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* [PATCH 0/5] [RFC] introduce Roaring bitmaps to Git
@ 2022-09-19 17:47 Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 1/5] reachability-bitmaps: add CRoaring library " Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
                   ` (6 more replies)
  0 siblings, 7 replies; 16+ messages in thread
From: Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget @ 2022-09-19 17:47 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git
  Cc: Taylor Blau, Kaartic Sivaram, Junio C Hamano, Derrick Stolee,
	Abhradeep Chakraborty

Git currently uses ewah bitmaps ( which are based on run-length encoding) to
compress bitmaps. Ewah bitmaps stores bitmaps in the form of run-length
words i.e. instead of storing each and every bit, it tries to find
consecutive bits (having same value) and replace them with the value bit and
the range upto which the bit is present. It is simple and efficient. But one
downside of this approach is that we have to decompress the whole bitmap in
order to find the bit of a certain position.

For small (or medium sized) bitmaps, this is not an issue. But it can be an
issue for large (or extra large) bitmaps. In that case roaring bitmaps are
generally more efficient[1] than ewah itself. Some benchmarks suggests that
roaring bitmaps give more performance benefits than ewah or any other
similar compression technique.

This patch series is currently in RFC state and it aims to let Git use
roaring bitmaps. As this is an RFC patch series (for now), the code are not
fully accurate (i.e. some tests are failing). But it is backward-compatible
(tests related to ewah bitmaps are passing). Some commit messages might need
more explanation and some commits may need a split (specially the one that
implement writing roaring bitmaps). Overall, the structure and code are near
to ready to make the series a formal patch series.

I am submitting it as an RFC (after discussions with mentors) because the
GSoC coding period is about to end. I will continue to work on the patch
series.

Abhradeep Chakraborty (5):
  reachability-bitmaps: add CRoaring library to Git
  roaring.[ch]: apply Git specific changes to the roaring API
  roaring: teach Git to write roaring bitmaps
  roaring: introduce a new config option for roaring bitmaps
  roaring: teach Git to read roaring bitmaps

 Makefile                   |     3 +
 bitmap.c                   |   225 +
 bitmap.h                   |    33 +
 builtin/diff.c             |    10 +-
 builtin/multi-pack-index.c |     5 +
 builtin/pack-objects.c     |    81 +-
 ewah/bitmap.c              |    61 +-
 ewah/ewok.h                |    37 +-
 midx.c                     |     7 +
 midx.h                     |     1 +
 pack-bitmap-write.c        |   326 +-
 pack-bitmap.c              |   969 +-
 pack-bitmap.h              |    27 +-
 roaring/roaring.c          | 20047 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 roaring/roaring.h          |  1028 ++
 t/t5310-pack-bitmaps.sh    |    79 +-
 16 files changed, 22490 insertions(+), 449 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 bitmap.c
 create mode 100644 bitmap.h
 create mode 100644 roaring/roaring.c
 create mode 100644 roaring/roaring.h


base-commit: d3fa443f97e3a8d75b51341e2d5bac380b7422df
Published-As: https://github.com/gitgitgadget/git/releases/tag/pr-1357%2FAbhra303%2Froaring-bitmap-exp-v1
Fetch-It-Via: git fetch https://github.com/gitgitgadget/git pr-1357/Abhra303/roaring-bitmap-exp-v1
Pull-Request: https://github.com/gitgitgadget/git/pull/1357
-- 
gitgitgadget

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 16+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 1/5] reachability-bitmaps: add CRoaring library to Git
  2022-09-19 17:47 [PATCH 0/5] [RFC] introduce Roaring bitmaps to Git Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
@ 2022-09-19 17:47 ` Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 2/5] roaring.[ch]: apply Git specific changes to the roaring API Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
                   ` (5 subsequent siblings)
  6 siblings, 0 replies; 16+ messages in thread
From: Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget @ 2022-09-19 17:47 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git
  Cc: Taylor Blau, Kaartic Sivaram, Junio C Hamano, Derrick Stolee,
	Abhradeep Chakraborty, Abhradeep Chakraborty

From: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>

According to Roaring bitmap's paper[1], it gives better performance
(in most cases) than EWAH bitmaps. Its compression ratio is also good.
Moreover, unlike EWAH, it doesn't have to parse the whole bitmap to
know about one object. So, It may be good for Git to use Roaring
bitmaps for its work.

CRoaring is a well tested library for Roaring bitmaps and is mainly
written by the author of the mentioned paper.

Add CRoaring library to use roaring bitmap related functions.

[1] https://arxiv.org/pdf/1603.06549.pdf

Mentored-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com>
Co-Mentored-by: Kaartic Sivaraam <kaartic.sivaraam@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>
---
 Makefile          |     2 +
 roaring/roaring.c | 19522 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 roaring/roaring.h |  1011 +++
 3 files changed, 20535 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 roaring/roaring.c
 create mode 100644 roaring/roaring.h

diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index d9247ead45b..e9537951105 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -1060,6 +1060,7 @@ LIB_OBJS += rerere.o
 LIB_OBJS += reset.o
 LIB_OBJS += resolve-undo.o
 LIB_OBJS += revision.o
+LIB_OBJS += roaring/roaring.o
 LIB_OBJS += run-command.o
 LIB_OBJS += send-pack.o
 LIB_OBJS += sequencer.o
@@ -1258,6 +1259,7 @@ THIRD_PARTY_SOURCES += compat/nedmalloc/%
 THIRD_PARTY_SOURCES += compat/obstack.%
 THIRD_PARTY_SOURCES += compat/poll/%
 THIRD_PARTY_SOURCES += compat/regex/%
+THIRD_PARTY_SOURCES += roaring/roaring.c
 THIRD_PARTY_SOURCES += sha1collisiondetection/%
 THIRD_PARTY_SOURCES += sha1dc/%
 
