit off_t, but we can quit early when
the largest value to be sorted is smaller. For any
repository under 4G, k=2. Our algorithm makes two passes
over the list per radix digit, so we end up with 4n. That
should yield ~5.3x speedup. We see 4x here; the difference
is probably due to the extra bucket book-keeping the radix
sort has to do.

On a smaller repo, the difference is less impressive, as
log(n) is smaller. For git.git, with 173K objects (but still
k=2), we see a 2.7x improvement:

          before     after
  real    0m0.046s   0m0.017s
  user    0m0.036s   0m0.012s
  sys     0m0.008s   0m0.000s

On even tinier repos (e.g., a few hundred objects), the
speedup goes away entirely, as the small advantage of the
radix sort gets erased by the book-keeping costs (and at
those sizes, the cost to generate the the rev-index gets
lost in the noise anyway).

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
 pack-revindex.c | 100 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
 1 file changed, 95 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
index 1aa9754..b4d2b35 100644
--- a/pack-revindex.c
+++ b/pack-revindex.c
@@ -59,11 +59,101 @@ static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
 	/* revindex elements are lazily initialized */
 }
 
-static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
+/*
+ * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort.
+ *
+ * It sorts each of the "n" items in "entries" by its offset field. The "max"
+ * parameter must be at least as large as the largest offset in the array,
+ * and lets us quit the sort early.
+ */
+static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
 {
-	const struct revindex_entry *a = a_;
-	const struct revindex_entry *b = b_;
-	return (a->offset < b->offset) ? -1 : (a->offset > b->offset) ? 1 : 0;
+	/*
+	 * We use a "digit" size of 16 bits. That keeps our memory
+	 * usage reasonable, and we can generally (for a 4G or smaller
+	 * packfile) quit after two rounds of radix-sorting.
+	 */
+#define DIGIT_SIZE (16)
+#define BUCKETS (1 << DIGIT_SIZE)
+	/*
+	 * We want to know the bucket that a[i] will go into when we are using
+	 * the digit that is N bits from the (least significant) end.
+	 */
+#define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits) (((a)[(i)].offset >> (bits)) & (BUCKETS-1))
+
+	/*
+	 * We need O(n) temporary storage. Rather than do an extra copy of the
+	 * partial results into "entries", we sort back and forth between the
+	 * real array and temporary storage. In each iteration of the loop, we
+	 * keep track of them with alias pointers, always sorting from "from"
+	 * to "to".
+	 */
+	struct revindex_entry *tmp = xmalloc(n * sizeof(*tmp));
+	struct revindex_entry *from = entries, *to = tmp;
+	int bits;
+	unsigned *pos = xmalloc(BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
+
+	/*
+	 * If (max >> bits) is zero, then we know that the radix digit we are
+	 * on (and any higher) will be zero for all entries, and our loop will
+	 * be a no-op, as everybody lands in the same zero-th bucket.
+	 */
+	for (bits = 0; max >> bits; bits += DIGIT_SIZE) {
+		struct revindex_entry *swap;
+		unsigned i;
+
+		memset(pos, 0, BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
+
+		/*
+		 * We want pos[i] to store the index of the last element that
+		 * will go in bucket "i" (actually one past the last element).
+		 * To do this, we first count the items that will go in each
+		 * bucket, which gives us a relative offset from the last
+		 * bucket. We can then cumulatively add the index from the
+		 * previous bucket to get the true index.
+		 */
+		for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
+			pos[BUCKET_FOR(from, i, bits)]++;
+		for (i = 1; i < BUCKETS; i++)
+			pos[i] += pos[i-1];
+
+		/*
+		 * Now we can drop the elements into their correct buckets (in
+		 * our temporary array).  We iterate the pos counter backwards
+		 * to avoid using an extra index to count up. And since we are
+		 * going backwards there, we must also go backwards through the
+		 * array itself, to keep the sort stable.
+		 *
+		 * Note that we use an unsigned iterator to make sure we can
+		 * handle 2^32-1 objects, even on a 32-bit system. But this
+		 * means we cannot use the more obvious "i >= 0" loop condition
+		 * for counting backwards, and must instead check for
+		 * wrap-around with UINT_MAX.
+		 */
+		for (i = n - 1; i != UINT_MAX; i--)
+			to[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(from, i, bits)]] = from[i];
+
+		/*
+		 * Now "to" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "from" and
+		 * "to" for the next iteration.
+		 */
+		swap = from;
+		from = to;
+		to = swap;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
+	 * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
+	 */
+	if (from != entries)
+		memcpy(entries, tmp, n * sizeof(*entries));
+	free(tmp);
+	free(pos);
+
+#undef BUCKET_FOR
+#undef BUCKETS
+#undef DIGIT_SIZE
 }
 