diff --git a/roaring/roaring.c b/roaring/roaring.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..df2d90544cd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/roaring/roaring.c
@@ -0,0 +1,19522 @@
+/*
+ * The CRoaring project is under a dual license (Apache/MIT).
+ * Users of the library may choose one or the other license.
+ */
+/*
+ * MIT License
+ *
+ * Copyright 2016-2022 The CRoaring authors
+ *
+ * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any
+ * person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
+ * documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the
+ * Software without restriction, including without
+ * limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge,
+ * publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of
+ * the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software
+ * is furnished to do so, subject to the following
+ * conditions:
+ *
+ * The above copyright notice and this permission notice
+ * shall be included in all copies or substantial portions
+ * of the Software.
+ *
+ * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
+ * ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
+ * TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
+ * PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT
+ * SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
+ * CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
+ * OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR
+ * IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
+ * DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE
+ *
+ * SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
+ */
+
+#include "roaring.h"
+
+/* used for http://dmalloc.com/ Dmalloc - Debug Malloc Library */
+#ifdef DMALLOC
+#include "dmalloc.h"
+#endif
+
+#include "roaring.h"  /* include public API definitions */
+/* begin file include/roaring/isadetection.h */
+/* From
+https://github.com/endorno/pytorch/blob/master/torch/lib/TH/generic/simd/simd.h
+Highly modified.
+
+Copyright (c) 2016-     Facebook, Inc            (Adam Paszke)
+Copyright (c) 2014-     Facebook, Inc            (Soumith Chintala)
+Copyright (c) 2011-2014 Idiap Research Institute (Ronan Collobert)
+Copyright (c) 2012-2014 Deepmind Technologies    (Koray Kavukcuoglu)
+Copyright (c) 2011-2012 NEC Laboratories America (Koray Kavukcuoglu)
+Copyright (c) 2011-2013 NYU                      (Clement Farabet)
+Copyright (c) 2006-2010 NEC Laboratories America (Ronan Collobert, Leon Bottou,
+Iain Melvin, Jason Weston) Copyright (c) 2006      Idiap Research Institute
+(Samy Bengio) Copyright (c) 2001-2004 Idiap Research Institute (Ronan Collobert,
+Samy Bengio, Johnny Mariethoz)
+
+All rights reserved.
+
+Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
+
+1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+
+2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+
+3. Neither the names of Facebook, Deepmind Technologies, NYU, NEC Laboratories
+America and IDIAP Research Institute nor the names of its contributors may be
+   used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
+   specific prior written permission.
+
+THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
+AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
+LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
+CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
+SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
+INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
+CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
+ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
+POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+*/
+
+#ifndef ROARING_ISADETECTION_H
+#define ROARING_ISADETECTION_H
+
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#if defined(_MSC_VER)
+#include <intrin.h>
+#elif defined(HAVE_GCC_GET_CPUID) && defined(USE_GCC_GET_CPUID)
+#include <cpuid.h>
+#endif // defined(_MSC_VER)
+
+
+enum croaring_instruction_set {
+  CROARING_DEFAULT = 0x0,
+  CROARING_NEON = 0x1,
+  CROARING_AVX2 = 0x4,
+  CROARING_SSE42 = 0x8,
+  CROARING_PCLMULQDQ = 0x10,
+  CROARING_BMI1 = 0x20,
+  CROARING_BMI2 = 0x40,
+  CROARING_ALTIVEC = 0x80,
+  CROARING_UNINITIALIZED = 0x8000
+};
+
+#if defined(__PPC64__)
+
+static inline uint32_t dynamic_croaring_detect_supported_architectures() {
+  return CROARING_ALTIVEC;
+}
+
+#elif defined(__arm__) || defined(__aarch64__) // incl. armel, armhf, arm64
+
+#if defined(__ARM_NEON)
+
+static inline uint32_t dynamic_croaring_detect_supported_architectures() {
+  return CROARING_NEON;
+}
+
+#else // ARM without NEON
+
+static inline uint32_t dynamic_croaring_detect_supported_architectures() {
+  return CROARING_DEFAULT;
+}
+
+#endif
+
+#elif defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_AMD64) // x64
+
+
+
+
+static inline void cpuid(uint32_t *eax, uint32_t *ebx, uint32_t *ecx,
+                         uint32_t *edx) {
+
+#if defined(_MSC_VER)
+  int cpu_info[4];
+  __cpuid(cpu_info, *eax);
+  *eax = cpu_info[0];
+  *ebx = cpu_info[1];
+  *ecx = cpu_info[2];
+  *edx = cpu_info[3];
+#elif defined(HAVE_GCC_GET_CPUID) && defined(USE_GCC_GET_CPUID)
+  uint32_t level = *eax;
+  __get_cpuid(level, eax, ebx, ecx, edx);
+#else
+  uint32_t a = *eax, b, c = *ecx, d;
+  __asm__("cpuid\n\t" : "+a"(a), "=b"(b), "+c"(c), "=d"(d));
+  *eax = a;
+  *ebx = b;
+  *ecx = c;
+  *edx = d;
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline uint32_t dynamic_croaring_detect_supported_architectures() {
+  uint32_t eax, ebx, ecx, edx;
+  uint32_t host_isa = 0x0;
+  // Can be found on Intel ISA Reference for CPUID
+  static uint32_t cpuid_avx2_bit = 1 << 5;      ///< @private Bit 5 of EBX for EAX=0x7
+  static uint32_t cpuid_bmi1_bit = 1 << 3;      ///< @private bit 3 of EBX for EAX=0x7
+  static uint32_t cpuid_bmi2_bit = 1 << 8;      ///< @private bit 8 of EBX for EAX=0x7
+  static uint32_t cpuid_sse42_bit = 1 << 20;    ///< @private bit 20 of ECX for EAX=0x1
+  static uint32_t cpuid_pclmulqdq_bit = 1 << 1; ///< @private bit  1 of ECX for EAX=0x1
+  // ECX for EAX=0x7
+  eax = 0x7;
+  ecx = 0x0;
+  cpuid(&eax, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
+  if (ebx & cpuid_avx2_bit) {
+    host_isa |= CROARING_AVX2;
+  }
+  if (ebx & cpuid_bmi1_bit) {
+    host_isa |= CROARING_BMI1;
+  }
+
+  if (ebx & cpuid_bmi2_bit) {
+    host_isa |= CROARING_BMI2;
+  }
+
+  // EBX for EAX=0x1
+  eax = 0x1;
+  cpuid(&eax, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
+
+  if (ecx & cpuid_sse42_bit) {
+    host_isa |= CROARING_SSE42;
+  }
+
+  if (ecx & cpuid_pclmulqdq_bit) {
+    host_isa |= CROARING_PCLMULQDQ;
+  }
+
+  return host_isa;
+}
+#else // fallback
+
+
+static inline uint32_t dynamic_croaring_detect_supported_architectures() {
+  return CROARING_DEFAULT;
+}
+
+
+#endif // end SIMD extension detection code
+
+
+#if defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_AMD64) // x64
+
+#if defined(__cplusplus)
+#include <atomic>
+static inline uint32_t croaring_detect_supported_architectures() {
+    static std::atomic<int> buffer{CROARING_UNINITIALIZED};
+    if(buffer == CROARING_UNINITIALIZED) {
+      buffer = dynamic_croaring_detect_supported_architectures();
+    }
+    return buffer;
+}
+#elif defined(_MSC_VER) && !defined(__clang__)
+// Visual Studio does not support C11 atomics.
+static inline uint32_t croaring_detect_supported_architectures() {
+    static int buffer = CROARING_UNINITIALIZED;
+    if(buffer == CROARING_UNINITIALIZED) {
+      buffer = dynamic_croaring_detect_supported_architectures();
+    }
+    return buffer;
+}
+#else // defined(__cplusplus) and defined(_MSC_VER) && !defined(__clang__)
+#include <stdatomic.h>
+static inline uint32_t croaring_detect_supported_architectures() {
+    static _Atomic int buffer = CROARING_UNINITIALIZED;
+    if(buffer == CROARING_UNINITIALIZED) {
+      buffer = dynamic_croaring_detect_supported_architectures();
+    }
+    return buffer;
+}
+#endif // defined(_MSC_VER) && !defined(__clang__)
+
+#ifdef ROARING_DISABLE_AVX
+static inline bool croaring_avx2() {
+  return false;
+}
+#elif defined(__AVX2__)
+static inline bool croaring_avx2() {
+  return true;
+}
+#else
+static inline bool croaring_avx2() {
+  return  (croaring_detect_supported_architectures() & CROARING_AVX2) == CROARING_AVX2;
+}
+#endif
+
+
+#else // defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_AMD64) // x64
+
+static inline bool croaring_avx2() {
+  return false;
+}
+
+static inline uint32_t croaring_detect_supported_architectures() {
+    // no runtime dispatch
+    return dynamic_croaring_detect_supported_architectures();
+}
+#endif // defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_AMD64) // x64
+
+#endif // ROARING_ISADETECTION_H
+/* end file include/roaring/isadetection.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/portability.h */
+/*
+ * portability.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_PORTABILITY_H_
+#define INCLUDE_PORTABILITY_H_
+
+#ifndef _GNU_SOURCE
+#define _GNU_SOURCE 1
+#endif // _GNU_SOURCE
+#ifndef __STDC_FORMAT_MACROS
+#define __STDC_FORMAT_MACROS 1
+#endif // __STDC_FORMAT_MACROS
+
+#if !(defined(_POSIX_C_SOURCE)) || (_POSIX_C_SOURCE < 200809L)
+#define _POSIX_C_SOURCE 200809L
+#endif // !(defined(_POSIX_C_SOURCE)) || (_POSIX_C_SOURCE < 200809L)
+#if !(defined(_XOPEN_SOURCE)) || (_XOPEN_SOURCE < 700)
+#define _XOPEN_SOURCE 700
+#endif // !(defined(_XOPEN_SOURCE)) || (_XOPEN_SOURCE < 700)
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>  // will provide posix_memalign with _POSIX_C_SOURCE as defined above
+#if !(defined(__APPLE__)) && !(defined(__FreeBSD__))
+#include <malloc.h>  // this should never be needed but there are some reports that it is needed.
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" {  // portability definitions are in global scope, not a namespace
+#endif
+
+#if defined(_MSC_VER) && !defined(__clang__) && !defined(_WIN64) && !defined(ROARING_ACK_32BIT)
+#pragma message( \
+    "You appear to be attempting a 32-bit build under Visual Studio. We recommend a 64-bit build instead.")
+#endif
+
+#if defined(__SIZEOF_LONG_LONG__) && __SIZEOF_LONG_LONG__ != 8
+#error This code assumes  64-bit long longs (by use of the GCC intrinsics). Your system is not currently supported.
+#endif
+
+#if defined(_MSC_VER)
+#define __restrict__ __restrict
+#endif // defined(_MSC_VER
+
+
+
+#if defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_X64)
+// we have an x64 processor
+#define CROARING_IS_X64
+
+#if defined(_MSC_VER) && (_MSC_VER < 1910)
+// Old visual studio systems won't support AVX2 well.
+#undef CROARING_IS_X64
+#endif
+
+#if defined(__clang_major__) && (__clang_major__<= 8) && !defined(__AVX2__)
+// Older versions of clang have a bug affecting us
+// https://stackoverflow.com/questions/57228537/how-does-one-use-pragma-clang-attribute-push-with-c-namespaces
+#undef CROARING_IS_X64
+#endif
+
+#ifdef ROARING_DISABLE_X64
+#undef CROARING_IS_X64
+#endif
+// we include the intrinsic header
+#ifndef _MSC_VER
+/* Non-Microsoft C/C++-compatible compiler */
+#include <x86intrin.h>  // on some recent GCC, this will declare posix_memalign
+#endif // _MSC_VER
+#endif // defined(__x86_64__) || defined(_M_X64)
+
+#if !defined(USENEON) && !defined(DISABLENEON) && defined(__ARM_NEON)
+#  define USENEON
+#endif
+#if defined(USENEON)
+#  include <arm_neon.h>
+#endif
+
+#ifndef _MSC_VER
+/* Non-Microsoft C/C++-compatible compiler, assumes that it supports inline
+ * assembly */
+#define ROARING_INLINE_ASM
+#endif  // _MSC_VER
+
+
+#ifdef _MSC_VER
+/* Microsoft C/C++-compatible compiler */
+#include <intrin.h>
+
+#ifndef __clang__  // if one compiles with MSVC *with* clang, then these
+                   // intrinsics are defined!!!
+// sadly there is no way to check whether we are missing these intrinsics
+// specifically.
+
+/* wrappers for Visual Studio built-ins that look like gcc built-ins */
+/* result might be undefined when input_num is zero */
+inline int __builtin_ctzll(unsigned long long input_num) {
+    unsigned long index;
+#ifdef _WIN64  // highly recommended!!!
+    _BitScanForward64(&index, input_num);
+#else  // if we must support 32-bit Windows
+    if ((uint32_t)input_num != 0) {
+        _BitScanForward(&index, (uint32_t)input_num);
+    } else {
+        _BitScanForward(&index, (uint32_t)(input_num >> 32));
+        index += 32;
+    }
+#endif
+    return index;
+}
+
+/* result might be undefined when input_num is zero */
+inline int __builtin_clzll(unsigned long long input_num) {
+    unsigned long index;
+#ifdef _WIN64  // highly recommended!!!
+    _BitScanReverse64(&index, input_num);
+#else  // if we must support 32-bit Windows
+    if (input_num > 0xFFFFFFFF) {
+        _BitScanReverse(&index, (uint32_t)(input_num >> 32));
+        index += 32;
+    } else {
+        _BitScanReverse(&index, (uint32_t)(input_num));
+    }
+#endif
+    return 63 - index;
+}
+
+
+/* software implementation avoids POPCNT */
+/*static inline int __builtin_popcountll(unsigned long long input_num) {
+  const uint64_t m1 = 0x5555555555555555; //binary: 0101...
+  const uint64_t m2 = 0x3333333333333333; //binary: 00110011..
+  const uint64_t m4 = 0x0f0f0f0f0f0f0f0f; //binary:  4 zeros,  4 ones ...
+  const uint64_t h01 = 0x0101010101010101; //the sum of 256 to the power of 0,1,2,3...
+
+  input_num -= (input_num >> 1) & m1;
+  input_num = (input_num & m2) + ((input_num >> 2) & m2);
+  input_num = (input_num + (input_num >> 4)) & m4;
+  return (input_num * h01) >> 56;
+}*/
+
+/* Use #define so this is effective even under /Ob0 (no inline) */
+#define __builtin_unreachable() __assume(0)
+#endif
+
+#endif
+
+#if defined(_MSC_VER)
+#define ALIGNED(x) __declspec(align(x))
+#else
+#if defined(__GNUC__)
+#define ALIGNED(x) __attribute__((aligned(x)))
+#endif
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __GNUC__
+#define WARN_UNUSED __attribute__((warn_unused_result))
+#else
+#define WARN_UNUSED
+#endif
+
+#define IS_BIG_ENDIAN (*(uint16_t *)"\0\xff" < 0x100)
+
+static inline int hammingbackup(uint64_t x) {
+  uint64_t c1 = UINT64_C(0x5555555555555555);
+  uint64_t c2 = UINT64_C(0x3333333333333333);
+  uint64_t c4 = UINT64_C(0x0F0F0F0F0F0F0F0F);
+  x -= (x >> 1) & c1;
+  x = (( x >> 2) & c2) + (x & c2); x=(x +(x>>4))&c4;
+  x *= UINT64_C(0x0101010101010101);
+  return x >> 56;
+}
+
+static inline int hamming(uint64_t x) {
+#if defined(_WIN64) && defined(_MSC_VER) && !defined(__clang__)
+#ifdef _M_ARM64
+  return hammingbackup(x);
+  // (int) _CountOneBits64(x); is unavailable
+#else  // _M_ARM64
+  return (int) __popcnt64(x);
+#endif // _M_ARM64
+#elif defined(_WIN32) && defined(_MSC_VER) && !defined(__clang__)
+#ifdef _M_ARM
+  return hammingbackup(x);
+  // _CountOneBits is unavailable
+#else // _M_ARM
+    return (int) __popcnt(( unsigned int)x) + (int)  __popcnt(( unsigned int)(x>>32));
+#endif // _M_ARM
+#else
+    return __builtin_popcountll(x);
+#endif
+}
+
+#ifndef UINT64_C
+#define UINT64_C(c) (c##ULL)
+#endif // UINT64_C
+
+#ifndef UINT32_C
+#define UINT32_C(c) (c##UL)
+#endif // UINT32_C
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+}  // extern "C" {
+#endif // __cplusplus
+
+
+// this is almost standard?
+#undef STRINGIFY_IMPLEMENTATION_
+#undef STRINGIFY
+#define STRINGIFY_IMPLEMENTATION_(a) #a
+#define STRINGIFY(a) STRINGIFY_IMPLEMENTATION_(a)
+
+// Our fast kernels require 64-bit systems.
+//
+// On 32-bit x86, we lack 64-bit popcnt, lzcnt, blsr instructions.
+// Furthermore, the number of SIMD registers is reduced.
+//
+// On 32-bit ARM, we would have smaller registers.
+//
+// The library should still have the fallback kernel. It is
+// slower, but it should run everywhere.
+
+//
+// Enable valid runtime implementations, and select CROARING_BUILTIN_IMPLEMENTATION
+//
+
+// We are going to use runtime dispatch.
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+#ifdef __clang__
+// clang does not have GCC push pop
+// warning: clang attribute push can't be used within a namespace in clang up
+// til 8.0 so CROARING_TARGET_REGION and CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION must be *outside* of a
+// namespace.
+#define CROARING_TARGET_REGION(T)                                                       \
+  _Pragma(STRINGIFY(                                                           \
+      clang attribute push(__attribute__((target(T))), apply_to = function)))
+#define CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION _Pragma("clang attribute pop")
+#elif defined(__GNUC__)
+// GCC is easier
+#define CROARING_TARGET_REGION(T)                                                       \
+  _Pragma("GCC push_options") _Pragma(STRINGIFY(GCC target(T)))
+#define CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION _Pragma("GCC pop_options")
+#endif // clang then gcc
+
+#endif // CROARING_IS_X64
+
+// Default target region macros don't do anything.
+#ifndef CROARING_TARGET_REGION
+#define CROARING_TARGET_REGION(T)
+#define CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+#endif
+
+#define CROARING_TARGET_AVX2 CROARING_TARGET_REGION("avx2,bmi,pclmul,lzcnt")
+
+#ifdef __AVX2__
+// No need for runtime dispatching.
+// It is unnecessary and harmful to old clang to tag regions.
+#undef CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+#define CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+#undef CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+#define CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+#endif
+
+#endif /* INCLUDE_PORTABILITY_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/portability.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/perfparameters.h */
+#ifndef PERFPARAMETERS_H_
+#define PERFPARAMETERS_H_
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/**
+During lazy computations, we can transform array containers into bitset
+containers as
+long as we can expect them to have  ARRAY_LAZY_LOWERBOUND values.
+*/
+enum { ARRAY_LAZY_LOWERBOUND = 1024 };
+
+/* default initial size of a run container
+   setting it to zero delays the malloc.*/
+enum { RUN_DEFAULT_INIT_SIZE = 0 };
+
+/* default initial size of an array container
+   setting it to zero delays the malloc */
+enum { ARRAY_DEFAULT_INIT_SIZE = 0 };
+
+/* automatic bitset conversion during lazy or */
+#ifndef LAZY_OR_BITSET_CONVERSION
+#define LAZY_OR_BITSET_CONVERSION true
+#endif
+
+/* automatically attempt to convert a bitset to a full run during lazy
+ * evaluation */
+#ifndef LAZY_OR_BITSET_CONVERSION_TO_FULL
+#define LAZY_OR_BITSET_CONVERSION_TO_FULL true
+#endif
+
+/* automatically attempt to convert a bitset to a full run */
+#ifndef OR_BITSET_CONVERSION_TO_FULL
+#define OR_BITSET_CONVERSION_TO_FULL true
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/perfparameters.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/container_defs.h */
+/*
+ * container_defs.h
+ *
+ * Unlike containers.h (which is a file aggregating all the container includes,
+ * like array.h, bitset.h, and run.h) this is a file included BY those headers
+ * to do things like define the container base class `container_t`.
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_CONTAINER_DEFS_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_CONTAINER_DEFS_H_
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+    #include <type_traits>  // used by casting helper for compile-time check
+#endif
+
+// The preferences are a separate file to separate out tweakable parameters
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+namespace roaring { namespace internal {  // No extern "C" (contains template)
+#endif
+
+
+/*
+ * Since roaring_array_t's definition is not opaque, the container type is
+ * part of the API.  If it's not going to be `void*` then it needs a name, and
+ * expectations are to prefix C library-exported names with `roaring_` etc.
+ *
+ * Rather than force the whole codebase to use the name `roaring_container_t`,
+ * the few API appearances use the macro ROARING_CONTAINER_T.  Those includes
+ * are prior to containers.h, so make a short private alias of `container_t`.
+ * Then undefine the awkward macro so it's not used any more than it has to be.
+ */
+typedef ROARING_CONTAINER_T container_t;
+#undef ROARING_CONTAINER_T
+
+
+/*
+ * See ROARING_CONTAINER_T for notes on using container_t as a base class.
+ * This macro helps make the following pattern look nicer:
+ *
+ *     #ifdef __cplusplus
+ *     struct roaring_array_s : public container_t {
+ *     #else
+ *     struct roaring_array_s {
+ *     #endif
+ *         int32_t cardinality;
+ *         int32_t capacity;
+ *         uint16_t *array;
+ *     }
+ */
+#if defined(__cplusplus)
+    #define STRUCT_CONTAINER(name) \
+        struct name : public container_t  /* { ... } */
+#else
+    #define STRUCT_CONTAINER(name) \
+        struct name  /* { ... } */
+#endif
+
+
+/**
+ * Since container_t* is not void* in C++, "dangerous" casts are not needed to
+ * downcast; only a static_cast<> is needed.  Define a macro for static casting
+ * which helps make casts more visible, and catches problems at compile-time
+ * when building the C sources in C++ mode:
+ *
+ *     void some_func(container_t **c, ...) {  // double pointer, not single
+ *         array_container_t *ac1 = (array_container_t *)(c);  // uncaught!!
+ *
+ *         array_container_t *ac2 = CAST(array_container_t *, c)  // C++ errors
+ *         array_container_t *ac3 = CAST_array(c);  // shorthand for #2, errors
+ *     }
+ *
+ * Trickier to do is a cast from `container**` to `array_container_t**`.  This
+ * needs a reinterpret_cast<>, which sacrifices safety...so a template is used
+ * leveraging <type_traits> to make sure it's legal in the C++ build.
+ */
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+    #define CAST(type,value)            static_cast<type>(value)
+    #define movable_CAST(type,value)    movable_CAST_HELPER<type>(value)
+
+    template<typename PPDerived, typename Base>
+    PPDerived movable_CAST_HELPER(Base **ptr_to_ptr) {
+        typedef typename std::remove_pointer<PPDerived>::type PDerived;
+        typedef typename std::remove_pointer<PDerived>::type Derived;
+        static_assert(
+            std::is_base_of<Base, Derived>::value,
+            "use movable_CAST() for container_t** => xxx_container_t**"
+        );
+        return reinterpret_cast<Derived**>(ptr_to_ptr);
+    }
+#else
+    #define CAST(type,value)            ((type)value)
+    #define movable_CAST(type, value)   ((type)value)
+#endif
+
+// Use for converting e.g. an `array_container_t**` to a `container_t**`
+//
+#define movable_CAST_base(c)   movable_CAST(container_t **, c)
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} }  // namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif  /* INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_CONTAINER_DEFS_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/container_defs.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/array_util.h */
+#ifndef ARRAY_UTIL_H
+#define ARRAY_UTIL_H
+
+#include <stddef.h>  // for size_t
+#include <stdint.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/*
+ *  Good old binary search.
+ *  Assumes that array is sorted, has logarithmic complexity.
+ *  if the result is x, then:
+ *     if ( x>0 )  you have array[x] = ikey
+ *     if ( x<0 ) then inserting ikey at position -x-1 in array (insuring that array[-x-1]=ikey)
+ *                   keys the array sorted.
+ */
+inline int32_t binarySearch(const uint16_t *array, int32_t lenarray,
+                            uint16_t ikey) {
+    int32_t low = 0;
+    int32_t high = lenarray - 1;
+    while (low <= high) {
+        int32_t middleIndex = (low + high) >> 1;
+        uint16_t middleValue = array[middleIndex];
+        if (middleValue < ikey) {
+            low = middleIndex + 1;
+        } else if (middleValue > ikey) {
+            high = middleIndex - 1;
+        } else {
+            return middleIndex;
+        }
+    }
+    return -(low + 1);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Galloping search
+ * Assumes that array is sorted, has logarithmic complexity.
+ * if the result is x, then if x = length, you have that all values in array between pos and length
+ *    are smaller than min.
+ * otherwise returns the first index x such that array[x] >= min.
+ */
+static inline int32_t advanceUntil(const uint16_t *array, int32_t pos,
+                                   int32_t length, uint16_t min) {
+    int32_t lower = pos + 1;
+
+    if ((lower >= length) || (array[lower] >= min)) {
+        return lower;
+    }
+
+    int32_t spansize = 1;
+
+    while ((lower + spansize < length) && (array[lower + spansize] < min)) {
+        spansize <<= 1;
+    }
+    int32_t upper = (lower + spansize < length) ? lower + spansize : length - 1;
+
+    if (array[upper] == min) {
+        return upper;
+    }
+    if (array[upper] < min) {
+        // means
+        // array
+        // has no
+        // item
+        // >= min
+        // pos = array.length;
+        return length;
+    }
+
+    // we know that the next-smallest span was too small
+    lower += (spansize >> 1);
+
+    int32_t mid = 0;
+    while (lower + 1 != upper) {
+        mid = (lower + upper) >> 1;
+        if (array[mid] == min) {
+            return mid;
+        } else if (array[mid] < min) {
+            lower = mid;
+        } else {
+            upper = mid;
+        }
+    }
+    return upper;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns number of elements which are less then $ikey.
+ * Array elements must be unique and sorted.
+ */
+static inline int32_t count_less(const uint16_t *array, int32_t lenarray,
+                                 uint16_t ikey) {
+    if (lenarray == 0) return 0;
+    int32_t pos = binarySearch(array, lenarray, ikey);
+    return pos >= 0 ? pos : -(pos+1);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns number of elements which are greater then $ikey.
+ * Array elements must be unique and sorted.
+ */
+static inline int32_t count_greater(const uint16_t *array, int32_t lenarray,
+                                    uint16_t ikey) {
+    if (lenarray == 0) return 0;
+    int32_t pos = binarySearch(array, lenarray, ikey);
+    if (pos >= 0) {
+        return lenarray - (pos+1);
+    } else {
+        return lenarray - (-pos-1);
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * From Schlegel et al., Fast Sorted-Set Intersection using SIMD Instructions
+ * Optimized by D. Lemire on May 3rd 2013
+ *
+ * C should have capacity greater than the minimum of s_1 and s_b + 8
+ * where 8 is sizeof(__m128i)/sizeof(uint16_t).
+ */
+int32_t intersect_vector16(const uint16_t *__restrict__ A, size_t s_a,
+                           const uint16_t *__restrict__ B, size_t s_b,
+                           uint16_t *C);
+
+/**
+ * Compute the cardinality of the intersection using SSE4 instructions
+ */
+int32_t intersect_vector16_cardinality(const uint16_t *__restrict__ A,
+                                       size_t s_a,
+                                       const uint16_t *__restrict__ B,
+                                       size_t s_b);
+
+/* Computes the intersection between one small and one large set of uint16_t.
+ * Stores the result into buffer and return the number of elements. */
+int32_t intersect_skewed_uint16(const uint16_t *smallarray, size_t size_s,
+                                const uint16_t *largearray, size_t size_l,
+                                uint16_t *buffer);
+
+/* Computes the size of the intersection between one small and one large set of
+ * uint16_t. */
+int32_t intersect_skewed_uint16_cardinality(const uint16_t *smallarray,
+                                            size_t size_s,
+                                            const uint16_t *largearray,
+                                            size_t size_l);
+
+
+/* Check whether the size of the intersection between one small and one large set of uint16_t is non-zero. */
+bool intersect_skewed_uint16_nonempty(const uint16_t *smallarray, size_t size_s,
+                                const uint16_t *largearray, size_t size_l);
+/**
+ * Generic intersection function.
+ */
+int32_t intersect_uint16(const uint16_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                         const uint16_t *B, const size_t lenB, uint16_t *out);
+/**
+ * Compute the size of the intersection (generic).
+ */
+int32_t intersect_uint16_cardinality(const uint16_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                                     const uint16_t *B, const size_t lenB);
+
+/**
+ * Checking whether the size of the intersection  is non-zero.
+ */
+bool intersect_uint16_nonempty(const uint16_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                         const uint16_t *B, const size_t lenB);
+/**
+ * Generic union function.
+ */
+size_t union_uint16(const uint16_t *set_1, size_t size_1, const uint16_t *set_2,
+                    size_t size_2, uint16_t *buffer);
+
+/**
+ * Generic XOR function.
+ */
+int32_t xor_uint16(const uint16_t *array_1, int32_t card_1,
+                   const uint16_t *array_2, int32_t card_2, uint16_t *out);
+
+/**
+ * Generic difference function (ANDNOT).
+ */
+int difference_uint16(const uint16_t *a1, int length1, const uint16_t *a2,
+                      int length2, uint16_t *a_out);
+
+/**
+ * Generic intersection function.
+ */
+size_t intersection_uint32(const uint32_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                           const uint32_t *B, const size_t lenB, uint32_t *out);
+
+/**
+ * Generic intersection function, returns just the cardinality.
+ */
+size_t intersection_uint32_card(const uint32_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                                const uint32_t *B, const size_t lenB);
+
+/**
+ * Generic union function.
+ */
+size_t union_uint32(const uint32_t *set_1, size_t size_1, const uint32_t *set_2,
+                    size_t size_2, uint32_t *buffer);
+
+/**
+ * A fast SSE-based union function.
+ */
+uint32_t union_vector16(const uint16_t *__restrict__ set_1, uint32_t size_1,
+                        const uint16_t *__restrict__ set_2, uint32_t size_2,
+                        uint16_t *__restrict__ buffer);
+/**
+ * A fast SSE-based XOR function.
+ */
+uint32_t xor_vector16(const uint16_t *__restrict__ array1, uint32_t length1,
+                      const uint16_t *__restrict__ array2, uint32_t length2,
+                      uint16_t *__restrict__ output);
+
+/**
+ * A fast SSE-based difference function.
+ */
+int32_t difference_vector16(const uint16_t *__restrict__ A, size_t s_a,
+                            const uint16_t *__restrict__ B, size_t s_b,
+                            uint16_t *C);
+
+/**
+ * Generic union function, returns just the cardinality.
+ */
+size_t union_uint32_card(const uint32_t *set_1, size_t size_1,
+                         const uint32_t *set_2, size_t size_2);
+
+/**
+* combines union_uint16 and  union_vector16 optimally
+*/
+size_t fast_union_uint16(const uint16_t *set_1, size_t size_1, const uint16_t *set_2,
+                    size_t size_2, uint16_t *buffer);
+
+
+bool memequals(const void *s1, const void *s2, size_t n);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif
+/* end file include/roaring/array_util.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/utilasm.h */
+/*
+ * utilasm.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_UTILASM_H_
+#define INCLUDE_UTILASM_H_
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring {
+#endif
+
+#if defined(ROARING_INLINE_ASM)
+#define CROARING_ASMBITMANIPOPTIMIZATION  // optimization flag
+
+#define ASM_SHIFT_RIGHT(srcReg, bitsReg, destReg) \
+    __asm volatile("shrx %1, %2, %0"              \
+                   : "=r"(destReg)                \
+                   :             /* write */      \
+                   "r"(bitsReg), /* read only */  \
+                   "r"(srcReg)   /* read only */  \
+                   )
+
+#define ASM_INPLACESHIFT_RIGHT(srcReg, bitsReg)  \
+    __asm volatile("shrx %1, %0, %0"             \
+                   : "+r"(srcReg)                \
+                   :            /* read/write */ \
+                   "r"(bitsReg) /* read only */  \
+                   )
+
+#define ASM_SHIFT_LEFT(srcReg, bitsReg, destReg) \
+    __asm volatile("shlx %1, %2, %0"             \
+                   : "=r"(destReg)               \
+                   :             /* write */     \
+                   "r"(bitsReg), /* read only */ \
+                   "r"(srcReg)   /* read only */ \
+                   )
+// set bit at position testBit within testByte to 1 and
+// copy cmovDst to cmovSrc if that bit was previously clear
+#define ASM_SET_BIT_INC_WAS_CLEAR(testByte, testBit, count) \
+    __asm volatile(                                         \
+        "bts %2, %0\n"                                      \
+        "sbb $-1, %1\n"                                     \
+        : "+r"(testByte), /* read/write */                  \
+          "+r"(count)                                       \
+        :            /* read/write */                       \
+        "r"(testBit) /* read only */                        \
+        )
+
+#define ASM_CLEAR_BIT_DEC_WAS_SET(testByte, testBit, count) \
+    __asm volatile(                                         \
+        "btr %2, %0\n"                                      \
+        "sbb $0, %1\n"                                      \
+        : "+r"(testByte), /* read/write */                  \
+          "+r"(count)                                       \
+        :            /* read/write */                       \
+        "r"(testBit) /* read only */                        \
+        )
+
+#define ASM_BT64(testByte, testBit, count) \
+    __asm volatile(                        \
+        "bt %2,%1\n"                       \
+        "sbb %0,%0" /*could use setb */    \
+        : "=r"(count)                      \
+        :              /* write */         \
+        "r"(testByte), /* read only */     \
+        "r"(testBit)   /* read only */     \
+        )
+
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring {
+#endif
+
+#endif  /* INCLUDE_UTILASM_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/utilasm.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/bitset_util.h */
+#ifndef BITSET_UTIL_H
+#define BITSET_UTIL_H
+
+#include <stdint.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * Set all bits in indexes [begin,end) to true.
+ */
+static inline void bitset_set_range(uint64_t *words, uint32_t start,
+                                    uint32_t end) {
+    if (start == end) return;
+    uint32_t firstword = start / 64;
+    uint32_t endword = (end - 1) / 64;
+    if (firstword == endword) {
+        words[firstword] |= ((~UINT64_C(0)) << (start % 64)) &
+                             ((~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((~end + 1) % 64));
+        return;
+    }
+    words[firstword] |= (~UINT64_C(0)) << (start % 64);
+    for (uint32_t i = firstword + 1; i < endword; i++) {
+        words[i] = ~UINT64_C(0);
+    }
+    words[endword] |= (~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((~end + 1) % 64);
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Find the cardinality of the bitset in [begin,begin+lenminusone]
+ */
+static inline int bitset_lenrange_cardinality(const uint64_t *words,
+                                              uint32_t start,
+                                              uint32_t lenminusone) {
+    uint32_t firstword = start / 64;
+    uint32_t endword = (start + lenminusone) / 64;
+    if (firstword == endword) {
+        return hamming(words[firstword] &
+                       ((~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((63 - lenminusone) % 64))
+                           << (start % 64));
+    }
+    int answer = hamming(words[firstword] & ((~UINT64_C(0)) << (start % 64)));
+    for (uint32_t i = firstword + 1; i < endword; i++) {
+        answer += hamming(words[i]);
+    }
+    answer +=
+        hamming(words[endword] &
+                (~UINT64_C(0)) >> (((~start + 1) - lenminusone - 1) % 64));
+    return answer;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Check whether the cardinality of the bitset in [begin,begin+lenminusone] is 0
+ */
+static inline bool bitset_lenrange_empty(const uint64_t *words, uint32_t start,
+                                         uint32_t lenminusone) {
+    uint32_t firstword = start / 64;
+    uint32_t endword = (start + lenminusone) / 64;
+    if (firstword == endword) {
+        return (words[firstword] & ((~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((63 - lenminusone) % 64))
+              << (start % 64)) == 0;
+    }
+    if (((words[firstword] & ((~UINT64_C(0)) << (start%64)))) != 0) {
+        return false;
+    }
+    for (uint32_t i = firstword + 1; i < endword; i++) {
+        if (words[i] != 0) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    if ((words[endword] & (~UINT64_C(0)) >> (((~start + 1) - lenminusone - 1) % 64)) != 0) {
+        return false;
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Set all bits in indexes [begin,begin+lenminusone] to true.
+ */
+static inline void bitset_set_lenrange(uint64_t *words, uint32_t start,
+                                       uint32_t lenminusone) {
+    uint32_t firstword = start / 64;
+    uint32_t endword = (start + lenminusone) / 64;
+    if (firstword == endword) {
+        words[firstword] |= ((~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((63 - lenminusone) % 64))
+                             << (start % 64);
+        return;
+    }
+    uint64_t temp = words[endword];
+    words[firstword] |= (~UINT64_C(0)) << (start % 64);
+    for (uint32_t i = firstword + 1; i < endword; i += 2)
+        words[i] = words[i + 1] = ~UINT64_C(0);
+    words[endword] =
+        temp | (~UINT64_C(0)) >> (((~start + 1) - lenminusone - 1) % 64);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Flip all the bits in indexes [begin,end).
+ */
+static inline void bitset_flip_range(uint64_t *words, uint32_t start,
+                                     uint32_t end) {
+    if (start == end) return;
+    uint32_t firstword = start / 64;
+    uint32_t endword = (end - 1) / 64;
+    words[firstword] ^= ~((~UINT64_C(0)) << (start % 64));
+    for (uint32_t i = firstword; i < endword; i++) {
+        words[i] = ~words[i];
+    }
+    words[endword] ^= ((~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((~end + 1) % 64));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Set all bits in indexes [begin,end) to false.
+ */
+static inline void bitset_reset_range(uint64_t *words, uint32_t start,
+                                      uint32_t end) {
+    if (start == end) return;
+    uint32_t firstword = start / 64;
+    uint32_t endword = (end - 1) / 64;
+    if (firstword == endword) {
+        words[firstword] &= ~(((~UINT64_C(0)) << (start % 64)) &
+                               ((~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((~end + 1) % 64)));
+        return;
+    }
+    words[firstword] &= ~((~UINT64_C(0)) << (start % 64));
+    for (uint32_t i = firstword + 1; i < endword; i++) {
+        words[i] = UINT64_C(0);
+    }
+    words[endword] &= ~((~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((~end + 1) % 64));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Given a bitset containing "length" 64-bit words, write out the position
+ * of all the set bits to "out", values start at "base".
+ *
+ * The "out" pointer should be sufficient to store the actual number of bits
+ * set.
+ *
+ * Returns how many values were actually decoded.
+ *
+ * This function should only be expected to be faster than
+ * bitset_extract_setbits
+ * when the density of the bitset is high.
+ *
+ * This function uses AVX2 decoding.
+ */
+size_t bitset_extract_setbits_avx2(const uint64_t *words, size_t length,
+                                   uint32_t *out, size_t outcapacity,
+                                   uint32_t base);
+
+/*
+ * Given a bitset containing "length" 64-bit words, write out the position
+ * of all the set bits to "out", values start at "base".
+ *
+ * The "out" pointer should be sufficient to store the actual number of bits
+ *set.
+ *
+ * Returns how many values were actually decoded.
+ */
+size_t bitset_extract_setbits(const uint64_t *words, size_t length,
+                              uint32_t *out, uint32_t base);
+
+/*
+ * Given a bitset containing "length" 64-bit words, write out the position
+ * of all the set bits to "out" as 16-bit integers, values start at "base" (can
+ *be set to zero)
+ *
+ * The "out" pointer should be sufficient to store the actual number of bits
+ *set.
+ *
+ * Returns how many values were actually decoded.
+ *
+ * This function should only be expected to be faster than
+ *bitset_extract_setbits_uint16
+ * when the density of the bitset is high.
+ *
+ * This function uses SSE decoding.
+ */
+size_t bitset_extract_setbits_sse_uint16(const uint64_t *words, size_t length,
+                                         uint16_t *out, size_t outcapacity,
+                                         uint16_t base);
+
+/*
+ * Given a bitset containing "length" 64-bit words, write out the position
+ * of all the set bits to "out",  values start at "base"
+ * (can be set to zero)
+ *
+ * The "out" pointer should be sufficient to store the actual number of bits
+ *set.
+ *
+ * Returns how many values were actually decoded.
+ */
+size_t bitset_extract_setbits_uint16(const uint64_t *words, size_t length,
+                                     uint16_t *out, uint16_t base);
+
+/*
+ * Given two bitsets containing "length" 64-bit words, write out the position
+ * of all the common set bits to "out", values start at "base"
+ * (can be set to zero)
+ *
+ * The "out" pointer should be sufficient to store the actual number of bits
+ * set.
+ *
+ * Returns how many values were actually decoded.
+ */
+size_t bitset_extract_intersection_setbits_uint16(const uint64_t * __restrict__ words1,
+                                                  const uint64_t * __restrict__ words2,
+                                                  size_t length, uint16_t *out,
+                                                  uint16_t base);
+
+/*
+ * Given a bitset having cardinality card, set all bit values in the list (there
+ * are length of them)
+ * and return the updated cardinality. This evidently assumes that the bitset
+ * already contained data.
+ */
+uint64_t bitset_set_list_withcard(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card,
+                                  const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length);
+/*
+ * Given a bitset, set all bit values in the list (there
+ * are length of them).
+ */
+void bitset_set_list(uint64_t *words, const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length);
+
+/*
+ * Given a bitset having cardinality card, unset all bit values in the list
+ * (there are length of them)
+ * and return the updated cardinality. This evidently assumes that the bitset
+ * already contained data.
+ */
+uint64_t bitset_clear_list(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card, const uint16_t *list,
+                           uint64_t length);
+
+/*
+ * Given a bitset having cardinality card, toggle all bit values in the list
+ * (there are length of them)
+ * and return the updated cardinality. This evidently assumes that the bitset
+ * already contained data.
+ */
+
+uint64_t bitset_flip_list_withcard(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card,
+                                   const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length);
+
+void bitset_flip_list(uint64_t *words, const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length);
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+/***
+ * BEGIN Harley-Seal popcount functions.
+ */
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+/**
+ * Compute the population count of a 256-bit word
+ * This is not especially fast, but it is convenient as part of other functions.
+ */
+static inline __m256i popcount256(__m256i v) {
+    const __m256i lookuppos = _mm256_setr_epi8(
+        /* 0 */ 4 + 0, /* 1 */ 4 + 1, /* 2 */ 4 + 1, /* 3 */ 4 + 2,
+        /* 4 */ 4 + 1, /* 5 */ 4 + 2, /* 6 */ 4 + 2, /* 7 */ 4 + 3,
+        /* 8 */ 4 + 1, /* 9 */ 4 + 2, /* a */ 4 + 2, /* b */ 4 + 3,
+        /* c */ 4 + 2, /* d */ 4 + 3, /* e */ 4 + 3, /* f */ 4 + 4,
+
+        /* 0 */ 4 + 0, /* 1 */ 4 + 1, /* 2 */ 4 + 1, /* 3 */ 4 + 2,
+        /* 4 */ 4 + 1, /* 5 */ 4 + 2, /* 6 */ 4 + 2, /* 7 */ 4 + 3,
+        /* 8 */ 4 + 1, /* 9 */ 4 + 2, /* a */ 4 + 2, /* b */ 4 + 3,
+        /* c */ 4 + 2, /* d */ 4 + 3, /* e */ 4 + 3, /* f */ 4 + 4);
+    const __m256i lookupneg = _mm256_setr_epi8(
+        /* 0 */ 4 - 0, /* 1 */ 4 - 1, /* 2 */ 4 - 1, /* 3 */ 4 - 2,
+        /* 4 */ 4 - 1, /* 5 */ 4 - 2, /* 6 */ 4 - 2, /* 7 */ 4 - 3,
+        /* 8 */ 4 - 1, /* 9 */ 4 - 2, /* a */ 4 - 2, /* b */ 4 - 3,
+        /* c */ 4 - 2, /* d */ 4 - 3, /* e */ 4 - 3, /* f */ 4 - 4,
+
+        /* 0 */ 4 - 0, /* 1 */ 4 - 1, /* 2 */ 4 - 1, /* 3 */ 4 - 2,
+        /* 4 */ 4 - 1, /* 5 */ 4 - 2, /* 6 */ 4 - 2, /* 7 */ 4 - 3,
+        /* 8 */ 4 - 1, /* 9 */ 4 - 2, /* a */ 4 - 2, /* b */ 4 - 3,
+        /* c */ 4 - 2, /* d */ 4 - 3, /* e */ 4 - 3, /* f */ 4 - 4);
+    const __m256i low_mask = _mm256_set1_epi8(0x0f);
+
+    const __m256i lo = _mm256_and_si256(v, low_mask);
+    const __m256i hi = _mm256_and_si256(_mm256_srli_epi16(v, 4), low_mask);
+    const __m256i popcnt1 = _mm256_shuffle_epi8(lookuppos, lo);
+    const __m256i popcnt2 = _mm256_shuffle_epi8(lookupneg, hi);
+    return _mm256_sad_epu8(popcnt1, popcnt2);
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+/**
+ * Simple CSA over 256 bits
+ */
+static inline void CSA(__m256i *h, __m256i *l, __m256i a, __m256i b,
+                       __m256i c) {
+    const __m256i u = _mm256_xor_si256(a, b);
+    *h = _mm256_or_si256(_mm256_and_si256(a, b), _mm256_and_si256(u, c));
+    *l = _mm256_xor_si256(u, c);
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+/**
+ * Fast Harley-Seal AVX population count function
+ */
+inline static uint64_t avx2_harley_seal_popcount256(const __m256i *data,
+                                                    const uint64_t size) {
+    __m256i total = _mm256_setzero_si256();
+    __m256i ones = _mm256_setzero_si256();
+    __m256i twos = _mm256_setzero_si256();
+    __m256i fours = _mm256_setzero_si256();
+    __m256i eights = _mm256_setzero_si256();
+    __m256i sixteens = _mm256_setzero_si256();
+    __m256i twosA, twosB, foursA, foursB, eightsA, eightsB;
+
+    const uint64_t limit = size - size % 16;
+    uint64_t i = 0;
+
+    for (; i < limit; i += 16) {
+        CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i),
+            _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 1));
+        CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 2),
+            _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 3));
+        CSA(&foursA, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);
+        CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 4),
+            _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 5));
+        CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 6),
+            _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 7));
+        CSA(&foursB, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);
+        CSA(&eightsA, &fours, fours, foursA, foursB);
+        CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 8),
+            _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 9));
+        CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 10),
+            _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 11));
+        CSA(&foursA, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);
+        CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 12),
+            _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 13));
+        CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 14),
+            _mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i + 15));
+        CSA(&foursB, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);
+        CSA(&eightsB, &fours, fours, foursA, foursB);
+        CSA(&sixteens, &eights, eights, eightsA, eightsB);
+
+        total = _mm256_add_epi64(total, popcount256(sixteens));
+    }
+
+    total = _mm256_slli_epi64(total, 4);  // * 16
+    total = _mm256_add_epi64(
+        total, _mm256_slli_epi64(popcount256(eights), 3));  // += 8 * ...
+    total = _mm256_add_epi64(
+        total, _mm256_slli_epi64(popcount256(fours), 2));  // += 4 * ...
+    total = _mm256_add_epi64(
+        total, _mm256_slli_epi64(popcount256(twos), 1));  // += 2 * ...
+    total = _mm256_add_epi64(total, popcount256(ones));
+    for (; i < size; i++)
+        total =
+            _mm256_add_epi64(total, popcount256(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data + i)));
+
+    return (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 0)) +
+           (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 1)) +
+           (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 2)) +
+           (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 3));
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+#define AVXPOPCNTFNC(opname, avx_intrinsic)                                    \
+    static inline uint64_t avx2_harley_seal_popcount256_##opname(              \
+        const __m256i *data1, const __m256i *data2, const uint64_t size) {     \
+        __m256i total = _mm256_setzero_si256();                                \
+        __m256i ones = _mm256_setzero_si256();                                 \
+        __m256i twos = _mm256_setzero_si256();                                 \
+        __m256i fours = _mm256_setzero_si256();                                \
+        __m256i eights = _mm256_setzero_si256();                               \
+        __m256i sixteens = _mm256_setzero_si256();                             \
+        __m256i twosA, twosB, foursA, foursB, eightsA, eightsB;                \
+        __m256i A1, A2;                                                        \
+        const uint64_t limit = size - size % 16;                               \
+        uint64_t i = 0;                                                        \
+        for (; i < limit; i += 16) {                                           \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i),                  \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i));                 \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 1),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 1));             \
+            CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 2),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 2));             \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 3),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 3));             \
+            CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            CSA(&foursA, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);                           \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 4),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 4));             \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 5),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 5));             \
+            CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 6),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 6));             \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 7),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 7));             \
+            CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            CSA(&foursB, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);                           \
+            CSA(&eightsA, &fours, fours, foursA, foursB);                      \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 8),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 8));             \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 9),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 9));             \
+            CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 10),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 10));            \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 11),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 11));            \
+            CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            CSA(&foursA, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);                           \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 12),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 12));            \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 13),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 13));            \
+            CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 14),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 14));            \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 15),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 15));            \
+            CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            CSA(&foursB, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);                           \
+            CSA(&eightsB, &fours, fours, foursA, foursB);                      \
+            CSA(&sixteens, &eights, eights, eightsA, eightsB);                 \
+            total = _mm256_add_epi64(total, popcount256(sixteens));            \
+        }                                                                      \
+        total = _mm256_slli_epi64(total, 4);                                   \
+        total = _mm256_add_epi64(total,                                        \
+                                 _mm256_slli_epi64(popcount256(eights), 3));   \
+        total =                                                                \
+            _mm256_add_epi64(total, _mm256_slli_epi64(popcount256(fours), 2)); \
+        total =                                                                \
+            _mm256_add_epi64(total, _mm256_slli_epi64(popcount256(twos), 1));  \
+        total = _mm256_add_epi64(total, popcount256(ones));                    \
+        for (; i < size; i++) {                                                \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i),                  \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i));                 \
+            total = _mm256_add_epi64(total, popcount256(A1));                  \
+        }                                                                      \
+        return (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 0)) +                    \
+               (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 1)) +                    \
+               (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 2)) +                    \
+               (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 3));                     \
+    }                                                                          \
+    static inline uint64_t avx2_harley_seal_popcount256andstore_##opname(      \
+        const __m256i *__restrict__ data1, const __m256i *__restrict__ data2,  \
+        __m256i *__restrict__ out, const uint64_t size) {                      \
+        __m256i total = _mm256_setzero_si256();                                \
+        __m256i ones = _mm256_setzero_si256();                                 \
+        __m256i twos = _mm256_setzero_si256();                                 \
+        __m256i fours = _mm256_setzero_si256();                                \
+        __m256i eights = _mm256_setzero_si256();                               \
+        __m256i sixteens = _mm256_setzero_si256();                             \
+        __m256i twosA, twosB, foursA, foursB, eightsA, eightsB;                \
+        __m256i A1, A2;                                                        \
+        const uint64_t limit = size - size % 16;                               \
+        uint64_t i = 0;                                                        \
+        for (; i < limit; i += 16) {                                           \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i),                  \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i));                 \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i, A1);                                  \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 1),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 1));             \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 1, A2);                              \
+            CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 2),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 2));             \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 2, A1);                              \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 3),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 3));             \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 3, A2);                              \
+            CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            CSA(&foursA, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);                           \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 4),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 4));             \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 4, A1);                              \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 5),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 5));             \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 5, A2);                              \
+            CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 6),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 6));             \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 6, A1);                              \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 7),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 7));             \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 7, A2);                              \
+            CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            CSA(&foursB, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);                           \
+            CSA(&eightsA, &fours, fours, foursA, foursB);                      \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 8),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 8));             \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 8, A1);                              \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 9),              \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 9));             \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 9, A2);                              \
+            CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 10),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 10));            \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 10, A1);                             \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 11),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 11));            \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 11, A2);                             \
+            CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            CSA(&foursA, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);                           \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 12),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 12));            \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 12, A1);                             \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 13),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 13));            \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 13, A2);                             \
+            CSA(&twosA, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 14),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 14));            \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 14, A1);                             \
+            A2 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i + 15),             \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i + 15));            \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i + 15, A2);                             \
+            CSA(&twosB, &ones, ones, A1, A2);                                  \
+            CSA(&foursB, &twos, twos, twosA, twosB);                           \
+            CSA(&eightsB, &fours, fours, foursA, foursB);                      \
+            CSA(&sixteens, &eights, eights, eightsA, eightsB);                 \
+            total = _mm256_add_epi64(total, popcount256(sixteens));            \
+        }                                                                      \
+        total = _mm256_slli_epi64(total, 4);                                   \
+        total = _mm256_add_epi64(total,                                        \
+                                 _mm256_slli_epi64(popcount256(eights), 3));   \
+        total =                                                                \
+            _mm256_add_epi64(total, _mm256_slli_epi64(popcount256(fours), 2)); \
+        total =                                                                \
+            _mm256_add_epi64(total, _mm256_slli_epi64(popcount256(twos), 1));  \
+        total = _mm256_add_epi64(total, popcount256(ones));                    \
+        for (; i < size; i++) {                                                \
+            A1 = avx_intrinsic(_mm256_lddqu_si256(data1 + i),                  \
+                               _mm256_lddqu_si256(data2 + i));                 \
+            _mm256_storeu_si256(out + i, A1);                                  \
+            total = _mm256_add_epi64(total, popcount256(A1));                  \
+        }                                                                      \
+        return (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 0)) +                    \
+               (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 1)) +                    \
+               (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 2)) +                    \
+               (uint64_t)(_mm256_extract_epi64(total, 3));                     \
+    }
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVXPOPCNTFNC(or, _mm256_or_si256)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVXPOPCNTFNC(union, _mm256_or_si256)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVXPOPCNTFNC(and, _mm256_and_si256)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVXPOPCNTFNC(intersection, _mm256_and_si256)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVXPOPCNTFNC (xor, _mm256_xor_si256)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVXPOPCNTFNC(andnot, _mm256_andnot_si256)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+/***
+ * END Harley-Seal popcount functions.
+ */
+
+#endif  // CROARING_IS_X64
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal
+#endif
+
+#endif
+/* end file include/roaring/bitset_util.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/array.h */
+/*
+ * array.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_ARRAY_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_ARRAY_H_
+
+#include <string.h>
+
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring {
+
+// Note: in pure C++ code, you should avoid putting `using` in header files
+using api::roaring_iterator;
+using api::roaring_iterator64;
+
+namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Containers with DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE or less integers should be arrays */
+enum { DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE = 4096 };
+
+/* struct array_container - sparse representation of a bitmap
+ *
+ * @cardinality: number of indices in `array` (and the bitmap)
+ * @capacity:    allocated size of `array`
+ * @array:       sorted list of integers
+ */
+STRUCT_CONTAINER(array_container_s) {
+    int32_t cardinality;
+    int32_t capacity;
+    uint16_t *array;
+};
+
+typedef struct array_container_s array_container_t;
+
+#define CAST_array(c)         CAST(array_container_t *, c)  // safer downcast
+#define const_CAST_array(c)   CAST(const array_container_t *, c)
+#define movable_CAST_array(c) movable_CAST(array_container_t **, c)
+
+/* Create a new array with default. Return NULL in case of failure. See also
+ * array_container_create_given_capacity. */
+array_container_t *array_container_create(void);
+
+/* Create a new array with a specified capacity size. Return NULL in case of
+ * failure. */
+array_container_t *array_container_create_given_capacity(int32_t size);
+
+/* Create a new array containing all values in [min,max). */
+array_container_t * array_container_create_range(uint32_t min, uint32_t max);
+
+/*
+ * Shrink the capacity to the actual size, return the number of bytes saved.
+ */
+int array_container_shrink_to_fit(array_container_t *src);
+
+/* Free memory owned by `array'. */
+void array_container_free(array_container_t *array);
+
+/* Duplicate container */
+array_container_t *array_container_clone(const array_container_t *src);
+
+/* Get the cardinality of `array'. */
+static inline int array_container_cardinality(const array_container_t *array) {
+    return array->cardinality;
+}
+
+static inline bool array_container_nonzero_cardinality(
+    const array_container_t *array) {
+    return array->cardinality > 0;
+}
+
+/* Copy one container into another. We assume that they are distinct. */
+void array_container_copy(const array_container_t *src, array_container_t *dst);
+
+/*  Add all the values in [min,max) (included) at a distance k*step from min.
+    The container must have a size less or equal to DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE after this
+   addition. */
+void array_container_add_from_range(array_container_t *arr, uint32_t min,
+                                    uint32_t max, uint16_t step);
+
+/* Set the cardinality to zero (does not release memory). */
+static inline void array_container_clear(array_container_t *array) {
+    array->cardinality = 0;
+}
+
+static inline bool array_container_empty(const array_container_t *array) {
+    return array->cardinality == 0;
+}
+
+/* check whether the cardinality is equal to the capacity (this does not mean
+* that it contains 1<<16 elements) */
+static inline bool array_container_full(const array_container_t *array) {
+    return array->cardinality == array->capacity;
+}
+
+
+/* Compute the union of `src_1' and `src_2' and write the result to `dst'
+ * It is assumed that `dst' is distinct from both `src_1' and `src_2'. */
+void array_container_union(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                           const array_container_t *src_2,
+                           array_container_t *dst);
+
+/* symmetric difference, see array_container_union */
+void array_container_xor(const array_container_t *array_1,
+                         const array_container_t *array_2,
+                         array_container_t *out);
+
+/* Computes the intersection of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is assumed that dst is distinct from both src_1 and src_2. */
+void array_container_intersection(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const array_container_t *src_2,
+                                  array_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Check whether src_1 and src_2 intersect. */
+bool array_container_intersect(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const array_container_t *src_2);
+
+
+/* computers the size of the intersection between two arrays.
+ */
+int array_container_intersection_cardinality(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                             const array_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* computes the intersection of array1 and array2 and write the result to
+ * array1.
+ * */
+void array_container_intersection_inplace(array_container_t *src_1,
+                                          const array_container_t *src_2);
+
+/*
+ * Write out the 16-bit integers contained in this container as a list of 32-bit
+ * integers using base
+ * as the starting value (it might be expected that base has zeros in its 16
+ * least significant bits).
+ * The function returns the number of values written.
+ * The caller is responsible for allocating enough memory in out.
+ */
+int array_container_to_uint32_array(void *vout, const array_container_t *cont,
+                                    uint32_t base);
+
+/* Compute the number of runs */
+int32_t array_container_number_of_runs(const array_container_t *ac);
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf (useful for debugging).
+ */
+void array_container_printf(const array_container_t *v);
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf as a comma-separated list of 32-bit
+ * integers starting at base.
+ */
+void array_container_printf_as_uint32_array(const array_container_t *v,
+                                            uint32_t base);
+
+/**
+ * Return the serialized size in bytes of a container having cardinality "card".
+ */
+static inline int32_t array_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(int32_t card) {
+    return card * 2 + 2;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Increase capacity to at least min.
+ * Whether the existing data needs to be copied over depends on the "preserve"
+ * parameter. If preserve is false, then the new content will be uninitialized,
+ * otherwise the old content is copied.
+ */
+void array_container_grow(array_container_t *container, int32_t min,
+                          bool preserve);
+
+bool array_container_iterate(const array_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                             roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr);
+bool array_container_iterate64(const array_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                               roaring_iterator64 iterator, uint64_t high_bits,
+                               void *ptr);
+
+/**
+ * Writes the underlying array to buf, outputs how many bytes were written.
+ * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
+ * Roaring.
+ * The number of bytes written should be
+ * array_container_size_in_bytes(container).
+ *
+ */
+int32_t array_container_write(const array_container_t *container, char *buf);
+/**
+ * Reads the instance from buf, outputs how many bytes were read.
+ * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
+ * Roaring.
+ * The number of bytes read should be array_container_size_in_bytes(container).
+ * You need to provide the (known) cardinality.
+ */
+int32_t array_container_read(int32_t cardinality, array_container_t *container,
+                             const char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Return the serialized size in bytes of a container (see
+ * bitset_container_write)
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions of Roaring and
+ * assumes
+ * that the cardinality of the container is already known.
+ *
+ */
+static inline int32_t array_container_size_in_bytes(
+    const array_container_t *container) {
+    return container->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Return true if the two arrays have the same content.
+ */
+static inline bool array_container_equals(
+    const array_container_t *container1,
+    const array_container_t *container2) {
+
+    if (container1->cardinality != container2->cardinality) {
+        return false;
+    }
+    return memequals(container1->array, container2->array, container1->cardinality*2);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Return true if container1 is a subset of container2.
+ */
+bool array_container_is_subset(const array_container_t *container1,
+                               const array_container_t *container2);
+
+/**
+ * If the element of given rank is in this container, supposing that the first
+ * element has rank start_rank, then the function returns true and sets element
+ * accordingly.
+ * Otherwise, it returns false and update start_rank.
+ */
+static inline bool array_container_select(const array_container_t *container,
+                                          uint32_t *start_rank, uint32_t rank,
+                                          uint32_t *element) {
+    int card = array_container_cardinality(container);
+    if (*start_rank + card <= rank) {
+        *start_rank += card;
+        return false;
+    } else {
+        *element = container->array[rank - *start_rank];
+        return true;
+    }
+}
+
+/* Computes the  difference of array1 and array2 and write the result
+ * to array out.
+ * Array out does not need to be distinct from array_1
+ */
+void array_container_andnot(const array_container_t *array_1,
+                            const array_container_t *array_2,
+                            array_container_t *out);
+
+/* Append x to the set. Assumes that the value is larger than any preceding
+ * values.  */
+static inline void array_container_append(array_container_t *arr,
+                                          uint16_t pos) {
+    const int32_t capacity = arr->capacity;
+
+    if (array_container_full(arr)) {
+        array_container_grow(arr, capacity + 1, true);
+    }
+
+    arr->array[arr->cardinality++] = pos;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Add value to the set if final cardinality doesn't exceed max_cardinality.
+ * Return code:
+ * 1  -- value was added
+ * 0  -- value was already present
+ * -1 -- value was not added because cardinality would exceed max_cardinality
+ */
+static inline int array_container_try_add(array_container_t *arr, uint16_t value,
+                                          int32_t max_cardinality) {
+    const int32_t cardinality = arr->cardinality;
+
+    // best case, we can append.
+    if ((array_container_empty(arr) || arr->array[cardinality - 1] < value) &&
+        cardinality < max_cardinality) {
+        array_container_append(arr, value);
+        return 1;
+    }
+
+    const int32_t loc = binarySearch(arr->array, cardinality, value);
+
+    if (loc >= 0) {
+        return 0;
+    } else if (cardinality < max_cardinality) {
+        if (array_container_full(arr)) {
+            array_container_grow(arr, arr->capacity + 1, true);
+        }
+        const int32_t insert_idx = -loc - 1;
+        memmove(arr->array + insert_idx + 1, arr->array + insert_idx,
+                (cardinality - insert_idx) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        arr->array[insert_idx] = value;
+        arr->cardinality++;
+        return 1;
+    } else {
+        return -1;
+    }
+}
+
+/* Add value to the set. Returns true if x was not already present.  */
+static inline bool array_container_add(array_container_t *arr, uint16_t value) {
+    return array_container_try_add(arr, value, INT32_MAX) == 1;
+}
+
+/* Remove x from the set. Returns true if x was present.  */
+static inline bool array_container_remove(array_container_t *arr,
+                                          uint16_t pos) {
+    const int32_t idx = binarySearch(arr->array, arr->cardinality, pos);
+    const bool is_present = idx >= 0;
+    if (is_present) {
+        memmove(arr->array + idx, arr->array + idx + 1,
+                (arr->cardinality - idx - 1) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        arr->cardinality--;
+    }
+
+    return is_present;
+}
+
+/* Check whether x is present.  */
+inline bool array_container_contains(const array_container_t *arr,
+                                     uint16_t pos) {
+    //    return binarySearch(arr->array, arr->cardinality, pos) >= 0;
+    // binary search with fallback to linear search for short ranges
+    int32_t low = 0;
+    const uint16_t * carr = (const uint16_t *) arr->array;
+    int32_t high = arr->cardinality - 1;
+    //    while (high - low >= 0) {
+    while(high >= low + 16) {
+        int32_t middleIndex = (low + high)>>1;
+        uint16_t middleValue = carr[middleIndex];
+        if (middleValue < pos) {
+            low = middleIndex + 1;
+        } else if (middleValue > pos) {
+            high = middleIndex - 1;
+        } else {
+            return true;
+        }
+    }
+
+    for (int i=low; i <= high; i++) {
+        uint16_t v = carr[i];
+        if (v == pos) {
+            return true;
+        }
+        if ( v > pos ) return false;
+    }
+    return false;
+
+}
+
+void array_container_offset(const array_container_t *c,
+                            container_t **loc, container_t **hic,
+                            uint16_t offset);
+
+//* Check whether a range of values from range_start (included) to range_end (excluded) is present. */
+static inline bool array_container_contains_range(const array_container_t *arr,
+                                                    uint32_t range_start, uint32_t range_end) {
+
+    const uint16_t rs_included = range_start;
+    const uint16_t re_included = range_end - 1;
+
+    const uint16_t *carr = (const uint16_t *) arr->array;
+
+    const int32_t start = advanceUntil(carr, -1, arr->cardinality, rs_included);
+    const int32_t end = advanceUntil(carr, start - 1, arr->cardinality, re_included);
+
+    return (start < arr->cardinality) && (end < arr->cardinality)
+            && (((uint16_t)(end - start)) == re_included - rs_included)
+            && (carr[start] == rs_included) && (carr[end] == re_included);
+}
+
+/* Returns the smallest value (assumes not empty) */
+inline uint16_t array_container_minimum(const array_container_t *arr) {
+    if (arr->cardinality == 0) return 0;
+    return arr->array[0];
+}
+
+/* Returns the largest value (assumes not empty) */
+inline uint16_t array_container_maximum(const array_container_t *arr) {
+    if (arr->cardinality == 0) return 0;
+    return arr->array[arr->cardinality - 1];
+}
+
+/* Returns the number of values equal or smaller than x */
+inline int array_container_rank(const array_container_t *arr, uint16_t x) {
+    const int32_t idx = binarySearch(arr->array, arr->cardinality, x);
+    const bool is_present = idx >= 0;
+    if (is_present) {
+        return idx + 1;
+    } else {
+        return -idx - 1;
+    }
+}
+
+/* Returns the index of the first value equal or smaller than x, or -1 */
+inline int array_container_index_equalorlarger(const array_container_t *arr, uint16_t x) {
+    const int32_t idx = binarySearch(arr->array, arr->cardinality, x);
+    const bool is_present = idx >= 0;
+    if (is_present) {
+        return idx;
+    } else {
+        int32_t candidate = - idx - 1;
+        if(candidate < arr->cardinality) return candidate;
+        return -1;
+    }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Adds all values in range [min,max] using hint:
+ *   nvals_less is the number of array values less than $min
+ *   nvals_greater is the number of array values greater than $max
+ */
+static inline void array_container_add_range_nvals(array_container_t *array,
+                                                   uint32_t min, uint32_t max,
+                                                   int32_t nvals_less,
+                                                   int32_t nvals_greater) {
+    int32_t union_cardinality = nvals_less + (max - min + 1) + nvals_greater;
+    if (union_cardinality > array->capacity) {
+        array_container_grow(array, union_cardinality, true);
+    }
+    memmove(&(array->array[union_cardinality - nvals_greater]),
+            &(array->array[array->cardinality - nvals_greater]),
+            nvals_greater * sizeof(uint16_t));
+    for (uint32_t i = 0; i <= max - min; i++) {
+        array->array[nvals_less + i] = min + i;
+    }
+    array->cardinality = union_cardinality;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Adds all values in range [min,max].
+ */
+static inline void array_container_add_range(array_container_t *array,
+                                             uint32_t min, uint32_t max) {
+    int32_t nvals_greater = count_greater(array->array, array->cardinality, max);
+    int32_t nvals_less = count_less(array->array, array->cardinality - nvals_greater, min);