 /*
@@ -108,7 +198,7 @@ static void create_pack_revindex(struct pack_revindex *rix)
 	 */
 	rix->revindex[num_ent].offset = p->pack_size - 20;
 	rix->revindex[num_ent].nr = -1;
-	qsort(rix->revindex, num_ent, sizeof(*rix->revindex), cmp_offset);
+	sort_revindex(rix->revindex, num_ent, p->pack_size);
 }
 
 struct revindex_entry *find_pack_revindex(struct packed_git *p, off_t ofs)
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option
  2013-07-10 11:04     ` Jeff King
@ 2013-07-11 16:35       ` Junio C Hamano
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2013-07-11 16:35 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git

Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:

> I started on this, and it turned out not to really be any simpler....
> So I went ahead with the full formats for my re-roll. It turned out
> pretty reasonable, I think.

Thanks.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 08/10] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace
  2013-07-11 11:36       ` Jeff King
@ 2013-07-11 17:42         ` Junio C Hamano
  2013-07-11 20:45         ` [PATCHv3 " Jeff King
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2013-07-11 17:42 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: Ramkumar Ramachandra, git, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey

Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:

> On Wed, Jul 10, 2013 at 08:59:51PM +0530, Ramkumar Ramachandra wrote:
>
>> Jeff King wrote:
>> >   git rev-list --objects HEAD |
>> >   git cat-file --batch-check='%(objectsize) %(text)'
>> 
>> If anything, I would have expected %(rest), not %(text).  This atom is
>> specific to commands that accept input via stdin (i.e. not log, f-e-r,
>> branch, or anything else I can think of).
>
> I considered %(rest) as well. I don't have a strong preference.
>
>> Also, this makes me wonder if %(field:0), %(field:1), and probably
>> %(field:@) are good ideas.  Even if we go down that road, I don't
>> think %(rest) is a problem per-se.
>
> I don't have a use for them, and even if we want to add them later, you
> would still want to support %(rest) for when the user wants to take the
> rest of the line verbatim without caring about field-splitting.
>
> To be honest, I do not see %(field) as all that useful. If you want to
> go about rearranging or selecting fields, that is what "cut" (or "awk")
> is for.  Having fields means you need to specify field separators, and
> how runs of separators are treated. Other tools already do this.

Very true, and more importantly, you cannot still say "my input
object name is at field N, not at the beginning", so that makes it
doubly dubious how %(field:$n) would be any useful.

> So it would (at best) save you from an extra cut invocation, whereas
> %(rest) gets you out of doing something much more difficult. Without it,
> information is lost from your pipeline (so you have to have tee to a
> separate pipeline, and then reassemble the pieces).

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* [PATCHv3 08/10] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace
  2013-07-11 11:36       ` Jeff King
  2013-07-11 17:42         ` Junio C Hamano
@ 2013-07-11 20:45         ` Jeff King
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2013-07-11 20:45 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Ramkumar Ramachandra; +Cc: git, Duy Nguyen, Brandon Casey, Junio C Hamano

On Thu, Jul 11, 2013 at 07:36:53AM -0400, Jeff King wrote:

> On Wed, Jul 10, 2013 at 08:59:51PM +0530, Ramkumar Ramachandra wrote:
> 
> > Jeff King wrote:
> > >   git rev-list --objects HEAD |
> > >   git cat-file --batch-check='%(objectsize) %(text)'
> > 
> > If anything, I would have expected %(rest), not %(text).  This atom is
> > specific to commands that accept input via stdin (i.e. not log, f-e-r,
> > branch, or anything else I can think of).
> 
> I considered %(rest) as well. I don't have a strong preference.