+    array_container_add_range_nvals(array, min, max, nvals_less, nvals_greater);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Removes all elements array[pos] .. array[pos+count-1]
+ */
+static inline void array_container_remove_range(array_container_t *array,
+                                                uint32_t pos, uint32_t count) {
+  if (count != 0) {
+      memmove(&(array->array[pos]), &(array->array[pos+count]),
+              (array->cardinality - pos - count) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+      array->cardinality -= count;
+  }
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } } // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_ARRAY_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/array.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/bitset.h */
+/*
+ * bitset.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_BITSET_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_BITSET_H_
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring {
+
+// Note: in pure C++ code, you should avoid putting `using` in header files
+using api::roaring_iterator;
+using api::roaring_iterator64;
+
+namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+
+
+enum {
+    BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS = (1 << 16) / 64,
+    BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY = -1
+};
+
+STRUCT_CONTAINER(bitset_container_s) {
+    int32_t cardinality;
+    uint64_t *words;
+};
+
+typedef struct bitset_container_s bitset_container_t;
+
+#define CAST_bitset(c)         CAST(bitset_container_t *, c)  // safer downcast
+#define const_CAST_bitset(c)   CAST(const bitset_container_t *, c)
+#define movable_CAST_bitset(c) movable_CAST(bitset_container_t **, c)
+
+/* Create a new bitset. Return NULL in case of failure. */
+bitset_container_t *bitset_container_create(void);
+
+/* Free memory. */
+void bitset_container_free(bitset_container_t *bitset);
+
+/* Clear bitset (sets bits to 0). */
+void bitset_container_clear(bitset_container_t *bitset);
+
+/* Set all bits to 1. */
+void bitset_container_set_all(bitset_container_t *bitset);
+
+/* Duplicate bitset */
+bitset_container_t *bitset_container_clone(const bitset_container_t *src);
+
+/* Set the bit in [begin,end). WARNING: as of April 2016, this method is slow
+ * and
+ * should not be used in performance-sensitive code. Ever.  */
+void bitset_container_set_range(bitset_container_t *bitset, uint32_t begin,
+                                uint32_t end);
+
+#if defined(CROARING_ASMBITMANIPOPTIMIZATION) && defined(__AVX2__)
+/* Set the ith bit.  */
+static inline void bitset_container_set(bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                        uint16_t pos) {
+    uint64_t shift = 6;
+    uint64_t offset;
+    uint64_t p = pos;
+    ASM_SHIFT_RIGHT(p, shift, offset);
+    uint64_t load = bitset->words[offset];
+    ASM_SET_BIT_INC_WAS_CLEAR(load, p, bitset->cardinality);
+    bitset->words[offset] = load;
+}
+
+/* Unset the ith bit.  */
+static inline void bitset_container_unset(bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                          uint16_t pos) {
+    uint64_t shift = 6;
+    uint64_t offset;
+    uint64_t p = pos;
+    ASM_SHIFT_RIGHT(p, shift, offset);
+    uint64_t load = bitset->words[offset];
+    ASM_CLEAR_BIT_DEC_WAS_SET(load, p, bitset->cardinality);
+    bitset->words[offset] = load;
+}
+
+/* Add `pos' to `bitset'. Returns true if `pos' was not present. Might be slower
+ * than bitset_container_set.  */
+static inline bool bitset_container_add(bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                        uint16_t pos) {
+    uint64_t shift = 6;
+    uint64_t offset;
+    uint64_t p = pos;
+    ASM_SHIFT_RIGHT(p, shift, offset);
+    uint64_t load = bitset->words[offset];
+    // could be possibly slightly further optimized
+    const int32_t oldcard = bitset->cardinality;
+    ASM_SET_BIT_INC_WAS_CLEAR(load, p, bitset->cardinality);
+    bitset->words[offset] = load;
+    return bitset->cardinality - oldcard;
+}
+
+/* Remove `pos' from `bitset'. Returns true if `pos' was present.  Might be
+ * slower than bitset_container_unset.  */
+static inline bool bitset_container_remove(bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                           uint16_t pos) {
+    uint64_t shift = 6;
+    uint64_t offset;
+    uint64_t p = pos;
+    ASM_SHIFT_RIGHT(p, shift, offset);
+    uint64_t load = bitset->words[offset];
+    // could be possibly slightly further optimized
+    const int32_t oldcard = bitset->cardinality;
+    ASM_CLEAR_BIT_DEC_WAS_SET(load, p, bitset->cardinality);
+    bitset->words[offset] = load;
+    return oldcard - bitset->cardinality;
+}
+
+/* Get the value of the ith bit.  */
+inline bool bitset_container_get(const bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                 uint16_t pos) {
+    uint64_t word = bitset->words[pos >> 6];
+    const uint64_t p = pos;
+    ASM_INPLACESHIFT_RIGHT(word, p);
+    return word & 1;
+}
+
+#else
+
+/* Set the ith bit.  */
+static inline void bitset_container_set(bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                        uint16_t pos) {
+    const uint64_t old_word = bitset->words[pos >> 6];
+    const int index = pos & 63;
+    const uint64_t new_word = old_word | (UINT64_C(1) << index);
+    bitset->cardinality += (uint32_t)((old_word ^ new_word) >> index);
+    bitset->words[pos >> 6] = new_word;
+}
+
+/* Unset the ith bit.  */
+static inline void bitset_container_unset(bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                          uint16_t pos) {
+    const uint64_t old_word = bitset->words[pos >> 6];
+    const int index = pos & 63;
+    const uint64_t new_word = old_word & (~(UINT64_C(1) << index));
+    bitset->cardinality -= (uint32_t)((old_word ^ new_word) >> index);
+    bitset->words[pos >> 6] = new_word;
+}
+
+/* Add `pos' to `bitset'. Returns true if `pos' was not present. Might be slower
+ * than bitset_container_set.  */
+static inline bool bitset_container_add(bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                        uint16_t pos) {
+    const uint64_t old_word = bitset->words[pos >> 6];
+    const int index = pos & 63;
+    const uint64_t new_word = old_word | (UINT64_C(1) << index);
+    const uint64_t increment = (old_word ^ new_word) >> index;
+    bitset->cardinality += (uint32_t)increment;
+    bitset->words[pos >> 6] = new_word;
+    return increment > 0;
+}
+
+/* Remove `pos' from `bitset'. Returns true if `pos' was present.  Might be
+ * slower than bitset_container_unset.  */
+static inline bool bitset_container_remove(bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                           uint16_t pos) {
+    const uint64_t old_word = bitset->words[pos >> 6];
+    const int index = pos & 63;
+    const uint64_t new_word = old_word & (~(UINT64_C(1) << index));
+    const uint64_t increment = (old_word ^ new_word) >> index;
+    bitset->cardinality -= (uint32_t)increment;
+    bitset->words[pos >> 6] = new_word;
+    return increment > 0;
+}
+
+/* Get the value of the ith bit.  */
+inline bool bitset_container_get(const bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                 uint16_t pos) {
+    const uint64_t word = bitset->words[pos >> 6];
+    return (word >> (pos & 63)) & 1;
+}
+
+#endif
+
+/*
+* Check if all bits are set in a range of positions from pos_start (included) to
+* pos_end (excluded).
+*/
+static inline bool bitset_container_get_range(const bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                                uint32_t pos_start, uint32_t pos_end) {
+
+    const uint32_t start = pos_start >> 6;
+    const uint32_t end = pos_end >> 6;
+
+    const uint64_t first = ~((1ULL << (pos_start & 0x3F)) - 1);
+    const uint64_t last = (1ULL << (pos_end & 0x3F)) - 1;
+
+    if (start == end) return ((bitset->words[end] & first & last) == (first & last));
+    if ((bitset->words[start] & first) != first) return false;
+
+    if ((end < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS) && ((bitset->words[end] & last) != last)){
+
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    for (uint16_t i = start + 1; (i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS) && (i < end); ++i){
+
+        if (bitset->words[i] != UINT64_C(0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)) return false;
+    }
+
+    return true;
+}
+
+/* Check whether `bitset' is present in `array'.  Calls bitset_container_get. */
+inline bool bitset_container_contains(const bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                      uint16_t pos) {
+    return bitset_container_get(bitset, pos);
+}
+
+/*
+* Check whether a range of bits from position `pos_start' (included) to `pos_end' (excluded)
+* is present in `bitset'.  Calls bitset_container_get_all.
+*/
+static inline bool bitset_container_contains_range(const bitset_container_t *bitset,
+          uint32_t pos_start, uint32_t pos_end) {
+    return bitset_container_get_range(bitset, pos_start, pos_end);
+}
+
+/* Get the number of bits set */
+static inline int bitset_container_cardinality(
+    const bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+    return bitset->cardinality;
+}
+
+
+
+
+/* Copy one container into another. We assume that they are distinct. */
+void bitset_container_copy(const bitset_container_t *source,
+                           bitset_container_t *dest);
+
+/*  Add all the values [min,max) at a distance k*step from min: min,
+ * min+step,.... */
+void bitset_container_add_from_range(bitset_container_t *bitset, uint32_t min,
+                                     uint32_t max, uint16_t step);
+
+/* Get the number of bits set (force computation). This does not modify bitset.
+ * To update the cardinality, you should do
+ * bitset->cardinality =  bitset_container_compute_cardinality(bitset).*/
+int bitset_container_compute_cardinality(const bitset_container_t *bitset);
+
+/* Get whether there is at least one bit set  (see bitset_container_empty for the reverse),
+   when the cardinality is unknown, it is computed and stored in the struct */
+static inline bool bitset_container_nonzero_cardinality(
+    bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+    // account for laziness
+    if (bitset->cardinality == BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) {
+        // could bail early instead with a nonzero result
+        bitset->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(bitset);
+    }
+    return bitset->cardinality > 0;
+}
+
+/* Check whether this bitset is empty (see bitset_container_nonzero_cardinality for the reverse),
+ *  it never modifies the bitset struct. */
+static inline bool bitset_container_empty(
+    const bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+  if (bitset->cardinality == BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) {
+      for (int i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i ++) {
+          if((bitset->words[i]) != 0) return false;
+      }
+      return true;
+  }
+  return bitset->cardinality == 0;
+}
+
+
+/* Get whether there is at least one bit set  (see bitset_container_empty for the reverse),
+   the bitset is never modified */
+static inline bool bitset_container_const_nonzero_cardinality(
+    const bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+    return !bitset_container_empty(bitset);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Check whether the two bitsets intersect
+ */
+bool bitset_container_intersect(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Computes the union of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst'  and return the
+ * cardinality. */
+int bitset_container_or(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                        const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                        bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Computes the union of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' and return the cardinality.
+ */
+int bitset_container_or_justcard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                 const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Computes the union of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst' and return the
+ * cardinality. Same as bitset_container_or. */
+int bitset_container_union(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                           const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                           bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Computes the union of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2'  and return the
+ * cardinality. Same as bitset_container_or_justcard. */
+int bitset_container_union_justcard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                    const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Computes the union of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst', but does not
+ * update the cardinality. Provided to optimize chained operations. */
+int bitset_container_or_nocard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                               const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                               bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Computes the intersection of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst' and
+ * return the cardinality. */
+int bitset_container_and(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                         const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                         bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Computes the intersection of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2'  and return the
+ * cardinality. */
+int bitset_container_and_justcard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Computes the intersection of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst' and
+ * return the cardinality. Same as bitset_container_and. */
+int bitset_container_intersection(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                  bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Computes the intersection of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' and return the
+ * cardinality. Same as bitset_container_and_justcard. */
+int bitset_container_intersection_justcard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                           const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Computes the intersection of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst', but does
+ * not update the cardinality. Provided to optimize chained operations. */
+int bitset_container_and_nocard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Computes the exclusive or of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst' and
+ * return the cardinality. */
+int bitset_container_xor(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                         const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                         bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Computes the exclusive or of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' and return the
+ * cardinality. */
+int bitset_container_xor_justcard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Computes the exclusive or of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst', but does
+ * not update the cardinality. Provided to optimize chained operations. */
+int bitset_container_xor_nocard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Computes the and not of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst' and return the
+ * cardinality. */
+int bitset_container_andnot(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                            const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                            bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Computes the and not of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2'  and return the
+ * cardinality. */
+int bitset_container_andnot_justcard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                     const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Computes the and not or of bitsets `src_1' and `src_2' into `dst', but does
+ * not update the cardinality. Provided to optimize chained operations. */
+int bitset_container_andnot_nocard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                   const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                   bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+void bitset_container_offset(const bitset_container_t *c,
+                             container_t **loc, container_t **hic,
+                             uint16_t offset);
+/*
+ * Write out the 16-bit integers contained in this container as a list of 32-bit
+ * integers using base
+ * as the starting value (it might be expected that base has zeros in its 16
+ * least significant bits).
+ * The function returns the number of values written.
+ * The caller is responsible for allocating enough memory in out.
+ * The out pointer should point to enough memory (the cardinality times 32
+ * bits).
+ */
+int bitset_container_to_uint32_array(uint32_t *out,
+                                     const bitset_container_t *bc,
+                                     uint32_t base);
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf (useful for debugging).
+ */
+void bitset_container_printf(const bitset_container_t *v);
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf as a comma-separated list of 32-bit
+ * integers starting at base.
+ */
+void bitset_container_printf_as_uint32_array(const bitset_container_t *v,
+                                             uint32_t base);
+
+/**
+ * Return the serialized size in bytes of a container.
+ */
+static inline int32_t bitset_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(void) {
+    return BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * 8;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Return the the number of runs.
+ */
+int bitset_container_number_of_runs(bitset_container_t *bc);
+
+bool bitset_container_iterate(const bitset_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                              roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr);
+bool bitset_container_iterate64(const bitset_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                                roaring_iterator64 iterator, uint64_t high_bits,
+                                void *ptr);
+
+/**
+ * Writes the underlying array to buf, outputs how many bytes were written.
+ * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
+ * Roaring.
+ * The number of bytes written should be
+ * bitset_container_size_in_bytes(container).
+ */
+int32_t bitset_container_write(const bitset_container_t *container, char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Reads the instance from buf, outputs how many bytes were read.
+ * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
+ * Roaring.
+ * The number of bytes read should be bitset_container_size_in_bytes(container).
+ * You need to provide the (known) cardinality.
+ */
+int32_t bitset_container_read(int32_t cardinality,
+                              bitset_container_t *container, const char *buf);
+/**
+ * Return the serialized size in bytes of a container (see
+ * bitset_container_write).
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions of Roaring and
+ * assumes
+ * that the cardinality of the container is already known or can be computed.
+ */
+static inline int32_t bitset_container_size_in_bytes(
+    const bitset_container_t *container) {
+    (void)container;
+    return BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Return true if the two containers have the same content.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_equals(const bitset_container_t *container1,
+                             const bitset_container_t *container2);
+
+/**
+* Return true if container1 is a subset of container2.
+*/
+bool bitset_container_is_subset(const bitset_container_t *container1,
+                                const bitset_container_t *container2);
+
+/**
+ * If the element of given rank is in this container, supposing that the first
+ * element has rank start_rank, then the function returns true and sets element
+ * accordingly.
+ * Otherwise, it returns false and update start_rank.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_select(const bitset_container_t *container,
+                             uint32_t *start_rank, uint32_t rank,
+                             uint32_t *element);
+
+/* Returns the smallest value (assumes not empty) */
+uint16_t bitset_container_minimum(const bitset_container_t *container);
+
+/* Returns the largest value (assumes not empty) */
+uint16_t bitset_container_maximum(const bitset_container_t *container);
+
+/* Returns the number of values equal or smaller than x */
+int bitset_container_rank(const bitset_container_t *container, uint16_t x);
+
+/* Returns the index of the first value equal or larger than x, or -1 */
+int bitset_container_index_equalorlarger(const bitset_container_t *container, uint16_t x);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_BITSET_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/bitset.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/run.h */
+/*
+ * run.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_RUN_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_RUN_H_
+
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring {
+
+// Note: in pure C++ code, you should avoid putting `using` in header files
+using api::roaring_iterator;
+using api::roaring_iterator64;
+
+namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* struct rle16_s - run length pair
+ *
+ * @value:  start position of the run
+ * @length: length of the run is `length + 1`
+ *
+ * An RLE pair {v, l} would represent the integers between the interval
+ * [v, v+l+1], e.g. {3, 2} = [3, 4, 5].
+ */
+struct rle16_s {
+    uint16_t value;
+    uint16_t length;
+};
+
+typedef struct rle16_s rle16_t;
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+    #define MAKE_RLE16(val,len) \
+        {(uint16_t)(val), (uint16_t)(len)}  // no tagged structs until c++20
+#else
+    #define MAKE_RLE16(val,len) \
+        (rle16_t){.value = (uint16_t)(val), .length = (uint16_t)(len)}
+#endif
+
+/* struct run_container_s - run container bitmap
+ *
+ * @n_runs:   number of rle_t pairs in `runs`.
+ * @capacity: capacity in rle_t pairs `runs` can hold.
+ * @runs:     pairs of rle_t.
+ */
+STRUCT_CONTAINER(run_container_s) {
+    int32_t n_runs;
+    int32_t capacity;
+    rle16_t *runs;
+};
+
+typedef struct run_container_s run_container_t;
+
+#define CAST_run(c)         CAST(run_container_t *, c)  // safer downcast
+#define const_CAST_run(c)   CAST(const run_container_t *, c)
+#define movable_CAST_run(c) movable_CAST(run_container_t **, c)
+
+/* Create a new run container. Return NULL in case of failure. */
+run_container_t *run_container_create(void);
+
+/* Create a new run container with given capacity. Return NULL in case of
+ * failure. */
+run_container_t *run_container_create_given_capacity(int32_t size);
+
+/*
+ * Shrink the capacity to the actual size, return the number of bytes saved.
+ */
+int run_container_shrink_to_fit(run_container_t *src);
+
+/* Free memory owned by `run'. */
+void run_container_free(run_container_t *run);
+
+/* Duplicate container */
+run_container_t *run_container_clone(const run_container_t *src);
+
+/*
+ * Effectively deletes the value at index index, repacking data.
+ */
+static inline void recoverRoomAtIndex(run_container_t *run, uint16_t index) {
+    memmove(run->runs + index, run->runs + (1 + index),
+            (run->n_runs - index - 1) * sizeof(rle16_t));
+    run->n_runs--;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Good old binary search through rle data
+ */
+inline int32_t interleavedBinarySearch(const rle16_t *array, int32_t lenarray,
+                                       uint16_t ikey) {
+    int32_t low = 0;
+    int32_t high = lenarray - 1;
+    while (low <= high) {
+        int32_t middleIndex = (low + high) >> 1;
+        uint16_t middleValue = array[middleIndex].value;
+        if (middleValue < ikey) {
+            low = middleIndex + 1;
+        } else if (middleValue > ikey) {
+            high = middleIndex - 1;
+        } else {
+            return middleIndex;
+        }
+    }
+    return -(low + 1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Returns index of the run which contains $ikey
+ */
+static inline int32_t rle16_find_run(const rle16_t *array, int32_t lenarray,
+                                     uint16_t ikey) {
+    int32_t low = 0;
+    int32_t high = lenarray - 1;
+    while (low <= high) {
+        int32_t middleIndex = (low + high) >> 1;
+        uint16_t min = array[middleIndex].value;
+        uint16_t max = array[middleIndex].value + array[middleIndex].length;
+        if (ikey > max) {
+            low = middleIndex + 1;
+        } else if (ikey < min) {
+            high = middleIndex - 1;
+        } else {
+            return middleIndex;
+        }
+    }
+    return -(low + 1);
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * Returns number of runs which can'be be merged with the key because they
+ * are less than the key.
+ * Note that [5,6,7,8] can be merged with the key 9 and won't be counted.
+ */
+static inline int32_t rle16_count_less(const rle16_t* array, int32_t lenarray,
+                                       uint16_t key) {
+    if (lenarray == 0) return 0;
+    int32_t low = 0;
+    int32_t high = lenarray - 1;
+    while (low <= high) {
+        int32_t middleIndex = (low + high) >> 1;
+        uint16_t min_value = array[middleIndex].value;
+        uint16_t max_value = array[middleIndex].value + array[middleIndex].length;
+        if (max_value + UINT32_C(1) < key) { // uint32 arithmetic
+            low = middleIndex + 1;
+        } else if (key < min_value) {
+            high = middleIndex - 1;
+        } else {
+            return middleIndex;
+        }
+    }
+    return low;
+}
+
+static inline int32_t rle16_count_greater(const rle16_t* array, int32_t lenarray,
+                                          uint16_t key) {
+    if (lenarray == 0) return 0;
+    int32_t low = 0;
+    int32_t high = lenarray - 1;
+    while (low <= high) {
+        int32_t middleIndex = (low + high) >> 1;
+        uint16_t min_value = array[middleIndex].value;
+        uint16_t max_value = array[middleIndex].value + array[middleIndex].length;
+        if (max_value < key) {
+            low = middleIndex + 1;
+        } else if (key + UINT32_C(1) < min_value) { // uint32 arithmetic
+            high = middleIndex - 1;
+        } else {
+            return lenarray - (middleIndex + 1);
+        }
+    }
+    return lenarray - low;
+}
+
+/**
+ * increase capacity to at least min. Whether the
+ * existing data needs to be copied over depends on copy. If "copy" is false,
+ * then the new content will be uninitialized, otherwise a copy is made.
+ */
+void run_container_grow(run_container_t *run, int32_t min, bool copy);
+
+/**
+ * Moves the data so that we can write data at index
+ */
+static inline void makeRoomAtIndex(run_container_t *run, uint16_t index) {
+    /* This function calls realloc + memmove sequentially to move by one index.
+     * Potentially copying twice the array.
+     */
+    if (run->n_runs + 1 > run->capacity)
+        run_container_grow(run, run->n_runs + 1, true);
+    memmove(run->runs + 1 + index, run->runs + index,
+            (run->n_runs - index) * sizeof(rle16_t));
+    run->n_runs++;
+}
+
+/* Add `pos' to `run'. Returns true if `pos' was not present. */
+bool run_container_add(run_container_t *run, uint16_t pos);
+
+/* Remove `pos' from `run'. Returns true if `pos' was present. */
+static inline bool run_container_remove(run_container_t *run, uint16_t pos) {
+    int32_t index = interleavedBinarySearch(run->runs, run->n_runs, pos);
+    if (index >= 0) {
+        int32_t le = run->runs[index].length;
+        if (le == 0) {
+            recoverRoomAtIndex(run, (uint16_t)index);
+        } else {
+            run->runs[index].value++;
+            run->runs[index].length--;
+        }
+        return true;
+    }
+    index = -index - 2;  // points to preceding value, possibly -1
+    if (index >= 0) {    // possible match
+        int32_t offset = pos - run->runs[index].value;
+        int32_t le = run->runs[index].length;
+        if (offset < le) {
+            // need to break in two
+            run->runs[index].length = (uint16_t)(offset - 1);
+            // need to insert
+            uint16_t newvalue = pos + 1;
+            int32_t newlength = le - offset - 1;
+            makeRoomAtIndex(run, (uint16_t)(index + 1));
+            run->runs[index + 1].value = newvalue;
+            run->runs[index + 1].length = (uint16_t)newlength;
+            return true;
+
+        } else if (offset == le) {
+            run->runs[index].length--;
+            return true;
+        }
+    }
+    // no match
+    return false;
+}
+
+/* Check whether `pos' is present in `run'.  */
+inline bool run_container_contains(const run_container_t *run, uint16_t pos) {
+    int32_t index = interleavedBinarySearch(run->runs, run->n_runs, pos);
+    if (index >= 0) return true;
+    index = -index - 2;  // points to preceding value, possibly -1
+    if (index != -1) {   // possible match
+        int32_t offset = pos - run->runs[index].value;
+        int32_t le = run->runs[index].length;
+        if (offset <= le) return true;
+    }
+    return false;
+}
+
+/*
+* Check whether all positions in a range of positions from pos_start (included)
+* to pos_end (excluded) is present in `run'.
+*/
+static inline bool run_container_contains_range(const run_container_t *run,
+                                                uint32_t pos_start, uint32_t pos_end) {
+    uint32_t count = 0;
+    int32_t index = interleavedBinarySearch(run->runs, run->n_runs, pos_start);
+    if (index < 0) {
+        index = -index - 2;
+        if ((index == -1) || ((pos_start - run->runs[index].value) > run->runs[index].length)){
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    for (int32_t i = index; i < run->n_runs; ++i) {
+        const uint32_t stop = run->runs[i].value + run->runs[i].length;
+        if (run->runs[i].value >= pos_end) break;
+        if (stop >= pos_end) {
+            count += (((pos_end - run->runs[i].value) > 0) ? (pos_end - run->runs[i].value) : 0);
+            break;
+        }
+        const uint32_t min = (stop - pos_start) > 0 ? (stop - pos_start) : 0;
+        count += (min < run->runs[i].length) ? min : run->runs[i].length;
+    }
+    return count >= (pos_end - pos_start - 1);
+}
+
+/* Get the cardinality of `run'. Requires an actual computation. */
+int run_container_cardinality(const run_container_t *run);
+
+/* Card > 0?, see run_container_empty for the reverse */
+static inline bool run_container_nonzero_cardinality(
+    const run_container_t *run) {
+    return run->n_runs > 0;  // runs never empty
+}
+
+/* Card == 0?, see run_container_nonzero_cardinality for the reverse */
+static inline bool run_container_empty(
+    const run_container_t *run) {
+    return run->n_runs == 0;  // runs never empty
+}
+
+
+
+/* Copy one container into another. We assume that they are distinct. */
+void run_container_copy(const run_container_t *src, run_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Set the cardinality to zero (does not release memory). */
+static inline void run_container_clear(run_container_t *run) {
+    run->n_runs = 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Append run described by vl to the run container, possibly merging.
+ * It is assumed that the run would be inserted at the end of the container, no
+ * check is made.
+ * It is assumed that the run container has the necessary capacity: caller is
+ * responsible for checking memory capacity.
+ *
+ *
+ * This is not a safe function, it is meant for performance: use with care.
+ */
+static inline void run_container_append(run_container_t *run, rle16_t vl,
+                                        rle16_t *previousrl) {
+    const uint32_t previousend = previousrl->value + previousrl->length;
+    if (vl.value > previousend + 1) {  // we add a new one
+        run->runs[run->n_runs] = vl;
+        run->n_runs++;
+        *previousrl = vl;
+    } else {
+        uint32_t newend = vl.value + vl.length + UINT32_C(1);
+        if (newend > previousend) {  // we merge
+            previousrl->length = (uint16_t)(newend - 1 - previousrl->value);
+            run->runs[run->n_runs - 1] = *previousrl;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Like run_container_append but it is assumed that the content of run is empty.
+ */
+static inline rle16_t run_container_append_first(run_container_t *run,
+                                                 rle16_t vl) {
+    run->runs[run->n_runs] = vl;
+    run->n_runs++;
+    return vl;
+}
+
+/**
+ * append a single value  given by val to the run container, possibly merging.
+ * It is assumed that the value would be inserted at the end of the container,
+ * no check is made.
+ * It is assumed that the run container has the necessary capacity: caller is
+ * responsible for checking memory capacity.
+ *
+ * This is not a safe function, it is meant for performance: use with care.
+ */
+static inline void run_container_append_value(run_container_t *run,
+                                              uint16_t val,
+                                              rle16_t *previousrl) {
+    const uint32_t previousend = previousrl->value + previousrl->length;
+    if (val > previousend + 1) {  // we add a new one
+        *previousrl = MAKE_RLE16(val, 0);
+        run->runs[run->n_runs] = *previousrl;
+        run->n_runs++;
+    } else if (val == previousend + 1) {  // we merge
+        previousrl->length++;
+        run->runs[run->n_runs - 1] = *previousrl;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Like run_container_append_value but it is assumed that the content of run is
+ * empty.
+ */
+static inline rle16_t run_container_append_value_first(run_container_t *run,
+                                                       uint16_t val) {
+    rle16_t newrle = MAKE_RLE16(val, 0);
+    run->runs[run->n_runs] = newrle;
+    run->n_runs++;
+    return newrle;
+}
+
+/* Check whether the container spans the whole chunk (cardinality = 1<<16).
+ * This check can be done in constant time (inexpensive). */
+static inline bool run_container_is_full(const run_container_t *run) {
+    rle16_t vl = run->runs[0];
+    return (run->n_runs == 1) && (vl.value == 0) && (vl.length == 0xFFFF);
+}
+
+/* Compute the union of `src_1' and `src_2' and write the result to `dst'
+ * It is assumed that `dst' is distinct from both `src_1' and `src_2'. */
+void run_container_union(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                         const run_container_t *src_2, run_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Compute the union of `src_1' and `src_2' and write the result to `src_1' */
+void run_container_union_inplace(run_container_t *src_1,
+                                 const run_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Compute the intersection of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is assumed that dst is distinct from both src_1 and src_2. */
+void run_container_intersection(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                const run_container_t *src_2,
+                                run_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Compute the size of the intersection of src_1 and src_2 . */
+int run_container_intersection_cardinality(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                           const run_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Check whether src_1 and src_2 intersect. */
+bool run_container_intersect(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                const run_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Compute the symmetric difference of `src_1' and `src_2' and write the result
+ * to `dst'
+ * It is assumed that `dst' is distinct from both `src_1' and `src_2'. */
+void run_container_xor(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                       const run_container_t *src_2, run_container_t *dst);
+
+/*
+ * Write out the 16-bit integers contained in this container as a list of 32-bit
+ * integers using base
+ * as the starting value (it might be expected that base has zeros in its 16
+ * least significant bits).
+ * The function returns the number of values written.
+ * The caller is responsible for allocating enough memory in out.
+ */
+int run_container_to_uint32_array(void *vout, const run_container_t *cont,
+                                  uint32_t base);
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf (useful for debugging).
+ */
+void run_container_printf(const run_container_t *v);
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf as a comma-separated list of 32-bit
+ * integers starting at base.
+ */
+void run_container_printf_as_uint32_array(const run_container_t *v,
+                                          uint32_t base);
+
+/**
+ * Return the serialized size in bytes of a container having "num_runs" runs.
+ */
+static inline int32_t run_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(int32_t num_runs) {
+    return sizeof(uint16_t) +
+           sizeof(rle16_t) * num_runs;  // each run requires 2 2-byte entries.
+}
+
+bool run_container_iterate(const run_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                           roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr);
+bool run_container_iterate64(const run_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                             roaring_iterator64 iterator, uint64_t high_bits,
+                             void *ptr);
+
+/**
+ * Writes the underlying array to buf, outputs how many bytes were written.
+ * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
+ * Roaring.
+ * The number of bytes written should be run_container_size_in_bytes(container).
+ */
+int32_t run_container_write(const run_container_t *container, char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Reads the instance from buf, outputs how many bytes were read.
+ * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
+ * Roaring.
+ * The number of bytes read should be bitset_container_size_in_bytes(container).
+ * The cardinality parameter is provided for consistency with other containers,
+ * but
+ * it might be effectively ignored..
+ */
+int32_t run_container_read(int32_t cardinality, run_container_t *container,
+                           const char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Return the serialized size in bytes of a container (see run_container_write).
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions of Roaring.
+ */
+static inline int32_t run_container_size_in_bytes(
+    const run_container_t *container) {
+    return run_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(container->n_runs);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Return true if the two containers have the same content.
+ */
+static inline bool run_container_equals(const run_container_t *container1,
+                          const run_container_t *container2) {
+    if (container1->n_runs != container2->n_runs) {
+        return false;
+    }
+    return memequals(container1->runs, container2->runs,
+                     container1->n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t));
+}
+
+/**
+* Return true if container1 is a subset of container2.
+*/
+bool run_container_is_subset(const run_container_t *container1,
+                             const run_container_t *container2);
+
+/**
+ * Used in a start-finish scan that appends segments, for XOR and NOT
+ */
+
+void run_container_smart_append_exclusive(run_container_t *src,
+                                          const uint16_t start,
+                                          const uint16_t length);
+
+/**
+* The new container consists of a single run [start,stop).
+* It is required that stop>start, the caller is responsability for this check.
+* It is required that stop <= (1<<16), the caller is responsability for this check.
+* The cardinality of the created container is stop - start.
+* Returns NULL on failure
+*/
+static inline run_container_t *run_container_create_range(uint32_t start,
+                                                          uint32_t stop) {
+    run_container_t *rc = run_container_create_given_capacity(1);
+    if (rc) {
+        rle16_t r;
+        r.value = (uint16_t)start;
+        r.length = (uint16_t)(stop - start - 1);
+        run_container_append_first(rc, r);
+    }
+    return rc;
+}
+
+/**
+ * If the element of given rank is in this container, supposing that the first
+ * element has rank start_rank, then the function returns true and sets element
+ * accordingly.
+ * Otherwise, it returns false and update start_rank.
+ */
+bool run_container_select(const run_container_t *container,
+                          uint32_t *start_rank, uint32_t rank,
+                          uint32_t *element);
+
+/* Compute the difference of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is assumed that dst is distinct from both src_1 and src_2. */
+
+void run_container_andnot(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                          const run_container_t *src_2, run_container_t *dst);
+
+void run_container_offset(const run_container_t *c,
+                         container_t **loc, container_t **hic,
+                         uint16_t offset);
+
+/* Returns the smallest value (assumes not empty) */
+inline uint16_t run_container_minimum(const run_container_t *run) {
+    if (run->n_runs == 0) return 0;
+    return run->runs[0].value;
+}
+
+/* Returns the largest value (assumes not empty) */
+inline uint16_t run_container_maximum(const run_container_t *run) {
+    if (run->n_runs == 0) return 0;
+    return run->runs[run->n_runs - 1].value + run->runs[run->n_runs - 1].length;
+}
+
+/* Returns the number of values equal or smaller than x */
+int run_container_rank(const run_container_t *arr, uint16_t x);
+
+/* Returns the index of the first run containing a value at least as large as x, or -1 */
+inline int run_container_index_equalorlarger(const run_container_t *arr, uint16_t x) {
+    int32_t index = interleavedBinarySearch(arr->runs, arr->n_runs, x);
+    if (index >= 0) return index;
+    index = -index - 2;  // points to preceding run, possibly -1
+    if (index != -1) {   // possible match
+        int32_t offset = x - arr->runs[index].value;
+        int32_t le = arr->runs[index].length;
+        if (offset <= le) return index;
+    }
+    index += 1;
+    if(index  < arr->n_runs) {
+      return index;
+    }
+    return -1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Add all values in range [min, max] using hint.
+ */
+static inline void run_container_add_range_nruns(run_container_t* run,
+                                                 uint32_t min, uint32_t max,
+                                                 int32_t nruns_less,
+                                                 int32_t nruns_greater) {
+    int32_t nruns_common = run->n_runs - nruns_less - nruns_greater;
+    if (nruns_common == 0) {
+        makeRoomAtIndex(run, nruns_less);
+        run->runs[nruns_less].value = min;
+        run->runs[nruns_less].length = max - min;
+    } else {
+        uint32_t common_min = run->runs[nruns_less].value;
+        uint32_t common_max = run->runs[nruns_less + nruns_common - 1].value +
+                              run->runs[nruns_less + nruns_common - 1].length;
+        uint32_t result_min = (common_min < min) ? common_min : min;
+        uint32_t result_max = (common_max > max) ? common_max : max;
+
+        run->runs[nruns_less].value = result_min;
+        run->runs[nruns_less].length = result_max - result_min;
+
+        memmove(&(run->runs[nruns_less + 1]),
+                &(run->runs[run->n_runs - nruns_greater]),
+                nruns_greater*sizeof(rle16_t));
+        run->n_runs = nruns_less + 1 + nruns_greater;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Add all values in range [min, max]
+ */
+static inline void run_container_add_range(run_container_t* run,
+                                           uint32_t min, uint32_t max) {
+    int32_t nruns_greater = rle16_count_greater(run->runs, run->n_runs, max);
+    int32_t nruns_less = rle16_count_less(run->runs, run->n_runs - nruns_greater, min);
+    run_container_add_range_nruns(run, min, max, nruns_less, nruns_greater);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Shifts last $count elements either left (distance < 0) or right (distance > 0)
+ */
+static inline void run_container_shift_tail(run_container_t* run,
+                                            int32_t count, int32_t distance) {
+    if (distance > 0) {
+        if (run->capacity < count+distance) {
+            run_container_grow(run, count+distance, true);
+        }
+    }
+    int32_t srcpos = run->n_runs - count;
+    int32_t dstpos = srcpos + distance;
+    memmove(&(run->runs[dstpos]), &(run->runs[srcpos]), sizeof(rle16_t) * count);
+    run->n_runs += distance;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Remove all elements in range [min, max]
+ */
+static inline void run_container_remove_range(run_container_t *run, uint32_t min, uint32_t max) {
+    int32_t first = rle16_find_run(run->runs, run->n_runs, min);
+    int32_t last = rle16_find_run(run->runs, run->n_runs, max);
+
+    if (first >= 0 && min > run->runs[first].value &&
+        max < ((uint32_t)run->runs[first].value + (uint32_t)run->runs[first].length)) {
+        // split this run into two adjacent runs
+
+        // right subinterval
+        makeRoomAtIndex(run, first+1);
+        run->runs[first+1].value = max + 1;
+        run->runs[first+1].length = (run->runs[first].value + run->runs[first].length) - (max + 1);
+
+        // left subinterval
+        run->runs[first].length = (min - 1) - run->runs[first].value;
+
+        return;
+    }
+
+    // update left-most partial run
+    if (first >= 0) {
+        if (min > run->runs[first].value) {
+            run->runs[first].length = (min - 1) - run->runs[first].value;
+            first++;
+        }
+    } else {
+        first = -first-1;
+    }
+
+    // update right-most run
+    if (last >= 0) {
+        uint16_t run_max = run->runs[last].value + run->runs[last].length;
+        if (run_max > max) {
+            run->runs[last].value = max + 1;
+            run->runs[last].length = run_max - (max + 1);
+            last--;
+        }
+    } else {
+        last = (-last-1) - 1;
+    }
+
+    // remove intermediate runs
+    if (first <= last) {
+        run_container_shift_tail(run, run->n_runs - (last+1), -(last-first+1));
+    }
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_RUN_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/run.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/convert.h */
+/*
+ * convert.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_CONVERT_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_CONVERT_H_
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Convert an array into a bitset. The input container is not freed or modified.
+ */
+bitset_container_t *bitset_container_from_array(const array_container_t *arr);
+
+/* Convert a run into a bitset. The input container is not freed or modified. */
+bitset_container_t *bitset_container_from_run(const run_container_t *arr);
+
+/* Convert a run into an array. The input container is not freed or modified. */
+array_container_t *array_container_from_run(const run_container_t *arr);
+
+/* Convert a bitset into an array. The input container is not freed or modified.
+ */
+array_container_t *array_container_from_bitset(const bitset_container_t *bits);
+
+/* Convert an array into a run. The input container is not freed or modified.
+ */
+run_container_t *run_container_from_array(const array_container_t *c);
+
+/* convert a run into either an array or a bitset
+ * might free the container. This does not free the input run container. */
+container_t *convert_to_bitset_or_array_container(
+        run_container_t *rc, int32_t card,
+        uint8_t *resulttype);
+
+/* convert containers to and from runcontainers, as is most space efficient.
+ * The container might be freed. */
+container_t *convert_run_optimize(
+        container_t *c, uint8_t typecode_original,
+        uint8_t *typecode_after);
+
+/* converts a run container to either an array or a bitset, IF it saves space.
+ */
+/* If a conversion occurs, the caller is responsible to free the original
+ * container and
+ * he becomes reponsible to free the new one. */
+container_t *convert_run_to_efficient_container(
+        run_container_t *c, uint8_t *typecode_after);
+
+// like convert_run_to_efficient_container but frees the old result if needed
+container_t *convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(
+        run_container_t *c, uint8_t *typecode_after);
+
+/**
+ * Create new container which is a union of run container and
+ * range [min, max]. Caller is responsible for freeing run container.
+ */
+container_t *container_from_run_range(
+        const run_container_t *run,
+        uint32_t min, uint32_t max,
+        uint8_t *typecode_after);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_CONVERT_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/convert.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/mixed_equal.h */
+/*
+ * mixed_equal.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef CONTAINERS_MIXED_EQUAL_H_
+#define CONTAINERS_MIXED_EQUAL_H_
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/**
+ * Return true if the two containers have the same content.
+ */
+bool array_container_equal_bitset(const array_container_t* container1,
+                                  const bitset_container_t* container2);
+
+/**
+ * Return true if the two containers have the same content.
+ */
+bool run_container_equals_array(const run_container_t* container1,
+                                const array_container_t* container2);
+/**
+ * Return true if the two containers have the same content.
+ */
+bool run_container_equals_bitset(const run_container_t* container1,
+                                 const bitset_container_t* container2);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* CONTAINERS_MIXED_EQUAL_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/mixed_equal.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/mixed_subset.h */
+/*
+ * mixed_subset.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef CONTAINERS_MIXED_SUBSET_H_
+#define CONTAINERS_MIXED_SUBSET_H_
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/**
+ * Return true if container1 is a subset of container2.
+ */
+bool array_container_is_subset_bitset(const array_container_t* container1,
+                                      const bitset_container_t* container2);
+
+/**
+* Return true if container1 is a subset of container2.
+ */
+bool run_container_is_subset_array(const run_container_t* container1,
+                                   const array_container_t* container2);
+
+/**
+* Return true if container1 is a subset of container2.
+ */
+bool array_container_is_subset_run(const array_container_t* container1,
+                                   const run_container_t* container2);
+
+/**
+* Return true if container1 is a subset of container2.
+ */
+bool run_container_is_subset_bitset(const run_container_t* container1,
+                                    const bitset_container_t* container2);
+
+/**
+* Return true if container1 is a subset of container2.
+*/
+bool bitset_container_is_subset_run(const bitset_container_t* container1,
+                                    const run_container_t* container2);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* CONTAINERS_MIXED_SUBSET_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/mixed_subset.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/mixed_andnot.h */
+/*
+ * mixed_andnot.h
+ */
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_ANDNOT_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_ANDNOT_H_
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst, a valid array container that could be the same as dst.*/
+void array_bitset_container_andnot(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                   const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                   array_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * src_1 */
+
+void array_bitset_container_iandnot(array_container_t *src_1,
+                                    const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst, which does not initially have a valid container.
+ * Return true for a bitset result; false for array
+ */
+
+bool bitset_array_container_andnot(
+        const bitset_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+bool bitset_array_container_iandnot(
+        bitset_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset"). dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool run_bitset_container_andnot(
+        const run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset"). dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool run_bitset_container_iandnot(
+        run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset").  dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool bitset_run_container_andnot(
+        const bitset_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+bool bitset_run_container_iandnot(
+        bitset_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any type of container.
+ */
+
+int run_array_container_andnot(
+        const run_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+int run_array_container_iandnot(
+        run_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* dst must be a valid array container, allowed to be src_1 */
+
+void array_run_container_andnot(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                const run_container_t *src_2,
+                                array_container_t *dst);
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+void array_run_container_iandnot(array_container_t *src_1,
+                                 const run_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+int run_run_container_andnot(
+        const run_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+int run_run_container_iandnot(
+        run_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/*
+ * dst is a valid array container and may be the same as src_1
+ */
+
+void array_array_container_andnot(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const array_container_t *src_2,
+                                  array_container_t *dst);
+
+/* inplace array-array andnot will always be able to reuse the space of
+ * src_1 */
+void array_array_container_iandnot(array_container_t *src_1,
+                                   const array_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially). Return value is
+ * "dst is a bitset"
+ */
+
+bool bitset_bitset_container_andnot(
+        const bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+bool bitset_bitset_container_iandnot(
+        bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/mixed_andnot.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/mixed_intersection.h */
+/*
+ * mixed_intersection.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_INTERSECTION_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_INTERSECTION_H_
+
+/* These functions appear to exclude cases where the
+ * inputs have the same type and the output is guaranteed
+ * to have the same type as the inputs.  Eg, array intersection
+ */
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Compute the intersection of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for dst to be equal to src_1. We assume that dst is a
+ * valid container. */
+void array_bitset_container_intersection(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                         const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                         array_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Compute the size of the intersection of src_1 and src_2. */
+int array_bitset_container_intersection_cardinality(
+    const array_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+
+
+/* Checking whether src_1 and src_2 intersect. */
+bool array_bitset_container_intersect(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                         const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/*
+ * Compute the intersection between src_1 and src_2 and write the result
+ * to *dst. If the return function is true, the result is a bitset_container_t
+ * otherwise is a array_container_t. We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+bool bitset_bitset_container_intersection(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                          const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                          container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the intersection between src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for dst to be equal to src_1. We assume that dst is a
+ * valid container. */
+void array_run_container_intersection(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                      const run_container_t *src_2,
+                                      array_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Compute the intersection between src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * *dst. If the result is true then the result is a bitset_container_t
+ * otherwise is a array_container_t.
+ * If *dst == src_2, then an in-place intersection is attempted
+ **/
+bool run_bitset_container_intersection(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                       const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                       container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the size of the intersection between src_1 and src_2 . */
+int array_run_container_intersection_cardinality(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                                 const run_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Compute the size of the intersection  between src_1 and src_2
+ **/
+int run_bitset_container_intersection_cardinality(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                       const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+
+/* Check that src_1 and src_2 intersect. */
+bool array_run_container_intersect(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                      const run_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Check that src_1 and src_2 intersect.
+ **/
+bool run_bitset_container_intersect(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                       const bitset_container_t *src_2);
+
+/*
+ * Same as bitset_bitset_container_intersection except that if the output is to
+ * be a
+ * bitset_container_t, then src_1 is modified and no allocation is made.
+ * If the output is to be an array_container_t, then caller is responsible
+ * to free the container.
+ * In all cases, the result is in *dst.
+ */
+bool bitset_bitset_container_intersection_inplace(
+    bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_INTERSECTION_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/mixed_intersection.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/mixed_negation.h */
+/*
+ * mixed_negation.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_NEGATION_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_NEGATION_H_
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Negation across the entire range of the container.
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst. The complement of a
+ * sufficiently sparse set will always be dense and a hence a bitmap
+ * We assume that dst is pre-allocated and a valid bitset container
+ * There can be no in-place version.
+ */
+void array_container_negation(const array_container_t *src,
+                              bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Negation across the entire range of the container
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst.  A true return value indicates a bitset result,
+ * otherwise the result is an array container.
+ *  We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_negation(
+        const bitset_container_t *src,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* inplace version */
+/*
+ * Same as bitset_container_negation except that if the output is to
+ * be a
+ * bitset_container_t, then src is modified and no allocation is made.
+ * If the output is to be an array_container_t, then caller is responsible
+ * to free the container.
+ * In all cases, the result is in *dst.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_negation_inplace(
+        bitset_container_t *src,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Negation across the entire range of container
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst.
+ * Return values are the *_TYPECODES as defined * in containers.h
+ *  We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+int run_container_negation(const run_container_t *src, container_t **dst);
+
+/*
+ * Same as run_container_negation except that if the output is to
+ * be a
+ * run_container_t, and has the capacity to hold the result,
+ * then src is modified and no allocation is made.
+ * In all cases, the result is in *dst.
+ */
+int run_container_negation_inplace(run_container_t *src, container_t **dst);
+
+/* Negation across a range of the container.
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst. Returns true if the result is a bitset container
+ * and false for an array container.  *dst is not preallocated.
+ */
+bool array_container_negation_range(
+        const array_container_t *src,
+        const int range_start, const int range_end,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Even when the result would fit, it is unclear how to make an
+ * inplace version without inefficient copying.  Thus this routine
+ * may be a wrapper for the non-in-place version
+ */
+bool array_container_negation_range_inplace(
+        array_container_t *src,
+        const int range_start, const int range_end,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Negation across a range of the container
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst.  A true return value indicates a bitset result,
+ * otherwise the result is an array container.
+ *  We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_negation_range(
+        const bitset_container_t *src,
+        const int range_start, const int range_end,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* inplace version */
+/*
+ * Same as bitset_container_negation except that if the output is to
+ * be a
+ * bitset_container_t, then src is modified and no allocation is made.
+ * If the output is to be an array_container_t, then caller is responsible
+ * to free the container.
+ * In all cases, the result is in *dst.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_negation_range_inplace(
+        bitset_container_t *src,
+        const int range_start, const int range_end,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Negation across a range of container
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst.  Return values are the *_TYPECODES as defined * in containers.h
+ *  We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+int run_container_negation_range(
+        const run_container_t *src,
+        const int range_start, const int range_end,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/*
+ * Same as run_container_negation except that if the output is to
+ * be a
+ * run_container_t, and has the capacity to hold the result,
+ * then src is modified and no allocation is made.
+ * In all cases, the result is in *dst.
+ */
+int run_container_negation_range_inplace(
+        run_container_t *src,
+        const int range_start, const int range_end,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_NEGATION_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/mixed_negation.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/mixed_union.h */
+/*
+ * mixed_intersection.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_UNION_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_UNION_H_
+
+/* These functions appear to exclude cases where the
+ * inputs have the same type and the output is guaranteed
+ * to have the same type as the inputs.  Eg, bitset unions
+ */
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Compute the union of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for src_2 to be dst.   */
+void array_bitset_container_union(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                  bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Compute the union of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for src_2 to be dst.  This version does not
+ * update the cardinality of dst (it is set to BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY). */
+void array_bitset_container_lazy_union(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                       const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                       bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/*
+ * Compute the union between src_1 and src_2 and write the result
+ * to *dst. If the return function is true, the result is a bitset_container_t
+ * otherwise is a array_container_t. We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+bool array_array_container_union(
+        const array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/*
+ * Compute the union between src_1 and src_2 and write the result
+ * to *dst if it cannot be written to src_1. If the return function is true,
+ * the result is a bitset_container_t
+ * otherwise is a array_container_t. When the result is an array_container_t, it
+ * it either written to src_1 (if *dst is null) or to *dst.
+ * If the result is a bitset_container_t and *dst is null, then there was a failure.
+ */
+bool array_array_container_inplace_union(
+        array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/*
+ * Same as array_array_container_union except that it will more eagerly produce
+ * a bitset.
+ */
+bool array_array_container_lazy_union(
+        const array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/*
+ * Same as array_array_container_inplace_union except that it will more eagerly produce
+ * a bitset.
+ */
+bool array_array_container_lazy_inplace_union(
+        array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the union of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. We assume that dst is a
+ * valid container. The result might need to be further converted to array or
+ * bitset container,
+ * the caller is responsible for the eventual conversion. */
+void array_run_container_union(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                               const run_container_t *src_2,
+                               run_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Compute the union of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * src2. The result might need to be further converted to array or
+ * bitset container,
+ * the caller is responsible for the eventual conversion. */
+void array_run_container_inplace_union(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                       run_container_t *src_2);
+
+/* Compute the union of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for dst to be src_2.
+ * If run_container_is_full(src_1) is true, you must not be calling this
+ *function.
+ **/
+void run_bitset_container_union(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* Compute the union of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for dst to be src_2.  This version does not
+ * update the cardinality of dst (it is set to BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY).
+ * If run_container_is_full(src_1) is true, you must not be calling this
+ * function.
+ * */
+void run_bitset_container_lazy_union(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                     const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                     bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_UNION_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/mixed_union.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/mixed_xor.h */
+/*
+ * mixed_xor.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_XOR_H_
+#define INCLUDE_CONTAINERS_MIXED_XOR_H_
+
+/* These functions appear to exclude cases where the
+ * inputs have the same type and the output is guaranteed
+ * to have the same type as the inputs.  Eg, bitset unions
+ */
+
+/*
+ * Java implementation (as of May 2016) for array_run, run_run
+ * and  bitset_run don't do anything different for inplace.
+ * (They are not truly in place.)
+ */
+
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).
+ * Result is true iff dst is a bitset  */
+bool array_bitset_container_xor(
+        const array_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for src_2 to be dst.  This version does not
+ * update the cardinality of dst (it is set to BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY).
+ */
+
+void array_bitset_container_lazy_xor(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                     const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                     bitset_container_t *dst);
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially). Return value is
+ * "dst is a bitset"
+ */
+
+bool bitset_bitset_container_xor(
+        const bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset"). dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool run_bitset_container_xor(
+        const run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* lazy xor.  Dst is initialized and may be equal to src_2.
+ *  Result is left as a bitset container, even if actual
+ *  cardinality would dictate an array container.
+ */
+
+void run_bitset_container_lazy_xor(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                   const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                   bitset_container_t *dst);
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+int array_run_container_xor(
+        const array_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* dst does not initially have a valid container.  Creates either
+ * an array or a bitset container, indicated by return code
+ */
+
+bool array_array_container_xor(
+        const array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* dst does not initially have a valid container.  Creates either
+ * an array or a bitset container, indicated by return code.
+ * A bitset container will not have a valid cardinality and the
+ * container type might not be correct for the actual cardinality
+ */
+
+bool array_array_container_lazy_xor(
+        const array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Dst is a valid run container. (Can it be src_2? Let's say not.)
+ * Leaves result as run container, even if other options are
+ * smaller.
+ */
+
+void array_run_container_lazy_xor(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const run_container_t *src_2,
+                                  run_container_t *dst);
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+int run_run_container_xor(
+        const run_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* INPLACE versions (initial implementation may not exploit all inplace
+ * opportunities (if any...)
+ */
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+bool bitset_array_container_ixor(
+        bitset_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+bool bitset_bitset_container_ixor(
+        bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+bool array_bitset_container_ixor(
+        array_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset"). dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool run_bitset_container_ixor(
+        run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+bool bitset_run_container_ixor(
+        bitset_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+int array_run_container_ixor(
+        array_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+int run_array_container_ixor(
+        run_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+bool array_array_container_ixor(
+        array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+int run_run_container_ixor(
+        run_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+        container_t **dst);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/mixed_xor.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/containers/containers.h */
+#ifndef CONTAINERS_CONTAINERS_H
+#define CONTAINERS_CONTAINERS_H
+
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+// would enum be possible or better?
+
+/**
+ * The switch case statements follow
+ * BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE -- ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE -- RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE
+ * so it makes more sense to number them 1, 2, 3 (in the vague hope that the
+ * compiler might exploit this ordering).
+ */
+
+#define BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE 1
+#define ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE 2
+#define RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE 3
+#define SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE 4
+
+/**
+ * Macros for pairing container type codes, suitable for switch statements.
+ * Use PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES() for the switch, CONTAINER_PAIR() for the cases:
+ *
+ *     switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+ *        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+ *        ...
+ *     }
+ */
+#define PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1,type2) \
+    (4 * (type1) + (type2))
+
+#define CONTAINER_PAIR(name1,name2) \
+    (4 * (name1##_CONTAINER_TYPE) + (name2##_CONTAINER_TYPE))
+
+/**
+ * A shared container is a wrapper around a container
+ * with reference counting.
+ */
+
+STRUCT_CONTAINER(shared_container_s) {
+    container_t *container;
+    uint8_t typecode;
+    uint32_t counter;  // to be managed atomically
+};
+
+typedef struct shared_container_s shared_container_t;
+
+#define CAST_shared(c)         CAST(shared_container_t *, c)  // safer downcast
+#define const_CAST_shared(c)   CAST(const shared_container_t *, c)
+#define movable_CAST_shared(c) movable_CAST(shared_container_t **, c)
+
+/*
+ * With copy_on_write = true
+ *  Create a new shared container if the typecode is not SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE,
+ * otherwise, increase the count
+ * If copy_on_write = false, then clone.
+ * Return NULL in case of failure.
+ **/
+container_t *get_copy_of_container(container_t *container, uint8_t *typecode,
+                                   bool copy_on_write);
+
+/* Frees a shared container (actually decrement its counter and only frees when
+ * the counter falls to zero). */
+void shared_container_free(shared_container_t *container);
+
+/* extract a copy from the shared container, freeing the shared container if
+there is just one instance left,
+clone instances when the counter is higher than one
+*/
+container_t *shared_container_extract_copy(shared_container_t *container,
+                                           uint8_t *typecode);
+
+/* access to container underneath */
+static inline const container_t *container_unwrap_shared(
+    const container_t *candidate_shared_container, uint8_t *type
+){
+    if (*type == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+        *type = const_CAST_shared(candidate_shared_container)->typecode;
+        assert(*type != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+        return const_CAST_shared(candidate_shared_container)->container;
+    } else {
+        return candidate_shared_container;
+    }
+}
+
+
+/* access to container underneath */
+static inline container_t *container_mutable_unwrap_shared(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t *type
+) {
+    if (*type == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {  // the passed in container is shared
+        *type = CAST_shared(c)->typecode;
+        assert(*type != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+        return CAST_shared(c)->container;  // return the enclosed container
+    } else {
+        return c;  // wasn't shared, so return as-is
+    }
+}
+
+/* access to container underneath and queries its type */
+static inline uint8_t get_container_type(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t type
+){
+    if (type == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+        return const_CAST_shared(c)->typecode;
+    } else {
+        return type;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Copies a container, requires a typecode. This allocates new memory, caller
+ * is responsible for deallocation. If the container is not shared, then it is
+ * physically cloned. Sharable containers are not cloneable.
+ */
+container_t *container_clone(const container_t *container, uint8_t typecode);
+
+/* access to container underneath, cloning it if needed */
+static inline container_t *get_writable_copy_if_shared(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t *type
+){
+    if (*type == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {  // shared, return enclosed container
+        return shared_container_extract_copy(CAST_shared(c), type);
+    } else {
+        return c;  // not shared, so return as-is
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * End of shared container code
+ */
+
+static const char *container_names[] = {"bitset", "array", "run", "shared"};
+static const char *shared_container_names[] = {
+    "bitset (shared)", "array (shared)", "run (shared)"};
+
+// no matter what the initial container was, convert it to a bitset
+// if a new container is produced, caller responsible for freeing the previous
+// one
+// container should not be a shared container
+static inline bitset_container_t *container_to_bitset(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t typecode
+){
+    bitset_container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return CAST_bitset(c);  // nothing to do
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            result = bitset_container_from_array(CAST_array(c));
+            return result;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            result = bitset_container_from_run(CAST_run(c));
+            return result;
+        case SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            assert(false);
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return 0;  // unreached
+}
+
+/**
+ * Get the container name from the typecode
+ * (unused at time of writing)
+ */
+static inline const char *get_container_name(uint8_t typecode) {
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return container_names[0];
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return container_names[1];
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return container_names[2];
+        case SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return container_names[3];
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return "unknown";
+    }
+}
+
+static inline const char *get_full_container_name(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode
+){
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return container_names[0];
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return container_names[1];
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return container_names[2];
+        case SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            switch (const_CAST_shared(c)->typecode) {
+                case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                    return shared_container_names[0];