Here is the patch re-rolled with s/text/rest/.

Junio, that makes this and 10/10 the only "v3" updates. Let me know if
it would be simpler to just resend the whole series.

-- >8 --
Subject: [PATCH] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace

If we get an input line to --batch or --batch-check that
looks like "HEAD foo bar", we will currently feed the whole
thing to get_sha1(). This means that to use --batch-check
with `rev-list --objects`, one must pre-process the input,
like:

  git rev-list --objects HEAD |
  cut -d' ' -f1 |
  git cat-file --batch-check

Besides being more typing and slightly less efficient to
invoke `cut`, the result loses information: we no longer
know which path each object was found at.

This patch teaches cat-file to split input lines at the
first whitespace. Everything to the left of the whitespace
is considered an object name, and everything to the right is
made available as the %(reset) atom. So you can now do:

  git rev-list --objects HEAD |
  git cat-file --batch-check='%(objectsize) %(rest)'

to collect object sizes at particular paths.

Even if %(rest) is not used, we always do the whitespace
split (which means you can simply eliminate the `cut`
command from the first example above).

This whitespace split is backwards compatible for any
reasonable input. Object names cannot contain spaces, so any
input with spaces would have resulted in a "missing" line.
The only input hurt is if somebody really expected input of
the form "HEAD is a fine-looking ref!" to fail; it will now
parse HEAD, and make "is a fine-looking ref!" available as
%(rest).

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
 Documentation/git-cat-file.txt | 10 ++++++++--
 builtin/cat-file.c             | 20 +++++++++++++++++++-
 t/t1006-cat-file.sh            |  7 +++++++
 3 files changed, 34 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 06bdc43..68691d4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -88,8 +88,10 @@ from stdin, one per line, and print information about them.
 If `--batch` or `--batch-check` is given, `cat-file` will read objects
 from stdin, one per line, and print information about them.
 
-Each line is considered as a whole object name, and is parsed as if
-given to linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
+Each line is split at the first whitespace boundary. All characters
+before that whitespace are considered as a whole object name, and are
+parsed as if given to linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]. Characters after that
+whitespace can be accessed using the `%(rest)` atom (see below).
 
 You can specify the information shown for each object by using a custom
 `<format>`. The `<format>` is copied literally to stdout for each
@@ -110,6 +112,10 @@ newline. The available atoms are:
 	The size, in bytes, that the object takes up on disk. See the
 	note about on-disk sizes in the `CAVEATS` section below.
 
+`rest`::
+	The text (if any) found after the first run of whitespace on the
+	input line (i.e., the "rest" of the line).
+
 If no format is specified, the default format is `%(objectname)
 %(objecttype) %(objectsize)`.
 
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 11fa8c0..0e64b41 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -119,6 +119,7 @@ struct expand_data {
 	enum object_type type;
 	unsigned long size;
 	unsigned long disk_size;
+	const char *rest;
 
 	/*
 	 * If mark_query is true, we do not expand anything, but rather
@@ -161,6 +162,9 @@ static void expand_atom(struct strbuf *sb, const char *atom, int len,
 			data->info.disk_sizep = &data->disk_size;
 		else
 			strbuf_addf(sb, "%lu", data->disk_size);
+	} else if (is_atom("rest", atom, len)) {
+		if (!data->mark_query && data->rest)
+			strbuf_addstr(sb, data->rest);
 	} else
 		die("unknown format element: %.*s", len, atom);
 }
@@ -263,7 +267,21 @@ static int batch_objects(struct batch_options *opt)
 	data.mark_query = 0;
 