+                case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                    return shared_container_names[1];
+                case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                    return shared_container_names[2];
+                default:
+                    assert(false);
+                    __builtin_unreachable();
+                    return "unknown";
+            }
+            break;
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return "unknown";
+    }
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Get the container cardinality (number of elements), requires a  typecode
+ */
+static inline int container_get_cardinality(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_cardinality(const_CAST_bitset(c));
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_cardinality(const_CAST_array(c));
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_cardinality(const_CAST_run(c));
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return 0;  // unreached
+}
+
+
+
+// returns true if a container is known to be full. Note that a lazy bitset
+// container
+// might be full without us knowing
+static inline bool container_is_full(const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode) {
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_cardinality(
+                       const_CAST_bitset(c)) == (1 << 16);
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_cardinality(
+                       const_CAST_array(c)) == (1 << 16);
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c));
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return 0;  // unreached
+}
+
+static inline int container_shrink_to_fit(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t type
+){
+    c = container_mutable_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return 0;  // no shrinking possible
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_shrink_to_fit(CAST_array(c));
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_shrink_to_fit(CAST_run(c));
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return 0;  // unreached
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * make a container with a run of ones
+ */
+/* initially always use a run container, even if an array might be
+ * marginally
+ * smaller */
+static inline container_t *container_range_of_ones(
+    uint32_t range_start, uint32_t range_end,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    assert(range_end >= range_start);
+    uint64_t cardinality =  range_end - range_start + 1;
+    if(cardinality <= 2) {
+      *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+      return array_container_create_range(range_start, range_end);
+    } else {
+      *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+      return run_container_create_range(range_start, range_end);
+    }
+}
+
+
+/*  Create a container with all the values between in [min,max) at a
+    distance k*step from min. */
+static inline container_t *container_from_range(
+    uint8_t *type, uint32_t min,
+    uint32_t max, uint16_t step
+){
+    if (step == 0) return NULL;  // being paranoid
+    if (step == 1) {
+        return container_range_of_ones(min,max,type);
+        // Note: the result is not always a run (need to check the cardinality)
+        //*type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        //return run_container_create_range(min, max);
+    }
+    int size = (max - min + step - 1) / step;
+    if (size <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {  // array container
+        *type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        array_container_t *array = array_container_create_given_capacity(size);
+        array_container_add_from_range(array, min, max, step);
+        assert(array->cardinality == size);
+        return array;
+    } else {  // bitset container
+        *type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        bitset_container_t *bitset = bitset_container_create();
+        bitset_container_add_from_range(bitset, min, max, step);
+        assert(bitset->cardinality == size);
+        return bitset;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * "repair" the container after lazy operations.
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_repair_after_lazy(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t *type
+){
+    c = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c, type);  // !!! unnecessary cloning
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (*type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            bitset_container_t *bc = CAST_bitset(c);
+            bc->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(bc);
+            if (bc->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+                result = array_container_from_bitset(bc);
+                bitset_container_free(bc);
+                *type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return result;
+            }
+            return c; }
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return c;  // nothing to do
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(
+                            CAST_run(c), type);
+        case SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            assert(false);
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return 0;  // unreached
+}
+
+/**
+ * Writes the underlying array to buf, outputs how many bytes were written.
+ * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
+ * Roaring.
+ * The number of bytes written should be
+ * container_write(container, buf).
+ *
+ */
+static inline int32_t container_write(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode,
+    char *buf
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_write(const_CAST_bitset(c), buf);
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_write(const_CAST_array(c), buf);
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_write(const_CAST_run(c), buf);
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return 0;  // unreached
+}
+
+/**
+ * Get the container size in bytes under portable serialization (see
+ * container_write), requires a
+ * typecode
+ */
+static inline int32_t container_size_in_bytes(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_size_in_bytes(const_CAST_bitset(c));
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_size_in_bytes(const_CAST_array(c));
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_size_in_bytes(const_CAST_run(c));
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return 0;  // unreached
+}
+
+/**
+ * print the container (useful for debugging), requires a  typecode
+ */
+void container_printf(const container_t *container, uint8_t typecode);
+
+/**
+ * print the content of the container as a comma-separated list of 32-bit values
+ * starting at base, requires a  typecode
+ */
+void container_printf_as_uint32_array(const container_t *container,
+                                      uint8_t typecode, uint32_t base);
+
+/**
+ * Checks whether a container is not empty, requires a  typecode
+ */
+static inline bool container_nonzero_cardinality(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_const_nonzero_cardinality(
+                            const_CAST_bitset(c));
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_nonzero_cardinality(const_CAST_array(c));
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_nonzero_cardinality(const_CAST_run(c));
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return 0;  // unreached
+}
+
+/**
+ * Recover memory from a container, requires a  typecode
+ */
+void container_free(container_t *container, uint8_t typecode);
+
+/**
+ * Convert a container to an array of values, requires a  typecode as well as a
+ * "base" (most significant values)
+ * Returns number of ints added.
+ */
+static inline int container_to_uint32_array(
+    uint32_t *output,
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode,
+    uint32_t base
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_to_uint32_array(
+                            output, const_CAST_bitset(c), base);
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_to_uint32_array(
+                            output, const_CAST_array(c), base);
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_to_uint32_array(
+                            output, const_CAST_run(c), base);
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return 0;  // unreached
+}
+
+/**
+ * Add a value to a container, requires a  typecode, fills in new_typecode and
+ * return (possibly different) container.
+ * This function may allocate a new container, and caller is responsible for
+ * memory deallocation
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_add(
+    container_t *c, uint16_t val,
+    uint8_t typecode,  // !!! should be second argument?
+    uint8_t *new_typecode
+){
+    c = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            bitset_container_set(CAST_bitset(c), val);
+            *new_typecode = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c;
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            array_container_t *ac = CAST_array(c);
+            if (array_container_try_add(ac, val, DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) != -1) {
+                *new_typecode = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return ac;
+            } else {
+                bitset_container_t* bitset = bitset_container_from_array(ac);
+                bitset_container_add(bitset, val);
+                *new_typecode = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return bitset;
+            }
+        } break;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            // per Java, no container type adjustments are done (revisit?)
+            run_container_add(CAST_run(c), val);
+            *new_typecode = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c;
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Remove a value from a container, requires a  typecode, fills in new_typecode
+ * and
+ * return (possibly different) container.
+ * This function may allocate a new container, and caller is responsible for
+ * memory deallocation
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_remove(
+    container_t *c, uint16_t val,
+    uint8_t typecode,  // !!! should be second argument?
+    uint8_t *new_typecode
+){
+    c = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            if (bitset_container_remove(CAST_bitset(c), val)) {
+                int card = bitset_container_cardinality(CAST_bitset(c));
+                if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+                    *new_typecode = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                    return array_container_from_bitset(CAST_bitset(c));
+                }
+            }
+            *new_typecode = typecode;
+            return c;
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *new_typecode = typecode;
+            array_container_remove(CAST_array(c), val);
+            return c;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            // per Java, no container type adjustments are done (revisit?)
+            run_container_remove(CAST_run(c), val);
+            *new_typecode = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c;
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Check whether a value is in a container, requires a  typecode
+ */
+static inline bool container_contains(
+    const container_t *c,
+    uint16_t val,
+    uint8_t typecode  // !!! should be second argument?
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_get(const_CAST_bitset(c), val);
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_contains(const_CAST_array(c), val);
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_contains(const_CAST_run(c), val);
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return false;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Check whether a range of values from range_start (included) to range_end (excluded)
+ * is in a container, requires a typecode
+ */
+static inline bool container_contains_range(
+    const container_t *c,
+    uint32_t range_start, uint32_t range_end,
+    uint8_t typecode  // !!! should be second argument?
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_get_range(const_CAST_bitset(c),
+                                                range_start, range_end);
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_contains_range(const_CAST_array(c),
+                                                    range_start, range_end);
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_contains_range(const_CAST_run(c),
+                                                    range_start, range_end);
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return false;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns true if the two containers have the same content. Note that
+ * two containers having different types can be "equal" in this sense.
+ */
+static inline bool container_equals(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            return bitset_container_equals(const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                           const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            return run_container_equals_bitset(const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                               const_CAST_bitset(c1));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            return run_container_equals_bitset(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                               const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            // java would always return false?
+            return array_container_equal_bitset(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                                const_CAST_bitset(c1));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            // java would always return false?
+            return array_container_equal_bitset(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                                const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            return run_container_equals_array(const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                              const_CAST_array(c1));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            return run_container_equals_array(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                              const_CAST_array(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            return array_container_equals(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                          const_CAST_array(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            return run_container_equals(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                        const_CAST_run(c2));
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return false;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns true if the container c1 is a subset of the container c2. Note that
+ * c1 can be a subset of c2 even if they have a different type.
+ */
+static inline bool container_is_subset(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            return bitset_container_is_subset(const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                              const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            return bitset_container_is_subset_run(const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                                  const_CAST_run(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            return run_container_is_subset_bitset(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                                  const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            return false;  // by construction, size(c1) > size(c2)
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            return array_container_is_subset_bitset(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                                    const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            return array_container_is_subset_run(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                                 const_CAST_run(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            return run_container_is_subset_array(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                                 const_CAST_array(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            return array_container_is_subset(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                             const_CAST_array(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            return run_container_is_subset(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                           const_CAST_run(c2));
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return false;
+    }
+}
+
+// macro-izations possibilities for generic non-inplace binary-op dispatch
+
+/**
+ * Compute intersection between two containers, generate a new container (having
+ * type result_type), requires a typecode. This allocates new memory, caller
+ * is responsible for deallocation.
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_and(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            *result_type = bitset_bitset_container_intersection(
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            result = array_container_create();
+            array_container_intersection(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                         const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                         CAST_array(result));
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never bitset
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            run_container_intersection(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                       const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                       CAST_run(result));
+            return convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(
+                        CAST_run(result), result_type);
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            result = array_container_create();
+            array_bitset_container_intersection(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                                const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                                CAST_array(result));
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never bitset
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            result = array_container_create();
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never bitset
+            array_bitset_container_intersection(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                                const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                                CAST_array(result));
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            *result_type = run_bitset_container_intersection(
+                                const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c1), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            *result_type = run_bitset_container_intersection(
+                                const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            result = array_container_create();
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never bitset
+            array_run_container_intersection(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                             const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                             CAST_array(result));
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            result = array_container_create();
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never bitset
+            array_run_container_intersection(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                             const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                             CAST_array(result));
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute the size of the intersection between two containers.
+ */
+static inline int container_and_cardinality(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            return bitset_container_and_justcard(
+                const_CAST_bitset(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            return array_container_intersection_cardinality(
+                const_CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_array(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            return run_container_intersection_cardinality(
+                const_CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_run(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            return array_bitset_container_intersection_cardinality(
+                const_CAST_array(c2), const_CAST_bitset(c1));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            return array_bitset_container_intersection_cardinality(
+                const_CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            return run_bitset_container_intersection_cardinality(
+                const_CAST_run(c2), const_CAST_bitset(c1));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            return run_bitset_container_intersection_cardinality(
+                const_CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            return array_run_container_intersection_cardinality(
+                const_CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_run(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            return array_run_container_intersection_cardinality(
+                const_CAST_array(c2), const_CAST_run(c1));
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return 0;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Check whether two containers intersect.
+ */
+static inline bool container_intersect(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            return bitset_container_intersect(const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                              const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            return array_container_intersect(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                             const_CAST_array(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            return run_container_intersect(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                           const_CAST_run(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            return array_bitset_container_intersect(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                                    const_CAST_bitset(c1));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            return array_bitset_container_intersect(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                                    const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            return run_bitset_container_intersect(const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                                  const_CAST_bitset(c1));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            return run_bitset_container_intersect(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                                  const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            return array_run_container_intersect(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                                 const_CAST_run(c2));
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            return array_run_container_intersect(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                                 const_CAST_run(c1));
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return 0;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute intersection between two containers, with result in the first
+ container if possible. If the returned pointer is identical to c1,
+ then the container has been modified. If the returned pointer is different
+ from c1, then a new container has been created and the caller is responsible
+ for freeing it.
+ The type of the first container may change. Returns the modified
+ (and possibly new) container.
+*/
+static inline container_t *container_iand(
+    container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            *result_type =
+                bitset_bitset_container_intersection_inplace(
+                    CAST_bitset(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                        ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                        : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            array_container_intersection_inplace(CAST_array(c1),
+                                                 const_CAST_array(c2));
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            run_container_intersection(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                       const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                       CAST_run(result));
+            // as of January 2016, Java code used non-in-place intersection for
+            // two runcontainers
+            return convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(
+                            CAST_run(result), result_type);
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            // c1 is a bitmap so no inplace possible
+            result = array_container_create();
+            array_bitset_container_intersection(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                                const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                                CAST_array(result));
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never bitset
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never bitset
+            array_bitset_container_intersection(
+                    const_CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                    CAST_array(c1));  // result is allowed to be same as c1
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            // will attempt in-place computation
+            *result_type = run_bitset_container_intersection(
+                                const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c1), &c1)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            *result_type = run_bitset_container_intersection(
+                                const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            result = array_container_create();
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never bitset
+            array_run_container_intersection(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                             const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                             CAST_array(result));
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            result = array_container_create();
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never bitset
+            array_run_container_intersection(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                             const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                             CAST_array(result));
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute union between two containers, generate a new container (having type
+ * result_type), requires a typecode. This allocates new memory, caller
+ * is responsible for deallocation.
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_or(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            bitset_container_or(const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                CAST_bitset(result));
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = array_array_container_union(
+                                const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            run_container_union(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                CAST_run(result));
+            *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            // todo: could be optimized since will never convert to array
+            result = convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(
+                            CAST_run(result), result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            array_bitset_container_union(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                         const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                         CAST_bitset(result));
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            array_bitset_container_union(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                         const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                         CAST_bitset(result));
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c2))) {
+                result = run_container_create();
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                run_container_copy(const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                   CAST_run(result));
+                return result;
+            }
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            run_bitset_container_union(const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                       const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                       CAST_bitset(result));
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c1))) {
+                result = run_container_create();
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                run_container_copy(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                   CAST_run(result));
+                return result;
+            }
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            run_bitset_container_union(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                       const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                       CAST_bitset(result));
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            array_run_container_union(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                      const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                      CAST_run(result));
+            result = convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(
+                            CAST_run(result), result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            array_run_container_union(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                      const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                      CAST_run(result));
+            result = convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(
+                            CAST_run(result), result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;  // unreached
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute union between two containers, generate a new container (having type
+ * result_type), requires a typecode. This allocates new memory, caller
+ * is responsible for deallocation.
+ *
+ * This lazy version delays some operations such as the maintenance of the
+ * cardinality. It requires repair later on the generated containers.
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_lazy_or(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            bitset_container_or_nocard(
+                    const_CAST_bitset(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                    CAST_bitset(result));  // is lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = array_array_container_lazy_union(
+                                const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            run_container_union(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                CAST_run(result));
+            *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            // we are being lazy
+            result = convert_run_to_efficient_container(
+                CAST_run(result), result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            array_bitset_container_lazy_union(
+                    const_CAST_array(c2), const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                    CAST_bitset(result));  // is lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            array_bitset_container_lazy_union(
+                    const_CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                    CAST_bitset(result));  // is lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c2))) {
+                result = run_container_create();
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                run_container_copy(const_CAST_run(c2), CAST_run(result));
+                return result;
+            }
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            run_bitset_container_lazy_union(
+                const_CAST_run(c2), const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                CAST_bitset(result));  // is lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c1))) {
+                result = run_container_create();
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                run_container_copy(const_CAST_run(c1), CAST_run(result));
+                return result;
+            }
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            run_bitset_container_lazy_union(
+                const_CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                CAST_bitset(result));  // is lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            array_run_container_union(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                      const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                      CAST_run(result));
+            *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            // next line skipped since we are lazy
+            // result = convert_run_to_efficient_container(result, result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            array_run_container_union(
+                const_CAST_array(c2), const_CAST_run(c1),
+                CAST_run(result));  // TODO make lazy
+            *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            // next line skipped since we are lazy
+            // result = convert_run_to_efficient_container(result, result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;  // unreached
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute the union between two containers, with result in the first container.
+ * If the returned pointer is identical to c1, then the container has been
+ * modified.
+ * If the returned pointer is different from c1, then a new container has been
+ * created and the caller is responsible for freeing it.
+ * The type of the first container may change. Returns the modified
+ * (and possibly new) container
+*/
+static inline container_t *container_ior(
+    container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            bitset_container_or(const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                CAST_bitset(c1));
+#ifdef OR_BITSET_CONVERSION_TO_FULL
+            if (CAST_bitset(c1)->cardinality == (1 << 16)) {  // we convert
+                result = run_container_create_range(0, (1 << 16));
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return result;
+            }
+#endif
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = array_array_container_inplace_union(
+                                CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            if((result == NULL)
+               && (*result_type == ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE)) {
+                 return c1; // the computation was done in-place!
+            }
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            run_container_union_inplace(CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_run(c2));
+            return convert_run_to_efficient_container(CAST_run(c1),
+                                                      result_type);
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            array_bitset_container_union(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                         const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                         CAST_bitset(c1));
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never array
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            // c1 is an array, so no in-place possible
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            array_bitset_container_union(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                         const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                         CAST_bitset(result));
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c2))) {
+                result = run_container_create();
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                run_container_copy(const_CAST_run(c2), CAST_run(result));
+                return result;
+            }
+            run_bitset_container_union(const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                       const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                       CAST_bitset(c1));  // allowed
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c1))) {
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return c1;
+            }
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            run_bitset_container_union(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                       const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                       CAST_bitset(result));
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            array_run_container_union(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                      const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                      CAST_run(result));
+            result = convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(
+                            CAST_run(result), result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            array_run_container_inplace_union(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                              CAST_run(c1));
+            c1 = convert_run_to_efficient_container(CAST_run(c1),
+                                                    result_type);
+            return c1;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute the union between two containers, with result in the first container.
+ * If the returned pointer is identical to c1, then the container has been
+ * modified.
+ * If the returned pointer is different from c1, then a new container has been
+ * created and the caller is responsible for freeing it.
+ * The type of the first container may change. Returns the modified
+ * (and possibly new) container
+ *
+ * This lazy version delays some operations such as the maintenance of the
+ * cardinality. It requires repair later on the generated containers.
+*/
+static inline container_t *container_lazy_ior(
+    container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    assert(type1 != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+    // c1 = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c1,&type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+#ifdef LAZY_OR_BITSET_CONVERSION_TO_FULL
+            // if we have two bitsets, we might as well compute the cardinality
+            bitset_container_or(const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                CAST_bitset(c1));
+            // it is possible that two bitsets can lead to a full container
+            if (CAST_bitset(c1)->cardinality == (1 << 16)) {  // we convert
+                result = run_container_create_range(0, (1 << 16));
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return result;
+            }
+#else
+            bitset_container_or_nocard(const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                       const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                       CAST_bitset(c1));
+
+#endif
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = array_array_container_lazy_inplace_union(
+                                CAST_array(c1),
+                                const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            if((result == NULL)
+               && (*result_type == ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE)) {
+                 return c1; // the computation was done in-place!
+            }
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            run_container_union_inplace(CAST_run(c1),
+                                        const_CAST_run(c2));
+            *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return convert_run_to_efficient_container(CAST_run(c1),
+                                                      result_type);
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            array_bitset_container_lazy_union(
+                    const_CAST_array(c2), const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                    CAST_bitset(c1));              // is lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;  // never array
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            // c1 is an array, so no in-place possible
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            array_bitset_container_lazy_union(
+                    const_CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                    CAST_bitset(result));  // is lazy
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c2))) {
+                result = run_container_create();
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                run_container_copy(const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                   CAST_run(result));
+                return result;
+            }
+            run_bitset_container_lazy_union(
+                const_CAST_run(c2), const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                CAST_bitset(c1));  // allowed //  lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c1))) {
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return c1;
+            }
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            run_bitset_container_lazy_union(
+                const_CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                CAST_bitset(result));  //  lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            array_run_container_union(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                      const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                      CAST_run(result));
+            *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            // next line skipped since we are lazy
+            // result = convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(result,
+            // result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            array_run_container_inplace_union(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                              CAST_run(c1));
+            *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            // next line skipped since we are lazy
+            // result = convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(result,
+            // result_type);
+            return c1;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute symmetric difference (xor) between two containers, generate a new
+ * container (having type result_type), requires a typecode. This allocates new
+ * memory, caller is responsible for deallocation.
+ */
+static inline container_t* container_xor(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            *result_type = bitset_bitset_container_xor(
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = array_array_container_xor(
+                                const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            *result_type =
+                run_run_container_xor(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                      const_CAST_run(c2), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = array_bitset_container_xor(
+                                const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c1), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            *result_type = array_bitset_container_xor(
+                                const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            *result_type = run_bitset_container_xor(
+                                const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c1), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            *result_type = run_bitset_container_xor(
+                                const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            *result_type =
+                array_run_container_xor(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                        const_CAST_run(c2), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            *result_type =
+                array_run_container_xor(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                        const_CAST_run(c1), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;  // unreached
+    }
+}
+
+/* Applies an offset to the non-empty container 'c'.
+ * The results are stored in new containers returned via 'lo' and 'hi', for the
+ * low and high halves of the result (where the low half matches the original key
+ * and the high one corresponds to values for the following key).
+ * Either one of 'lo' and 'hi' are allowed to be 'NULL', but not both.
+ * Whenever one of them is not 'NULL', it should point to a 'NULL' container.
+ * Whenever one of them is 'NULL' the shifted elements for that part will not be
+ * computed.
+ * If either of the resulting containers turns out to be empty, the pointed
+ * container will remain 'NULL'.
+ */
+static inline void container_add_offset(const container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+                                        container_t **lo, container_t **hi,
+                                        uint16_t offset) {
+    assert(offset != 0);
+    assert(container_nonzero_cardinality(c, type));
+    assert(lo != NULL || hi != NULL);
+    assert(lo == NULL || *lo == NULL);
+    assert(hi == NULL || *hi == NULL);
+
+    switch (type) {
+    case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+        bitset_container_offset(const_CAST_bitset(c), lo, hi, offset);
+        break;
+    case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+        array_container_offset(const_CAST_array(c), lo, hi, offset);
+        break;
+    case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+        run_container_offset(const_CAST_run(c), lo, hi, offset);
+        break;
+    default:
+        assert(false);
+        __builtin_unreachable();
+        break;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute xor between two containers, generate a new container (having type
+ * result_type), requires a typecode. This allocates new memory, caller
+ * is responsible for deallocation.
+ *
+ * This lazy version delays some operations such as the maintenance of the
+ * cardinality. It requires repair later on the generated containers.
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_lazy_xor(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            bitset_container_xor_nocard(
+                const_CAST_bitset(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                CAST_bitset(result));  // is lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = array_array_container_lazy_xor(
+                                const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            // nothing special done yet.
+            *result_type =
+                run_run_container_xor(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                      const_CAST_run(c2), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            array_bitset_container_lazy_xor(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                            const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                            CAST_bitset(result));
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            array_bitset_container_lazy_xor(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                            const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                            CAST_bitset(result));
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            run_bitset_container_lazy_xor(const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                          const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                          CAST_bitset(result));
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            run_bitset_container_lazy_xor(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                          const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                          CAST_bitset(result));
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            array_run_container_lazy_xor(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                         const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                         CAST_run(result));
+            *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            // next line skipped since we are lazy
+            // result = convert_run_to_efficient_container(result, result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            result = run_container_create();
+            array_run_container_lazy_xor(const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                         const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                         CAST_run(result));
+            *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            // next line skipped since we are lazy
+            // result = convert_run_to_efficient_container(result, result_type);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;  // unreached
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute the xor between two containers, with result in the first container.
+ * If the returned pointer is identical to c1, then the container has been
+ * modified.
+ * If the returned pointer is different from c1, then a new container has been
+ * created and the caller is responsible for freeing it.
+ * The type of the first container may change. Returns the modified
+ * (and possibly new) container
+*/
+static inline container_t *container_ixor(
+    container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            *result_type = bitset_bitset_container_ixor(
+                                CAST_bitset(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = array_array_container_ixor(
+                                CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            *result_type = run_run_container_ixor(
+                CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_run(c2), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = bitset_array_container_ixor(
+                                CAST_bitset(c1), const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            *result_type = array_bitset_container_ixor(
+                                CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            *result_type =
+                bitset_run_container_ixor(
+                    CAST_bitset(c1), const_CAST_run(c2), &result)
+                        ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                        : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            *result_type = run_bitset_container_ixor(
+                                CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            *result_type = array_run_container_ixor(
+                                CAST_array(c1), const_CAST_run(c2), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = run_array_container_ixor(
+                                CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_array(c2), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute the xor between two containers, with result in the first container.
+ * If the returned pointer is identical to c1, then the container has been
+ * modified.
+ * If the returned pointer is different from c1, then a new container has been
+ * created and the caller is responsible for freeing it.
+ * The type of the first container may change. Returns the modified
+ * (and possibly new) container
+ *
+ * This lazy version delays some operations such as the maintenance of the
+ * cardinality. It requires repair later on the generated containers.
+*/
+static inline container_t *container_lazy_ixor(
+    container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    assert(type1 != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+    // c1 = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c1,&type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            bitset_container_xor_nocard(CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                        const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                        CAST_bitset(c1));  // is lazy
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c1;
+
+        // TODO: other cases being lazy, esp. when we know inplace not likely
+        // could see the corresponding code for union
+        default:
+            // we may have a dirty bitset (without a precomputed cardinality)
+            // and calling container_ixor on it might be unsafe.
+            if (type1 == BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+                bitset_container_t *bc = CAST_bitset(c1);
+                if (bc->cardinality == BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) {
+                    bc->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(bc);
+                }
+            }
+            return container_ixor(c1, type1, c2, type2, result_type);
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute difference (andnot) between two containers, generate a new
+ * container (having type result_type), requires a typecode. This allocates new
+ * memory, caller is responsible for deallocation.
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_andnot(
+    const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = container_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            *result_type = bitset_bitset_container_andnot(
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            result = array_container_create();
+            array_array_container_andnot(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                         const_CAST_array(c2),
+                                         CAST_array(result));
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c2))) {
+                result = array_container_create();
+                *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return result;
+            }
+            *result_type =
+                run_run_container_andnot(const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                         const_CAST_run(c2), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = bitset_array_container_andnot(
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            result = array_container_create();
+            array_bitset_container_andnot(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                          const_CAST_bitset(c2),
+                                          CAST_array(result));
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c2))) {
+                result = array_container_create();
+                *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return result;
+            }
+            *result_type = bitset_run_container_andnot(
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_run(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            *result_type = run_bitset_container_andnot(
+                                const_CAST_run(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            if (run_container_is_full(const_CAST_run(c2))) {
+                result = array_container_create();
+                *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return result;
+            }
+            result = array_container_create();
+            array_run_container_andnot(const_CAST_array(c1),
+                                       const_CAST_run(c2),
+                                       CAST_array(result));
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = run_array_container_andnot(
+                const_CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_array(c2),
+                &result);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;  // unreached
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute the andnot between two containers, with result in the first
+ * container.
+ * If the returned pointer is identical to c1, then the container has been
+ * modified.
+ * If the returned pointer is different from c1, then a new container has been
+ * created and the caller is responsible for freeing it.
+ * The type of the first container may change. Returns the modified
+ * (and possibly new) container
+*/
+static inline container_t *container_iandnot(
+    container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+    const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c1 = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c1, &type1);
+    c2 = container_unwrap_shared(c2, &type2);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (PAIR_CONTAINER_TYPES(type1, type2)) {
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,BITSET):
+            *result_type = bitset_bitset_container_iandnot(
+                                CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,ARRAY):
+            array_array_container_iandnot(CAST_array(c1),
+                                          const_CAST_array(c2));
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,RUN):
+            *result_type = run_run_container_iandnot(
+                CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_run(c2), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = bitset_array_container_iandnot(
+                                CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_array(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,BITSET):
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            array_bitset_container_iandnot(CAST_array(c1),
+                                           const_CAST_bitset(c2));
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(BITSET,RUN):
+            *result_type = bitset_run_container_iandnot(
+                                CAST_bitset(c1),
+                                const_CAST_run(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,BITSET):
+            *result_type = run_bitset_container_iandnot(
+                                CAST_run(c1),
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c2), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(ARRAY,RUN):
+            *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            array_run_container_iandnot(CAST_array(c1),
+                                        const_CAST_run(c2));
+            return c1;
+
+        case CONTAINER_PAIR(RUN,ARRAY):
+            *result_type = run_array_container_iandnot(
+                CAST_run(c1), const_CAST_array(c2), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+/**
+ * Visit all values x of the container once, passing (base+x,ptr)
+ * to iterator. You need to specify a container and its type.
+ * Returns true if the iteration should continue.
+ */
+static inline bool container_iterate(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint32_t base,
+    roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_iterate(const_CAST_bitset(c),
+                                            base, iterator, ptr);
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_iterate(const_CAST_array(c),
+                                           base, iterator, ptr);
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_iterate(const_CAST_run(c),
+                                         base, iterator, ptr);
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return false;
+}
+
+static inline bool container_iterate64(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint32_t base,
+    roaring_iterator64 iterator,
+    uint64_t high_bits, void *ptr
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_iterate64(const_CAST_bitset(c), base,
+                                              iterator, high_bits, ptr);
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_iterate64(const_CAST_array(c), base,
+                                             iterator, high_bits, ptr);
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_iterate64(const_CAST_run(c), base,
+                                           iterator, high_bits, ptr);
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return false;
+}
+
+static inline container_t *container_not(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type = bitset_container_negation(
+                                const_CAST_bitset(c), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            array_container_negation(const_CAST_array(c),
+                                     CAST_bitset(result));
+            return result;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type =
+                run_container_negation(const_CAST_run(c), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline container_t *container_not_range(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint32_t range_start, uint32_t range_end,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type =
+                bitset_container_negation_range(
+                        const_CAST_bitset(c), range_start, range_end, &result)
+                            ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                            : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type =
+                array_container_negation_range(
+                    const_CAST_array(c), range_start, range_end, &result)
+                        ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                        : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type = run_container_negation_range(
+                            const_CAST_run(c), range_start, range_end, &result);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline container_t *container_inot(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c, &type);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type = bitset_container_negation_inplace(
+                                CAST_bitset(c), &result)
+                                    ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                    : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            // will never be inplace
+            result = bitset_container_create();
+            *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            array_container_negation(CAST_array(c),
+                                     CAST_bitset(result));
+            array_container_free(CAST_array(c));
+            return result;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type =
+                run_container_negation_inplace(CAST_run(c), &result);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return NULL;
+}
+
+static inline container_t *container_inot_range(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint32_t range_start, uint32_t range_end,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    c = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c, &type);
+    container_t *result = NULL;
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type =
+                bitset_container_negation_range_inplace(
+                    CAST_bitset(c), range_start, range_end, &result)
+                        ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                        : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type =
+                array_container_negation_range_inplace(
+                    CAST_array(c), range_start, range_end, &result)
+                        ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                        : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return result;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            *result_type = run_container_negation_range_inplace(
+                                CAST_run(c), range_start, range_end, &result);
+            return result;
+
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * If the element of given rank is in this container, supposing that
+ * the first
+ * element has rank start_rank, then the function returns true and
+ * sets element
+ * accordingly.
+ * Otherwise, it returns false and update start_rank.
+ */
+static inline bool container_select(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint32_t *start_rank, uint32_t rank,
+    uint32_t *element
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_select(const_CAST_bitset(c),
+                                           start_rank, rank, element);
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_select(const_CAST_array(c),
+                                          start_rank, rank, element);
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_select(const_CAST_run(c),
+                                        start_rank, rank, element);
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return false;
+}
+
+static inline uint16_t container_maximum(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t type
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_maximum(const_CAST_bitset(c));
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_maximum(const_CAST_array(c));
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_maximum(const_CAST_run(c));
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return false;
+}
+
+static inline uint16_t container_minimum(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t type
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_minimum(const_CAST_bitset(c));
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_minimum(const_CAST_array(c));
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_minimum(const_CAST_run(c));
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return false;
+}
+
+// number of values smaller or equal to x
+static inline int container_rank(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint16_t x
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_rank(const_CAST_bitset(c), x);
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_rank(const_CAST_array(c), x);
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_rank(const_CAST_run(c), x);
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+    return false;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Add all values in range [min, max] to a given container.
+ *
+ * If the returned pointer is different from $container, then a new container
+ * has been created and the caller is responsible for freeing it.
+ * The type of the first container may change. Returns the modified
+ * (and possibly new) container.
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_add_range(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint32_t min, uint32_t max,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+    // NB: when selecting new container type, we perform only inexpensive checks
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            bitset_container_t *bitset = CAST_bitset(c);
+
+            int32_t union_cardinality = 0;
+            union_cardinality += bitset->cardinality;
+            union_cardinality += max - min + 1;
+            union_cardinality -= bitset_lenrange_cardinality(bitset->words,
+                                                             min, max-min);
+
+            if (union_cardinality == INT32_C(0x10000)) {
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return run_container_create_range(0, INT32_C(0x10000));
+            } else {
+                *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                bitset_set_lenrange(bitset->words, min, max - min);
+                bitset->cardinality = union_cardinality;
+                return bitset;
+            }
+        }
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            array_container_t *array = CAST_array(c);
+
+            int32_t nvals_greater = count_greater(array->array, array->cardinality, max);
+            int32_t nvals_less = count_less(array->array, array->cardinality - nvals_greater, min);
+            int32_t union_cardinality = nvals_less + (max - min + 1) + nvals_greater;
+
+            if (union_cardinality == INT32_C(0x10000)) {
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return run_container_create_range(0, INT32_C(0x10000));
+            } else if (union_cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+                *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                array_container_add_range_nvals(array, min, max, nvals_less, nvals_greater);
+                return array;
+            } else {
+                *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                bitset_container_t *bitset = bitset_container_from_array(array);
+                bitset_set_lenrange(bitset->words, min, max - min);
+                bitset->cardinality = union_cardinality;
+                return bitset;
+            }
+        }
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            run_container_t *run = CAST_run(c);
+
+            int32_t nruns_greater = rle16_count_greater(run->runs, run->n_runs, max);
+            int32_t nruns_less = rle16_count_less(run->runs, run->n_runs - nruns_greater, min);
+
+            int32_t run_size_bytes = (nruns_less + 1 + nruns_greater) * sizeof(rle16_t);
+            int32_t bitset_size_bytes = BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t);
+
+            if (run_size_bytes <= bitset_size_bytes) {
+                run_container_add_range_nruns(run, min, max, nruns_less, nruns_greater);
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return run;
+            } else {
+                return container_from_run_range(run, min, max, result_type);
+            }
+        }
+        default:
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Removes all elements in range [min, max].
+ * Returns one of:
+ *   - NULL if no elements left
+ *   - pointer to the original container
+ *   - pointer to a newly-allocated container (if it is more efficient)
+ *
+ * If the returned pointer is different from $container, then a new container
+ * has been created and the caller is responsible for freeing the original container.
+ */
+static inline container_t *container_remove_range(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t type,
+    uint32_t min, uint32_t max,
+    uint8_t *result_type
+){
+     switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            bitset_container_t *bitset = CAST_bitset(c);
+
+            int32_t result_cardinality = bitset->cardinality -
+                bitset_lenrange_cardinality(bitset->words, min, max-min);
+
+            if (result_cardinality == 0) {
+                return NULL;
+            } else if (result_cardinality < DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+                *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                bitset_reset_range(bitset->words, min, max+1);
+                bitset->cardinality = result_cardinality;
+                return array_container_from_bitset(bitset);
+            } else {
+                *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                bitset_reset_range(bitset->words, min, max+1);
+                bitset->cardinality = result_cardinality;
+                return bitset;
+            }
+        }
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            array_container_t *array = CAST_array(c);
+
+            int32_t nvals_greater = count_greater(array->array, array->cardinality, max);
+            int32_t nvals_less = count_less(array->array, array->cardinality - nvals_greater, min);
+            int32_t result_cardinality = nvals_less + nvals_greater;
+
+            if (result_cardinality == 0) {
+                return NULL;
+            } else {
+                *result_type = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                array_container_remove_range(array, nvals_less,
+                    array->cardinality - result_cardinality);
+                return array;
+            }
+        }
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            run_container_t *run = CAST_run(c);
+
+            if (run->n_runs == 0) {
+                return NULL;
+            }
+            if (min <= run_container_minimum(run) && max >= run_container_maximum(run)) {
+                return NULL;
+            }
+
+            run_container_remove_range(run, min, max);
+
+            if (run_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(run->n_runs) <=
+                    bitset_container_serialized_size_in_bytes()) {
+                *result_type = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return run;
+            } else {
+                *result_type = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return bitset_container_from_run(run);
+            }
+        }
+        default:
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+     }
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#endif
+/* end file include/roaring/containers/containers.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/roaring_array.h */
+#ifndef INCLUDE_ROARING_ARRAY_H
+#define INCLUDE_ROARING_ARRAY_H
+
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring {
+
+// Note: in pure C++ code, you should avoid putting `using` in header files
+using api::roaring_array_t;
+
+namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+enum {
+    SERIAL_COOKIE_NO_RUNCONTAINER = 12346,
+    SERIAL_COOKIE = 12347,
+    FROZEN_COOKIE = 13766,
+    NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD = 4
+};
+
+/**
+ * Create a new roaring array
+ */
+roaring_array_t *ra_create(void);
+
+/**
+ * Initialize an existing roaring array with the specified capacity (in number
+ * of containers)
+ */
+bool ra_init_with_capacity(roaring_array_t *new_ra, uint32_t cap);
+
+/**
+ * Initialize with zero capacity
+ */
+void ra_init(roaring_array_t *t);
+
+/**
+ * Copies this roaring array, we assume that dest is not initialized
+ */
+bool ra_copy(const roaring_array_t *source, roaring_array_t *dest,
+             bool copy_on_write);
+
+/*
+ * Shrinks the capacity, returns the number of bytes saved.
+ */
+int ra_shrink_to_fit(roaring_array_t *ra);
+
+/**
+ * Copies this roaring array, we assume that dest is initialized
+ */
+bool ra_overwrite(const roaring_array_t *source, roaring_array_t *dest,
+                  bool copy_on_write);
+
+/**
+ * Frees the memory used by a roaring array
+ */
+void ra_clear(roaring_array_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Frees the memory used by a roaring array, but does not free the containers
+ */
+void ra_clear_without_containers(roaring_array_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Frees just the containers
+ */
+void ra_clear_containers(roaring_array_t *ra);
+
+/**
+ * Get the index corresponding to a 16-bit key
+ */
+inline int32_t ra_get_index(const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x) {
+    if ((ra->size == 0) || ra->keys[ra->size - 1] == x) return ra->size - 1;
+    return binarySearch(ra->keys, (int32_t)ra->size, x);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Retrieves the container at index i, filling in the typecode
+ */
+inline container_t *ra_get_container_at_index(
+    const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t i, uint8_t *typecode
+){
+    *typecode = ra->typecodes[i];
+    return ra->containers[i];
+}
+
+/**
+ * Retrieves the key at index i
+ */
+uint16_t ra_get_key_at_index(const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t i);
+
+/**
+ * Add a new key-value pair at index i
+ */
+void ra_insert_new_key_value_at(
+        roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i, uint16_t key,
+        container_t *c, uint8_t typecode);
+
+/**
+ * Append a new key-value pair
+ */
+void ra_append(
+        roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t key,
+        container_t *c, uint8_t typecode);
+
+/**
+ * Append a new key-value pair to ra, cloning (in COW sense) a value from sa
+ * at index index
+ */
+void ra_append_copy(roaring_array_t *ra, const roaring_array_t *sa,
+                    uint16_t index, bool copy_on_write);
+
+/**
+ * Append new key-value pairs to ra, cloning (in COW sense)  values from sa
+ * at indexes
+ * [start_index, end_index)
+ */
+void ra_append_copy_range(roaring_array_t *ra, const roaring_array_t *sa,
+                          int32_t start_index, int32_t end_index,
+                          bool copy_on_write);
+
+/** appends from sa to ra, ending with the greatest key that is
+ * is less or equal stopping_key
+ */
+void ra_append_copies_until(roaring_array_t *ra, const roaring_array_t *sa,
+                            uint16_t stopping_key, bool copy_on_write);
+
+/** appends from sa to ra, starting with the smallest key that is
+ * is strictly greater than before_start
+ */
+
+void ra_append_copies_after(roaring_array_t *ra, const roaring_array_t *sa,
+                            uint16_t before_start, bool copy_on_write);
+
+/**
+ * Move the key-value pairs to ra from sa at indexes
+ * [start_index, end_index), old array should not be freed
+ * (use ra_clear_without_containers)
+ **/
+void ra_append_move_range(roaring_array_t *ra, roaring_array_t *sa,
+                          int32_t start_index, int32_t end_index);
+/**
+ * Append new key-value pairs to ra,  from sa at indexes
+ * [start_index, end_index)
+ */
+void ra_append_range(roaring_array_t *ra, roaring_array_t *sa,
+                     int32_t start_index, int32_t end_index,
+                     bool copy_on_write);
+
+/**
+ * Set the container at the corresponding index using the specified
+ * typecode.
+ */
+inline void ra_set_container_at_index(
+    const roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i,
+    container_t *c, uint8_t typecode
+){
+    assert(i < ra->size);
+    ra->containers[i] = c;
+    ra->typecodes[i] = typecode;
+}
+
+/**
+ * If needed, increase the capacity of the array so that it can fit k values
+ * (at
+ * least);
+ */
+bool extend_array(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t k);
+
+inline int32_t ra_get_size(const roaring_array_t *ra) { return ra->size; }
+
+static inline int32_t ra_advance_until(const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x,
+                                       int32_t pos) {
+    return advanceUntil(ra->keys, pos, ra->size, x);
+}
+
+int32_t ra_advance_until_freeing(roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x, int32_t pos);
+
+void ra_downsize(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t new_length);
+
+inline void ra_replace_key_and_container_at_index(
+    roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i, uint16_t key,
+    container_t *c, uint8_t typecode
+){
+    assert(i < ra->size);
+
+    ra->keys[i] = key;
+    ra->containers[i] = c;
+    ra->typecodes[i] = typecode;
+}
+
+// write set bits to an array
+void ra_to_uint32_array(const roaring_array_t *ra, uint32_t *ans);
+
+bool ra_range_uint32_array(const roaring_array_t *ra, size_t offset, size_t limit, uint32_t *ans);
+
+/**
+ * write a bitmap to a buffer. This is meant to be compatible with
+ * the
+ * Java and Go versions. Return the size in bytes of the serialized
+ * output (which should be ra_portable_size_in_bytes(ra)).