 	while (strbuf_getline(&buf, stdin, '\n') != EOF) {
-		int error = batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt, &data);
+		char *p;
+		int error;
+
+		/*
+		 * Split at first whitespace, tying off the beginning of the
+		 * string and saving the remainder (or NULL) in data.rest.
+		 */
+		p = strpbrk(buf.buf, " \t");
+		if (p) {
+			while (*p && strchr(" \t", *p))
+				*p++ = '\0';
+		}
+		data.rest = p;
+
+		error = batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt, &data);
 		if (error)
 			return error;
 	}
diff --git a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
index 4e911fb..d499d02 100755
--- a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
+++ b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
@@ -78,6 +78,13 @@ $content"
 	echo $sha1 | git cat-file --batch-check="%(objecttype) %(objectname)" >actual &&
 	test_cmp expect actual
     '
+
+    test_expect_success '--batch-check with %(rest)' '
+	echo "$type this is some extra content" >expect &&
+	echo "$sha1    this is some extra content" |
+		git cat-file --batch-check="%(objecttype) %(rest)" >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+    '
 }
 
 hello_content="Hello World"
-- 
1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCHv3 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
  2013-07-11 12:16     ` [PATCHv3 " Jeff King
@ 2013-07-11 21:12       ` Brandon Casey
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 52+ messages in thread
From: Brandon Casey @ 2013-07-11 21:12 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git, Ramkumar Ramachandra, Duy Nguyen, Junio C Hamano

On Thu, Jul 11, 2013 at 5:16 AM, Jeff King <peff@peff.net> wrote:
>   Here's an update of the radix-sort patch. It fixes the "unsigned" issue
>   Brandon pointed out, along with a few other comment/naming/style fixes.
>   I also updated the commit message with more explanation of the
>   timings.

Very nice.

For what it's worth:

Reviewed-by: Brandon Casey <drafnel@gmail.com>

<remainder retained for reference (or whatever Jonathan usually says)>

>   The interdiff is:
>
>   diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
>   index 9365bc2..b4d2b35 100644
>   --- a/pack-revindex.c
>   +++ b/pack-revindex.c
>   @@ -61,6 +61,10 @@ static void init_pack_revindex(void)
>
>    /*
>     * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort.
>   + *
>   + * It sorts each of the "n" items in "entries" by its offset field. The "max"
>   + * parameter must be at least as large as the largest offset in the array,
>   + * and lets us quit the sort early.
>     */
>    static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
>    {
>   @@ -78,18 +82,25 @@ static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
>    #define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits) (((a)[(i)].offset >> (bits)) & (BUCKETS-1))
>
>         /*
>   -      * We need O(n) temporary storage, so we sort back and forth between
>   -      * the real array and our tmp storage. To keep them straight, we always
>   -      * sort from "a" into buckets in "b".
>   +      * We need O(n) temporary storage. Rather than do an extra copy of the
>   +      * partial results into "entries", we sort back and forth between the
>   +      * real array and temporary storage. In each iteration of the loop, we
>   +      * keep track of them with alias pointers, always sorting from "from"
>   +      * to "to".
>          */
>   -     struct revindex_entry *tmp = xcalloc(n, sizeof(*tmp));
>   -     struct revindex_entry *a = entries, *b = tmp;
>   -     int bits = 0;
>   +     struct revindex_entry *tmp = xmalloc(n * sizeof(*tmp));
>   +     struct revindex_entry *from = entries, *to = tmp;
>   +     int bits;
>         unsigned *pos = xmalloc(BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
>
>   -     while (max >> bits) {
>   +     /*
>   +      * If (max >> bits) is zero, then we know that the radix digit we are
>   +      * on (and any higher) will be zero for all entries, and our loop will
>   +      * be a no-op, as everybody lands in the same zero-th bucket.
>   +      */
>   +     for (bits = 0; max >> bits; bits += DIGIT_SIZE) {
>                 struct revindex_entry *swap;
>   -             int i;
>   +             unsigned i;
>
>                 memset(pos, 0, BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
>
>   @@ -102,7 +113,7 @@ static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
>                  * previous bucket to get the true index.
>                  */
>                 for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
>   -                     pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]++;
>   +                     pos[BUCKET_FOR(from, i, bits)]++;
>                 for (i = 1; i < BUCKETS; i++)
>                         pos[i] += pos[i-1];
>
>   @@ -112,32 +123,37 @@ static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
>                  * to avoid using an extra index to count up. And since we are
>                  * going backwards there, we must also go backwards through the
>                  * array itself, to keep the sort stable.
>   +              *
>   +              * Note that we use an unsigned iterator to make sure we can
>   +              * handle 2^32-1 objects, even on a 32-bit system. But this
>   +              * means we cannot use the more obvious "i >= 0" loop condition
>   +              * for counting backwards, and must instead check for
>   +              * wrap-around with UINT_MAX.
>                  */
>   -             for (i = n - 1; i >= 0; i--)
>   -                     b[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits)]] = a[i];
>   +             for (i = n - 1; i != UINT_MAX; i--)
>   +                     to[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(from, i, bits)]] = from[i];
>
>                 /*
>   -              * Now "b" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "a" and
>   -              * "b" for the next iteration.
>   +              * Now "to" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "from" and
>   +              * "to" for the next iteration.
>                  */
>   -             swap = a;
>   -             a = b;
>   -             b = swap;
>   -
>   -             /* And bump our bits for the next round. */
>   -             bits += DIGIT_SIZE;
>   +             swap = from;
>   +             from = to;
>   +             to = swap;
>         }
>
>         /*
>          * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
>          * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
>          */
>   -     if (a != entries)
>   +     if (from != entries)
>                 memcpy(entries, tmp, n * sizeof(*entries));
>         free(tmp);
>         free(pos);
>
>    #undef BUCKET_FOR
>   +#undef BUCKETS
>   +#undef DIGIT_SIZE
>    }
>
>    /*
>
> -- >8 --
> Subject: [PATCH] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex
>
> The pack revindex stores the offsets of the objects in the
> pack in sorted order, allowing us to easily find the on-disk
> size of each object. To compute it, we populate an array
> with the offsets from the sha1-sorted idx file, and then use
> qsort to order it by offsets.
>
> That does O(n log n) offset comparisons, and profiling shows
> that we spend most of our time in cmp_offset. However, since
> we are sorting on a simple off_t, we can use numeric sorts
> that perform better. A radix sort can run in O(k*n), where k
> is the number of "digits" in our number. For a 64-bit off_t,
> using 16-bit "digits" gives us k=4.
>
> On the linux.git repo, with about 3M objects to sort, this
> yields a 400% speedup. Here are the best-of-five numbers for
> running
>
>   echo HEAD | git cat-file --batch-check="%(objectsize:disk)
>
> on a fully packed repository, which is dominated by time
> spent building the pack revindex:
>
>           before     after
>   real    0m0.834s   0m0.204s
>   user    0m0.788s   0m0.164s
>   sys     0m0.040s   0m0.036s
>
> This matches our algorithmic expectations. log(3M) is ~21.5,
> so a traditional sort is ~21.5n. Our radix sort runs in k*n,
> where k is the number of radix digits. In the worst case,
> this is k=4 for a 64-bit off_t, but we can quit early when
> the largest value to be sorted is smaller. For any
> repository under 4G, k=2. Our algorithm makes two passes
> over the list per radix digit, so we end up with 4n. That
> should yield ~5.3x speedup. We see 4x here; the difference
> is probably due to the extra bucket book-keeping the radix
> sort has to do.
>
> On a smaller repo, the difference is less impressive, as
> log(n) is smaller. For git.git, with 173K objects (but still
> k=2), we see a 2.7x improvement:
>
>           before     after
>   real    0m0.046s   0m0.017s
>   user    0m0.036s   0m0.012s
>   sys     0m0.008s   0m0.000s
>
> On even tinier repos (e.g., a few hundred objects), the
> speedup goes away entirely, as the small advantage of the
> radix sort gets erased by the book-keeping costs (and at
> those sizes, the cost to generate the the rev-index gets
> lost in the noise anyway).
>
> Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
> ---
>  pack-revindex.c | 100 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
>  1 file changed, 95 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/pack-revindex.c b/pack-revindex.c
> index 1aa9754..b4d2b35 100644
> --- a/pack-revindex.c
> +++ b/pack-revindex.c
> @@ -59,11 +59,101 @@ static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
>         /* revindex elements are lazily initialized */
>  }
>
> -static int cmp_offset(const void *a_, const void *b_)
> +/*
> + * This is a least-significant-digit radix sort.
> + *
> + * It sorts each of the "n" items in "entries" by its offset field. The "max"
> + * parameter must be at least as large as the largest offset in the array,
> + * and lets us quit the sort early.
> + */
> +static void sort_revindex(struct revindex_entry *entries, unsigned n, off_t max)
>  {
> -       const struct revindex_entry *a = a_;
> -       const struct revindex_entry *b = b_;
> -       return (a->offset < b->offset) ? -1 : (a->offset > b->offset) ? 1 : 0;
> +       /*
> +        * We use a "digit" size of 16 bits. That keeps our memory
> +        * usage reasonable, and we can generally (for a 4G or smaller
> +        * packfile) quit after two rounds of radix-sorting.
> +        */
> +#define DIGIT_SIZE (16)
> +#define BUCKETS (1 << DIGIT_SIZE)
> +       /*
> +        * We want to know the bucket that a[i] will go into when we are using
> +        * the digit that is N bits from the (least significant) end.
> +        */
> +#define BUCKET_FOR(a, i, bits) (((a)[(i)].offset >> (bits)) & (BUCKETS-1))
> +
> +       /*
> +        * We need O(n) temporary storage. Rather than do an extra copy of the
> +        * partial results into "entries", we sort back and forth between the
> +        * real array and temporary storage. In each iteration of the loop, we
> +        * keep track of them with alias pointers, always sorting from "from"
> +        * to "to".
> +        */
> +       struct revindex_entry *tmp = xmalloc(n * sizeof(*tmp));
> +       struct revindex_entry *from = entries, *to = tmp;
> +       int bits;
> +       unsigned *pos = xmalloc(BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
> +
> +       /*
> +        * If (max >> bits) is zero, then we know that the radix digit we are
> +        * on (and any higher) will be zero for all entries, and our loop will
> +        * be a no-op, as everybody lands in the same zero-th bucket.
> +        */
> +       for (bits = 0; max >> bits; bits += DIGIT_SIZE) {
> +               struct revindex_entry *swap;
> +               unsigned i;
> +
> +               memset(pos, 0, BUCKETS * sizeof(*pos));
> +
> +               /*
> +                * We want pos[i] to store the index of the last element that
> +                * will go in bucket "i" (actually one past the last element).
> +                * To do this, we first count the items that will go in each
> +                * bucket, which gives us a relative offset from the last
> +                * bucket. We can then cumulatively add the index from the
> +                * previous bucket to get the true index.
> +                */
> +               for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
> +                       pos[BUCKET_FOR(from, i, bits)]++;
> +               for (i = 1; i < BUCKETS; i++)
> +                       pos[i] += pos[i-1];
> +
> +               /*
> +                * Now we can drop the elements into their correct buckets (in
> +                * our temporary array).  We iterate the pos counter backwards
> +                * to avoid using an extra index to count up. And since we are
> +                * going backwards there, we must also go backwards through the
> +                * array itself, to keep the sort stable.
> +                *
> +                * Note that we use an unsigned iterator to make sure we can
> +                * handle 2^32-1 objects, even on a 32-bit system. But this
> +                * means we cannot use the more obvious "i >= 0" loop condition
> +                * for counting backwards, and must instead check for
> +                * wrap-around with UINT_MAX.
> +                */
> +               for (i = n - 1; i != UINT_MAX; i--)
> +                       to[--pos[BUCKET_FOR(from, i, bits)]] = from[i];
> +
> +               /*
> +                * Now "to" contains the most sorted list, so we swap "from" and
> +                * "to" for the next iteration.
> +                */
> +               swap = from;
> +               from = to;
> +               to = swap;
> +       }
> +
> +       /*
> +        * If we ended with our data in the original array, great. If not,
> +        * we have to move it back from the temporary storage.
> +        */
> +       if (from != entries)
> +               memcpy(entries, tmp, n * sizeof(*entries));
> +       free(tmp);
> +       free(pos);
> +
> +#undef BUCKET_FOR
> +#undef BUCKETS
> +#undef DIGIT_SIZE
>  }
>
>  /*
> @@ -108,7 +198,7 @@ static void create_pack_revindex(struct pack_revindex *rix)
>          */
>         rix->revindex[num_ent].offset = p->pack_size - 20;
>         rix->revindex[num_ent].nr = -1;
> -       qsort(rix->revindex, num_ent, sizeof(*rix->revindex), cmp_offset);
> +       sort_revindex(rix->revindex, num_ent, p->pack_size);
>  }
>
>  struct revindex_entry *find_pack_revindex(struct packed_git *p, off_t ofs)
> --
> 1.8.3.rc3.24.gec82cb9
>

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 52+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2013-07-11 21:12 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 52+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2013-07-07 10:01 [RFC/PATCH 0/4] cat-file --batch-disk-sizes Jeff King
2013-07-07 10:03 ` [PATCH 1/4] zero-initialize object_info structs Jeff King
2013-07-07 17:34   ` Junio C Hamano
2013-07-07 10:04 ` [PATCH 2/4] teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query Jeff King
2013-07-07 10:09 ` [PATCH 3/4] cat-file: add --batch-disk-sizes option Jeff King
2013-07-07 17:49   ` Junio C Hamano
2013-07-07 18:19     ` Jeff King
2013-07-08 11:04     ` Duy Nguyen
2013-07-08 12:00       ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
2013-07-08 13:13         ` Duy Nguyen
2013-07-08 13:37           ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
2013-07-09  2:55             ` Duy Nguyen
2013-07-09 10:32               ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
2013-07-10 11:16             ` Jeff King
2013-07-08 16:40           ` Junio C Hamano
2013-07-10 11:04     ` Jeff King
2013-07-11 16:35       ` Junio C Hamano
2013-07-07 21:15   ` brian m. carlson
2013-07-10 10:57     ` Jeff King
2013-07-07 10:14 ` [PATCH 4/4] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
2013-07-07 23:52   ` Shawn Pearce
2013-07-08  7:57     ` Jeff King
2013-07-08 15:38       ` Shawn Pearce
2013-07-08 20:50   ` Brandon Casey
2013-07-08 21:35     ` Brandon Casey
2013-07-10 10:57       ` Jeff King
2013-07-10 10:52     ` Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:34 ` [PATCHv2 00/10] cat-file formats/on-disk sizes Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:35   ` [PATCH 01/10] zero-initialize object_info structs Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:35   ` [PATCH 02/10] teach sha1_object_info_extended a "disk_size" query Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:36   ` [PATCH 03/10] t1006: modernize output comparisons Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:38   ` [PATCH 04/10] cat-file: teach --batch to stream blob objects Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:38   ` [PATCH 05/10] cat-file: refactor --batch option parsing Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:45   ` [PATCH 06/10] cat-file: add --batch-check=<format> Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:57     ` Eric Sunshine
2013-07-10 14:51     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
2013-07-11 11:24       ` Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:46   ` [PATCH 07/10] cat-file: add %(objectsize:disk) format atom Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:48   ` [PATCH 08/10] cat-file: split --batch input lines on whitespace Jeff King
2013-07-10 15:29     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
2013-07-11 11:36       ` Jeff King
2013-07-11 17:42         ` Junio C Hamano
2013-07-11 20:45         ` [PATCHv3 " Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:50   ` [PATCH 09/10] pack-revindex: use unsigned to store number of objects Jeff King
2013-07-10 11:55   ` [PATCH 10/10] pack-revindex: radix-sort the revindex Jeff King
2013-07-10 12:00     ` Jeff King
2013-07-10 13:17     ` Ramkumar Ramachandra
2013-07-11 11:03       ` Jeff King
2013-07-10 17:10     ` Brandon Casey
2013-07-11 11:17       ` Jeff King
2013-07-11 12:16     ` [PATCHv3 " Jeff King
2013-07-11 21:12       ` Brandon Casey

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