+ */
+size_t ra_portable_serialize(const roaring_array_t *ra, char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * read a bitmap from a serialized version. This is meant to be compatible
+ * with the Java and Go versions.
+ * maxbytes  indicates how many bytes available from buf.
+ * When the function returns true, roaring_array_t is populated with the data
+ * and *readbytes indicates how many bytes were read. In all cases, if the function
+ * returns true, then maxbytes >= *readbytes.
+ */
+bool ra_portable_deserialize(roaring_array_t *ra, const char *buf, const size_t maxbytes, size_t * readbytes);
+
+/**
+ * Quickly checks whether there is a serialized bitmap at the pointer,
+ * not exceeding size "maxbytes" in bytes. This function does not allocate
+ * memory dynamically.
+ *
+ * This function returns 0 if and only if no valid bitmap is found.
+ * Otherwise, it returns how many bytes are occupied by the bitmap data.
+ */
+size_t ra_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf, const size_t maxbytes);
+
+/**
+ * How many bytes are required to serialize this bitmap (meant to be
+ * compatible
+ * with Java and Go versions)
+ */
+size_t ra_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_array_t *ra);
+
+/**
+ * return true if it contains at least one run container.
+ */
+bool ra_has_run_container(const roaring_array_t *ra);
+
+/**
+ * Size of the header when serializing (meant to be compatible
+ * with Java and Go versions)
+ */
+uint32_t ra_portable_header_size(const roaring_array_t *ra);
+
+/**
+ * If the container at the index i is share, unshare it (creating a local
+ * copy if needed).
+ */
+static inline void ra_unshare_container_at_index(roaring_array_t *ra,
+                                                 uint16_t i) {
+    assert(i < ra->size);
+    ra->containers[i] = get_writable_copy_if_shared(ra->containers[i],
+                                                    &ra->typecodes[i]);
+}
+
+/**
+ * remove at index i, sliding over all entries after i
+ */
+void ra_remove_at_index(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i);
+
+
+/**
+* clears all containers, sets the size at 0 and shrinks the memory usage.
+*/
+void ra_reset(roaring_array_t *ra);
+
+/**
+ * remove at index i, sliding over all entries after i. Free removed container.
+ */
+void ra_remove_at_index_and_free(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i);
+
+/**
+ * remove a chunk of indices, sliding over entries after it
+ */
+// void ra_remove_index_range(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t begin, int32_t end);
+
+// used in inplace andNot only, to slide left the containers from
+// the mutated RoaringBitmap that are after the largest container of
+// the argument RoaringBitmap.  It is followed by a call to resize.
+//
+void ra_copy_range(roaring_array_t *ra, uint32_t begin, uint32_t end,
+                   uint32_t new_begin);
+
+/**
+ * Shifts rightmost $count containers to the left (distance < 0) or
+ * to the right (distance > 0).
+ * Allocates memory if necessary.
+ * This function doesn't free or create new containers.
+ * Caller is responsible for that.
+ */
+void ra_shift_tail(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t count, int32_t distance);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+}  // namespace internal
+} }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring {
+#endif
+
+#endif
+/* end file include/roaring/roaring_array.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/misc/configreport.h */
+/*
+ * configreport.h
+ *
+ */
+
+#ifndef INCLUDE_MISC_CONFIGREPORT_H_
+#define INCLUDE_MISC_CONFIGREPORT_H_
+
+#include <stddef.h>  // for size_t
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace misc {
+#endif
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+// useful for basic info (0)
+static inline void native_cpuid(unsigned int *eax, unsigned int *ebx,
+                                unsigned int *ecx, unsigned int *edx) {
+#ifdef ROARING_INLINE_ASM
+    __asm volatile("cpuid"
+                   : "=a"(*eax), "=b"(*ebx), "=c"(*ecx), "=d"(*edx)
+                   : "0"(*eax), "2"(*ecx));
+#endif /* not sure what to do when inline assembly is unavailable*/
+}
+
+// CPUID instruction takes no parameters as CPUID implicitly uses the EAX
+// register.
+// The EAX register should be loaded with a value specifying what information to
+// return
+static inline void cpuinfo(int code, int *eax, int *ebx, int *ecx, int *edx) {
+#ifdef ROARING_INLINE_ASM
+    __asm__ volatile("cpuid;"  //  call cpuid instruction
+                     : "=a"(*eax), "=b"(*ebx), "=c"(*ecx),
+                       "=d"(*edx)  // output equal to "movl  %%eax %1"
+                     : "a"(code)   // input equal to "movl %1, %%eax"
+                     //:"%eax","%ebx","%ecx","%edx"// clobbered register
+                     );
+#endif /* not sure what to do when inline assembly is unavailable*/
+}
+
+static inline int computecacheline() {
+    int eax = 0, ebx = 0, ecx = 0, edx = 0;
+    cpuinfo((int)0x80000006, &eax, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
+    return ecx & 0xFF;
+}
+
+// this is quite imperfect, but can be handy
+static inline const char *guessprocessor() {
+    unsigned eax = 1, ebx = 0, ecx = 0, edx = 0;
+    native_cpuid(&eax, &ebx, &ecx, &edx);
+    const char *codename;
+    switch (eax >> 4) {
+        case 0x506E:
+            codename = "Skylake";
+            break;
+        case 0x406C:
+            codename = "CherryTrail";
+            break;
+        case 0x306D:
+            codename = "Broadwell";
+            break;
+        case 0x306C:
+            codename = "Haswell";
+            break;
+        case 0x306A:
+            codename = "IvyBridge";
+            break;
+        case 0x206A:
+        case 0x206D:
+            codename = "SandyBridge";
+            break;
+        case 0x2065:
+        case 0x206C:
+        case 0x206F:
+            codename = "Westmere";
+            break;
+        case 0x106E:
+        case 0x106A:
+        case 0x206E:
+            codename = "Nehalem";
+            break;
+        case 0x1067:
+        case 0x106D:
+            codename = "Penryn";
+            break;
+        case 0x006F:
+        case 0x1066:
+            codename = "Merom";
+            break;
+        case 0x0066:
+            codename = "Presler";
+            break;
+        case 0x0063:
+        case 0x0064:
+            codename = "Prescott";
+            break;
+        case 0x006D:
+            codename = "Dothan";
+            break;
+        case 0x0366:
+            codename = "Cedarview";
+            break;
+        case 0x0266:
+            codename = "Lincroft";
+            break;
+        case 0x016C:
+            codename = "Pineview";
+            break;
+        default:
+            codename = "UNKNOWN";
+            break;
+    }
+    return codename;
+}
+
+static inline void tellmeall() {
+    printf("x64 processor:  %s\t", guessprocessor());
+
+#ifdef __VERSION__
+    printf(" compiler version: %s\t", __VERSION__);
+#endif
+    uint32_t config =  croaring_detect_supported_architectures();
+    if((config & CROARING_NEON) == CROARING_NEON) {
+        printf(" NEON detected\t");
+    }
+ #ifdef __AVX2__
+    printf(" Building for AVX2\t");
+ #endif
+    if(croaring_avx2()) {
+        printf( "AVX2 usable\t");
+    }
+    if((config & CROARING_AVX2) == CROARING_AVX2) {
+        printf( "AVX2 detected\t");
+       if(!croaring_avx2()) {
+         printf( "AVX2 not used\t");
+       }
+     }
+    if((config & CROARING_SSE42) == CROARING_SSE42) {
+        printf(" SSE4.2 detected\t");
+    }
+    if((config & CROARING_BMI1) == CROARING_BMI1) {
+        printf(" BMI1 detected\t");
+    }
+    if((config & CROARING_BMI2) == CROARING_BMI2) {
+        printf(" BMI2 detected\t");
+    }
+    printf("\n");
+    if ((sizeof(int) != 4) || (sizeof(long) != 8)) {
+        printf("number of bytes: int = %lu long = %lu \n",
+               (long unsigned int)sizeof(size_t),
+               (long unsigned int)sizeof(int));
+    }
+#if __LITTLE_ENDIAN__
+// This is what we expect!
+// printf("you have little endian machine");
+#endif
+#if __BIG_ENDIAN__
+    printf("you have a big endian machine");
+#endif
+#if __CHAR_BIT__
+    if (__CHAR_BIT__ != 8) printf("on your machine, chars don't have 8bits???");
+#endif
+    if (computecacheline() != 64)
+        printf("cache line: %d bytes\n", computecacheline());
+}
+#else
+
+static inline void tellmeall() {
+    printf("Non-X64  processor\n");
+#ifdef __arm__
+    printf("ARM processor detected\n");
+#endif
+#ifdef __VERSION__
+    printf(" compiler version: %s\t", __VERSION__);
+#endif
+    uint32_t config =  croaring_detect_supported_architectures();
+    if((config & CROARING_NEON) == CROARING_NEON) {
+        printf(" NEON detected\t");
+    }
+    if((config & CROARING_ALTIVEC) == CROARING_ALTIVEC) {
+        printf("Altivec detected\n");
+    }
+
+    if ((sizeof(int) != 4) || (sizeof(long) != 8)) {
+        printf("number of bytes: int = %lu long = %lu \n",
+               (long unsigned int)sizeof(size_t),
+               (long unsigned int)sizeof(int));
+    }
+#if __LITTLE_ENDIAN__
+// This is what we expect!
+// printf("you have little endian machine");
+#endif
+#if __BIG_ENDIAN__
+    printf("you have a big endian machine");
+#endif
+#if __CHAR_BIT__
+    if (__CHAR_BIT__ != 8) printf("on your machine, chars don't have 8bits???");
+#endif
+}
+
+#endif
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace misc {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* INCLUDE_MISC_CONFIGREPORT_H_ */
+/* end file include/roaring/misc/configreport.h */
+/* begin file src/roaring_array.c */
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+// Convention: [0,ra->size) all elements are initialized
+//  [ra->size, ra->allocation_size) is junk and contains nothing needing freeing
+
+extern inline int32_t ra_get_size(const roaring_array_t *ra);
+extern inline int32_t ra_get_index(const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x);
+
+extern inline container_t *ra_get_container_at_index(
+    const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t i,
+    uint8_t *typecode);
+
+extern inline void ra_unshare_container_at_index(roaring_array_t *ra,
+                                                 uint16_t i);
+
+extern inline void ra_replace_key_and_container_at_index(
+    roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i, uint16_t key,
+    container_t *c, uint8_t typecode);
+
+extern inline void ra_set_container_at_index(
+    const roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i,
+    container_t *c, uint8_t typecode);
+
+static bool realloc_array(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t new_capacity) {
+    //
+    // Note: not implemented using C's realloc(), because the memory layout is
+    // Struct-of-Arrays vs. Array-of-Structs:
+    // https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/CRoaring/issues/256
+
+    if ( new_capacity == 0 ) {
+      roaring_free(ra->containers);
+      ra->containers = NULL;
+      ra->keys = NULL;
+      ra->typecodes = NULL;
+      ra->allocation_size = 0;
+      return true;
+    }
+    const size_t memoryneeded = new_capacity * (
+                sizeof(uint16_t) + sizeof(container_t *) + sizeof(uint8_t));
+    void *bigalloc = roaring_malloc(memoryneeded);
+    if (!bigalloc) return false;
+    void *oldbigalloc = ra->containers;
+    container_t **newcontainers = (container_t **)bigalloc;
+    uint16_t *newkeys = (uint16_t *)(newcontainers + new_capacity);
+    uint8_t *newtypecodes = (uint8_t *)(newkeys + new_capacity);
+    assert((char *)(newtypecodes + new_capacity) ==
+           (char *)bigalloc + memoryneeded);
+    if(ra->size > 0) {
+      memcpy(newcontainers, ra->containers, sizeof(container_t *) * ra->size);
+      memcpy(newkeys, ra->keys, sizeof(uint16_t) * ra->size);
+      memcpy(newtypecodes, ra->typecodes, sizeof(uint8_t) * ra->size);
+    }
+    ra->containers = newcontainers;
+    ra->keys = newkeys;
+    ra->typecodes = newtypecodes;
+    ra->allocation_size = new_capacity;
+    roaring_free(oldbigalloc);
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool ra_init_with_capacity(roaring_array_t *new_ra, uint32_t cap) {
+    if (!new_ra) return false;
+    ra_init(new_ra);
+
+    if (cap > INT32_MAX) { return false; }
+
+    if(cap > 0) {
+      void *bigalloc = roaring_malloc(cap *
+                (sizeof(uint16_t) + sizeof(container_t *) + sizeof(uint8_t)));
+      if( bigalloc == NULL ) return false;
+      new_ra->containers = (container_t **)bigalloc;
+      new_ra->keys = (uint16_t *)(new_ra->containers + cap);
+      new_ra->typecodes = (uint8_t *)(new_ra->keys + cap);
+      // Narrowing is safe because of above check
+      new_ra->allocation_size = (int32_t)cap;
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+int ra_shrink_to_fit(roaring_array_t *ra) {
+    int savings = (ra->allocation_size - ra->size) *
+                  (sizeof(uint16_t) + sizeof(container_t *) + sizeof(uint8_t));
+    if (!realloc_array(ra, ra->size)) {
+      return 0;
+    }
+    ra->allocation_size = ra->size;
+    return savings;
+}
+
+void ra_init(roaring_array_t *new_ra) {
+    if (!new_ra) { return; }
+    new_ra->keys = NULL;
+    new_ra->containers = NULL;
+    new_ra->typecodes = NULL;
+
+    new_ra->allocation_size = 0;
+    new_ra->size = 0;
+    new_ra->flags = 0;
+}
+
+bool ra_overwrite(const roaring_array_t *source, roaring_array_t *dest,
+                  bool copy_on_write) {
+    ra_clear_containers(dest);  // we are going to overwrite them
+    if (source->size == 0) {  // Note: can't call memcpy(NULL), even w/size
+        dest->size = 0; // <--- This is important.
+        return true;  // output was just cleared, so they match
+    }
+    if (dest->allocation_size < source->size) {
+        if (!realloc_array(dest, source->size)) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    dest->size = source->size;
+    memcpy(dest->keys, source->keys, dest->size * sizeof(uint16_t));
+    // we go through the containers, turning them into shared containers...
+    if (copy_on_write) {
+        for (int32_t i = 0; i < dest->size; ++i) {
+            source->containers[i] = get_copy_of_container(
+                source->containers[i], &source->typecodes[i], copy_on_write);
+        }
+        // we do a shallow copy to the other bitmap
+        memcpy(dest->containers, source->containers,
+               dest->size * sizeof(container_t *));
+        memcpy(dest->typecodes, source->typecodes,
+               dest->size * sizeof(uint8_t));
+    } else {
+        memcpy(dest->typecodes, source->typecodes,
+               dest->size * sizeof(uint8_t));
+        for (int32_t i = 0; i < dest->size; i++) {
+            dest->containers[i] =
+                container_clone(source->containers[i], source->typecodes[i]);
+            if (dest->containers[i] == NULL) {
+                for (int32_t j = 0; j < i; j++) {
+                    container_free(dest->containers[j], dest->typecodes[j]);
+                }
+                ra_clear_without_containers(dest);
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+void ra_clear_containers(roaring_array_t *ra) {
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i) {
+        container_free(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]);
+    }
+}
+
+void ra_reset(roaring_array_t *ra) {
+  ra_clear_containers(ra);
+  ra->size = 0;
+  ra_shrink_to_fit(ra);
+}
+
+void ra_clear_without_containers(roaring_array_t *ra) {
+    roaring_free(ra->containers);    // keys and typecodes are allocated with containers
+    ra->size = 0;
+    ra->allocation_size = 0;
+    ra->containers = NULL;
+    ra->keys = NULL;
+    ra->typecodes = NULL;
+}
+
+void ra_clear(roaring_array_t *ra) {
+    ra_clear_containers(ra);
+    ra_clear_without_containers(ra);
+}
+
+bool extend_array(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t k) {
+    int32_t desired_size = ra->size + k;
+    const int32_t max_containers = 65536;
+    assert(desired_size <= max_containers);
+    if (desired_size > ra->allocation_size) {
+        int32_t new_capacity =
+            (ra->size < 1024) ? 2 * desired_size : 5 * desired_size / 4;
+        if (new_capacity > max_containers) {
+            new_capacity = max_containers;
+        }
+
+        return realloc_array(ra, new_capacity);
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+void ra_append(
+    roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t key,
+    container_t *c, uint8_t typecode
+){
+    extend_array(ra, 1);
+    const int32_t pos = ra->size;
+
+    ra->keys[pos] = key;
+    ra->containers[pos] = c;
+    ra->typecodes[pos] = typecode;
+    ra->size++;
+}
+
+void ra_append_copy(roaring_array_t *ra, const roaring_array_t *sa,
+                    uint16_t index, bool copy_on_write) {
+    extend_array(ra, 1);
+    const int32_t pos = ra->size;
+
+    // old contents is junk not needing freeing
+    ra->keys[pos] = sa->keys[index];
+    // the shared container will be in two bitmaps
+    if (copy_on_write) {
+        sa->containers[index] = get_copy_of_container(
+            sa->containers[index], &sa->typecodes[index], copy_on_write);
+        ra->containers[pos] = sa->containers[index];
+        ra->typecodes[pos] = sa->typecodes[index];
+    } else {
+        ra->containers[pos] =
+            container_clone(sa->containers[index], sa->typecodes[index]);
+        ra->typecodes[pos] = sa->typecodes[index];
+    }
+    ra->size++;
+}
+
+void ra_append_copies_until(roaring_array_t *ra, const roaring_array_t *sa,
+                            uint16_t stopping_key, bool copy_on_write) {
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < sa->size; ++i) {
+        if (sa->keys[i] >= stopping_key) break;
+        ra_append_copy(ra, sa, i, copy_on_write);
+    }
+}
+
+void ra_append_copy_range(roaring_array_t *ra, const roaring_array_t *sa,
+                          int32_t start_index, int32_t end_index,
+                          bool copy_on_write) {
+    extend_array(ra, end_index - start_index);
+    for (int32_t i = start_index; i < end_index; ++i) {
+        const int32_t pos = ra->size;
+        ra->keys[pos] = sa->keys[i];
+        if (copy_on_write) {
+            sa->containers[i] = get_copy_of_container(
+                sa->containers[i], &sa->typecodes[i], copy_on_write);
+            ra->containers[pos] = sa->containers[i];
+            ra->typecodes[pos] = sa->typecodes[i];
+        } else {
+            ra->containers[pos] =
+                container_clone(sa->containers[i], sa->typecodes[i]);
+            ra->typecodes[pos] = sa->typecodes[i];
+        }
+        ra->size++;
+    }
+}
+
+void ra_append_copies_after(roaring_array_t *ra, const roaring_array_t *sa,
+                            uint16_t before_start, bool copy_on_write) {
+    int start_location = ra_get_index(sa, before_start);
+    if (start_location >= 0)
+        ++start_location;
+    else
+        start_location = -start_location - 1;
+    ra_append_copy_range(ra, sa, start_location, sa->size, copy_on_write);
+}
+
+void ra_append_move_range(roaring_array_t *ra, roaring_array_t *sa,
+                          int32_t start_index, int32_t end_index) {
+    extend_array(ra, end_index - start_index);
+
+    for (int32_t i = start_index; i < end_index; ++i) {
+        const int32_t pos = ra->size;
+
+        ra->keys[pos] = sa->keys[i];
+        ra->containers[pos] = sa->containers[i];
+        ra->typecodes[pos] = sa->typecodes[i];
+        ra->size++;
+    }
+}
+
+void ra_append_range(roaring_array_t *ra, roaring_array_t *sa,
+                     int32_t start_index, int32_t end_index,
+                     bool copy_on_write) {
+    extend_array(ra, end_index - start_index);
+
+    for (int32_t i = start_index; i < end_index; ++i) {
+        const int32_t pos = ra->size;
+        ra->keys[pos] = sa->keys[i];
+        if (copy_on_write) {
+            sa->containers[i] = get_copy_of_container(
+                sa->containers[i], &sa->typecodes[i], copy_on_write);
+            ra->containers[pos] = sa->containers[i];
+            ra->typecodes[pos] = sa->typecodes[i];
+        } else {
+            ra->containers[pos] =
+                container_clone(sa->containers[i], sa->typecodes[i]);
+            ra->typecodes[pos] = sa->typecodes[i];
+        }
+        ra->size++;
+    }
+}
+
+container_t *ra_get_container(
+    roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x, uint8_t *typecode
+){
+    int i = binarySearch(ra->keys, (int32_t)ra->size, x);
+    if (i < 0) return NULL;
+    *typecode = ra->typecodes[i];
+    return ra->containers[i];
+}
+
+extern inline container_t *ra_get_container_at_index(
+    const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t i,
+    uint8_t *typecode);
+
+#ifdef ROARING_NOT_USED
+container_t *ra_get_writable_container(
+    roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x,
+    uint8_t *typecode
+){
+    int i = binarySearch(ra->keys, (int32_t)ra->size, x);
+    if (i < 0) return NULL;
+    *typecode = ra->typecodes[i];
+    return get_writable_copy_if_shared(ra->containers[i], typecode);
+}
+
+container_t *ra_get_writable_container_at_index(
+    roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t i,
+    uint8_t *typecode
+){
+    assert(i < ra->size);
+    *typecode = ra->typecodes[i];
+    return get_writable_copy_if_shared(ra->containers[i], typecode);
+}
+#endif
+
+uint16_t ra_get_key_at_index(const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t i) {
+    return ra->keys[i];
+}
+
+extern inline int32_t ra_get_index(const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x);
+
+extern inline int32_t ra_advance_until(const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x,
+                                int32_t pos);
+
+// everything skipped over is freed
+int32_t ra_advance_until_freeing(roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x, int32_t pos) {
+    while (pos < ra->size && ra->keys[pos] < x) {
+        container_free(ra->containers[pos], ra->typecodes[pos]);
+        ++pos;
+    }
+    return pos;
+}
+
+void ra_insert_new_key_value_at(
+    roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i, uint16_t key,
+    container_t *c, uint8_t typecode
+){
+    extend_array(ra, 1);
+    // May be an optimization opportunity with DIY memmove
+    memmove(&(ra->keys[i + 1]), &(ra->keys[i]),
+            sizeof(uint16_t) * (ra->size - i));
+    memmove(&(ra->containers[i + 1]), &(ra->containers[i]),
+            sizeof(container_t *) * (ra->size - i));
+    memmove(&(ra->typecodes[i + 1]), &(ra->typecodes[i]),
+            sizeof(uint8_t) * (ra->size - i));
+    ra->keys[i] = key;
+    ra->containers[i] = c;
+    ra->typecodes[i] = typecode;
+    ra->size++;
+}
+
+// note: Java routine set things to 0, enabling GC.
+// Java called it "resize" but it was always used to downsize.
+// Allowing upsize would break the conventions about
+// valid containers below ra->size.
+
+void ra_downsize(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t new_length) {
+    assert(new_length <= ra->size);
+    ra->size = new_length;
+}
+
+void ra_remove_at_index(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i) {
+    memmove(&(ra->containers[i]), &(ra->containers[i + 1]),
+            sizeof(container_t *) * (ra->size - i - 1));
+    memmove(&(ra->keys[i]), &(ra->keys[i + 1]),
+            sizeof(uint16_t) * (ra->size - i - 1));
+    memmove(&(ra->typecodes[i]), &(ra->typecodes[i + 1]),
+            sizeof(uint8_t) * (ra->size - i - 1));
+    ra->size--;
+}
+
+void ra_remove_at_index_and_free(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t i) {
+    container_free(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]);
+    ra_remove_at_index(ra, i);
+}
+
+// used in inplace andNot only, to slide left the containers from
+// the mutated RoaringBitmap that are after the largest container of
+// the argument RoaringBitmap.  In use it should be followed by a call to
+// downsize.
+//
+void ra_copy_range(roaring_array_t *ra, uint32_t begin, uint32_t end,
+                   uint32_t new_begin) {
+    assert(begin <= end);
+    assert(new_begin < begin);
+
+    const int range = end - begin;
+
+    // We ensure to previously have freed overwritten containers
+    // that are not copied elsewhere
+
+    memmove(&(ra->containers[new_begin]), &(ra->containers[begin]),
+            sizeof(container_t *) * range);
+    memmove(&(ra->keys[new_begin]), &(ra->keys[begin]),
+            sizeof(uint16_t) * range);
+    memmove(&(ra->typecodes[new_begin]), &(ra->typecodes[begin]),
+            sizeof(uint8_t) * range);
+}
+
+void ra_shift_tail(roaring_array_t *ra, int32_t count, int32_t distance) {
+    if (distance > 0) {
+        extend_array(ra, distance);
+    }
+    int32_t srcpos = ra->size - count;
+    int32_t dstpos = srcpos + distance;
+    memmove(&(ra->keys[dstpos]), &(ra->keys[srcpos]),
+            sizeof(uint16_t) * count);
+    memmove(&(ra->containers[dstpos]), &(ra->containers[srcpos]),
+            sizeof(container_t *) * count);
+    memmove(&(ra->typecodes[dstpos]), &(ra->typecodes[srcpos]),
+            sizeof(uint8_t) * count);
+    ra->size += distance;
+}
+
+
+void ra_to_uint32_array(const roaring_array_t *ra, uint32_t *ans) {
+    size_t ctr = 0;
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i) {
+        int num_added = container_to_uint32_array(
+            ans + ctr, ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i],
+            ((uint32_t)ra->keys[i]) << 16);
+        ctr += num_added;
+    }
+}
+
+bool ra_range_uint32_array(const roaring_array_t *ra, size_t offset, size_t limit, uint32_t *ans) {
+    size_t ctr = 0;
+    size_t dtr = 0;
+
+    size_t t_limit = 0;
+
+    bool first = false;
+    size_t first_skip = 0;
+
+    uint32_t *t_ans = NULL;
+    size_t cur_len = 0;
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i) {
+
+        const container_t *c = container_unwrap_shared(
+                                        ra->containers[i], &ra->typecodes[i]);
+        switch (ra->typecodes[i]) {
+            case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                t_limit = (const_CAST_bitset(c))->cardinality;
+                break;
+            case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                t_limit = (const_CAST_array(c))->cardinality;
+                break;
+            case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                t_limit = run_container_cardinality(const_CAST_run(c));
+                break;
+        }
+        if (ctr + t_limit - 1 >= offset && ctr < offset + limit){
+            if (!first){
+                //first_skip = t_limit - (ctr + t_limit - offset);
+                first_skip = offset - ctr;
+                first = true;
+                t_ans = (uint32_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(*t_ans) * (first_skip + limit));
+                if(t_ans == NULL) {
+                  return false;
+                }
+                memset(t_ans, 0, sizeof(*t_ans) * (first_skip + limit)) ;
+                cur_len = first_skip + limit;
+            }
+            if (dtr + t_limit > cur_len){
+                uint32_t * append_ans = (uint32_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(*append_ans) * (cur_len + t_limit));
+                if(append_ans == NULL) {
+                  if(t_ans != NULL) roaring_free(t_ans);
+                  return false;
+                }
+                memset(append_ans, 0, sizeof(*append_ans) * (cur_len + t_limit));
+                cur_len = cur_len + t_limit;
+                memcpy(append_ans, t_ans, dtr * sizeof(uint32_t));
+                roaring_free(t_ans);
+                t_ans = append_ans;
+            }
+            switch (ra->typecodes[i]) {
+                case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                    container_to_uint32_array(
+                        t_ans + dtr,
+                        const_CAST_bitset(c),  ra->typecodes[i],
+                        ((uint32_t)ra->keys[i]) << 16);
+                    break;
+                case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                    container_to_uint32_array(
+                        t_ans + dtr,
+                        const_CAST_array(c), ra->typecodes[i],
+                        ((uint32_t)ra->keys[i]) << 16);
+                    break;
+                case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                    container_to_uint32_array(
+                        t_ans + dtr,
+                        const_CAST_run(c), ra->typecodes[i],
+                        ((uint32_t)ra->keys[i]) << 16);
+                    break;
+            }
+            dtr += t_limit;
+        }
+        ctr += t_limit;
+        if (dtr-first_skip >= limit) break;
+    }
+    if(t_ans != NULL) {
+      memcpy(ans, t_ans+first_skip, limit * sizeof(uint32_t));
+      free(t_ans);
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool ra_has_run_container(const roaring_array_t *ra) {
+    for (int32_t k = 0; k < ra->size; ++k) {
+        if (get_container_type(ra->containers[k], ra->typecodes[k]) ==
+            RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE)
+            return true;
+    }
+    return false;
+}
+
+uint32_t ra_portable_header_size(const roaring_array_t *ra) {
+    if (ra_has_run_container(ra)) {
+        if (ra->size <
+            NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD) {  // for small bitmaps, we omit the offsets
+            return 4 + (ra->size + 7) / 8 + 4 * ra->size;
+        }
+        return 4 + (ra->size + 7) / 8 +
+               8 * ra->size;  // - 4 because we pack the size with the cookie
+    } else {
+        return 4 + 4 + 8 * ra->size;
+    }
+}
+
+size_t ra_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_array_t *ra) {
+    size_t count = ra_portable_header_size(ra);
+
+    for (int32_t k = 0; k < ra->size; ++k) {
+        count += container_size_in_bytes(ra->containers[k], ra->typecodes[k]);
+    }
+    return count;
+}
+
+size_t ra_portable_serialize(const roaring_array_t *ra, char *buf) {
+    char *initbuf = buf;
+    uint32_t startOffset = 0;
+    bool hasrun = ra_has_run_container(ra);
+    if (hasrun) {
+        uint32_t cookie = SERIAL_COOKIE | ((ra->size - 1) << 16);
+        memcpy(buf, &cookie, sizeof(cookie));
+        buf += sizeof(cookie);
+        uint32_t s = (ra->size + 7) / 8;
+        uint8_t *bitmapOfRunContainers = (uint8_t *)roaring_calloc(s, 1);
+        assert(bitmapOfRunContainers != NULL);  // todo: handle
+        for (int32_t i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i) {
+            if (get_container_type(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]) ==
+                RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+                bitmapOfRunContainers[i / 8] |= (1 << (i % 8));
+            }
+        }
+        memcpy(buf, bitmapOfRunContainers, s);
+        buf += s;
+        roaring_free(bitmapOfRunContainers);
+        if (ra->size < NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD) {
+            startOffset = 4 + 4 * ra->size + s;
+        } else {
+            startOffset = 4 + 8 * ra->size + s;
+        }
+    } else {  // backwards compatibility
+        uint32_t cookie = SERIAL_COOKIE_NO_RUNCONTAINER;
+
+        memcpy(buf, &cookie, sizeof(cookie));
+        buf += sizeof(cookie);
+        memcpy(buf, &ra->size, sizeof(ra->size));
+        buf += sizeof(ra->size);
+
+        startOffset = 4 + 4 + 4 * ra->size + 4 * ra->size;
+    }
+    for (int32_t k = 0; k < ra->size; ++k) {
+        memcpy(buf, &ra->keys[k], sizeof(ra->keys[k]));
+        buf += sizeof(ra->keys[k]);
+        // get_cardinality returns a value in [1,1<<16], subtracting one
+        // we get [0,1<<16 - 1] which fits in 16 bits
+        uint16_t card = (uint16_t)(
+            container_get_cardinality(ra->containers[k], ra->typecodes[k]) - 1);
+        memcpy(buf, &card, sizeof(card));
+        buf += sizeof(card);
+    }
+    if ((!hasrun) || (ra->size >= NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD)) {
+        // writing the containers offsets
+        for (int32_t k = 0; k < ra->size; k++) {
+            memcpy(buf, &startOffset, sizeof(startOffset));
+            buf += sizeof(startOffset);
+            startOffset =
+                startOffset +
+                container_size_in_bytes(ra->containers[k], ra->typecodes[k]);
+        }
+    }
+    for (int32_t k = 0; k < ra->size; ++k) {
+        buf += container_write(ra->containers[k], ra->typecodes[k], buf);
+    }
+    return buf - initbuf;
+}
+
+// Quickly checks whether there is a serialized bitmap at the pointer,
+// not exceeding size "maxbytes" in bytes. This function does not allocate
+// memory dynamically.
+//
+// This function returns 0 if and only if no valid bitmap is found.
+// Otherwise, it returns how many bytes are occupied.
+//
+size_t ra_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf, const size_t maxbytes) {
+    size_t bytestotal = sizeof(int32_t);// for cookie
+    if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+    uint32_t cookie;
+    memcpy(&cookie, buf, sizeof(int32_t));
+    buf += sizeof(uint32_t);
+    if ((cookie & 0xFFFF) != SERIAL_COOKIE &&
+        cookie != SERIAL_COOKIE_NO_RUNCONTAINER) {
+        return 0;
+    }
+    int32_t size;
+
+    if ((cookie & 0xFFFF) == SERIAL_COOKIE)
+        size = (cookie >> 16) + 1;
+    else {
+        bytestotal += sizeof(int32_t);
+        if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+        memcpy(&size, buf, sizeof(int32_t));
+        buf += sizeof(uint32_t);
+    }
+    if (size > (1<<16)) {
+       return 0; // logically impossible
+    }
+    char *bitmapOfRunContainers = NULL;
+    bool hasrun = (cookie & 0xFFFF) == SERIAL_COOKIE;
+    if (hasrun) {
+        int32_t s = (size + 7) / 8;
+        bytestotal += s;
+        if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+        bitmapOfRunContainers = (char *)buf;
+        buf += s;
+    }
+    bytestotal += size * 2 * sizeof(uint16_t);
+    if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+    uint16_t *keyscards = (uint16_t *)buf;
+    buf += size * 2 * sizeof(uint16_t);
+    if ((!hasrun) || (size >= NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD)) {
+        // skipping the offsets
+        bytestotal += size * 4;
+        if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+        buf += size * 4;
+    }
+    // Reading the containers
+    for (int32_t k = 0; k < size; ++k) {
+        uint16_t tmp;
+        memcpy(&tmp, keyscards + 2*k+1, sizeof(tmp));
+        uint32_t thiscard = tmp + 1;
+        bool isbitmap = (thiscard > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE);
+        bool isrun = false;
+        if(hasrun) {
+          if((bitmapOfRunContainers[k / 8] & (1 << (k % 8))) != 0) {
+            isbitmap = false;
+            isrun = true;
+          }
+        }
+        if (isbitmap) {
+            size_t containersize = BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t);
+            bytestotal += containersize;
+            if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+            buf += containersize;
+        } else if (isrun) {
+            bytestotal += sizeof(uint16_t);
+            if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+            uint16_t n_runs;
+            memcpy(&n_runs, buf, sizeof(uint16_t));
+            buf += sizeof(uint16_t);
+            size_t containersize = n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t);
+            bytestotal += containersize;
+            if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+            buf += containersize;
+        } else {
+            size_t containersize = thiscard * sizeof(uint16_t);
+            bytestotal += containersize;
+            if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+            buf += containersize;
+        }
+    }
+    return bytestotal;
+}
+
+
+// this function populates answer from the content of buf (reading up to maxbytes bytes).
+// The function returns false if a properly serialized bitmap cannot be found.
+// if it returns true, readbytes is populated by how many bytes were read, we have that *readbytes <= maxbytes.
+bool ra_portable_deserialize(roaring_array_t *answer, const char *buf, const size_t maxbytes, size_t * readbytes) {
+    *readbytes = sizeof(int32_t);// for cookie
+    if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {
+      fprintf(stderr, "Ran out of bytes while reading first 4 bytes.\n");
+      return false;
+    }
+    uint32_t cookie;
+    memcpy(&cookie, buf, sizeof(int32_t));
+    buf += sizeof(uint32_t);
+    if ((cookie & 0xFFFF) != SERIAL_COOKIE &&
+        cookie != SERIAL_COOKIE_NO_RUNCONTAINER) {
+        fprintf(stderr, "I failed to find one of the right cookies. Found %" PRIu32 "\n",
+                cookie);
+        return false;
+    }
+    int32_t size;
+
+    if ((cookie & 0xFFFF) == SERIAL_COOKIE)
+        size = (cookie >> 16) + 1;
+    else {
+        *readbytes += sizeof(int32_t);
+        if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {
+          fprintf(stderr, "Ran out of bytes while reading second part of the cookie.\n");
+          return false;
+        }
+        memcpy(&size, buf, sizeof(int32_t));
+        buf += sizeof(uint32_t);
+    }
+    if (size < 0) {
+       fprintf(stderr, "You cannot have a negative number of containers, the data must be corrupted: %" PRId32 "\n",
+                size);
+       return false; // logically impossible
+    }
+    if (size > (1<<16)) {
+       fprintf(stderr, "You cannot have so many containers, the data must be corrupted: %" PRId32 "\n",
+                size);
+       return false; // logically impossible
+    }
+    const char *bitmapOfRunContainers = NULL;
+    bool hasrun = (cookie & 0xFFFF) == SERIAL_COOKIE;
+    if (hasrun) {
+        int32_t s = (size + 7) / 8;
+        *readbytes += s;
+        if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {// data is corrupted?
+          fprintf(stderr, "Ran out of bytes while reading run bitmap.\n");
+          return false;
+        }
+        bitmapOfRunContainers = buf;
+        buf += s;
+    }
+    uint16_t *keyscards = (uint16_t *)buf;
+
+    *readbytes += size * 2 * sizeof(uint16_t);
+    if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {
+      fprintf(stderr, "Ran out of bytes while reading key-cardinality array.\n");
+      return false;
+    }
+    buf += size * 2 * sizeof(uint16_t);
+
+    bool is_ok = ra_init_with_capacity(answer, size);
+    if (!is_ok) {
+        fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate memory for roaring array. Bailing out.\n");
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    for (int32_t k = 0; k < size; ++k) {
+        uint16_t tmp;
+        memcpy(&tmp, keyscards + 2*k, sizeof(tmp));
+        answer->keys[k] = tmp;
+    }
+    if ((!hasrun) || (size >= NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD)) {
+        *readbytes += size * 4;
+        if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {// data is corrupted?
+          fprintf(stderr, "Ran out of bytes while reading offsets.\n");
+          ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+          return false;
+        }
+
+        // skipping the offsets
+        buf += size * 4;
+    }
+    // Reading the containers
+    for (int32_t k = 0; k < size; ++k) {
+        uint16_t tmp;
+        memcpy(&tmp, keyscards + 2*k+1, sizeof(tmp));
+        uint32_t thiscard = tmp + 1;
+        bool isbitmap = (thiscard > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE);
+        bool isrun = false;
+        if(hasrun) {
+          if((bitmapOfRunContainers[k / 8] & (1 << (k % 8))) != 0) {
+            isbitmap = false;
+            isrun = true;
+          }
+        }
+        if (isbitmap) {
+            // we check that the read is allowed
+            size_t containersize = BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t);
+            *readbytes += containersize;
+            if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {
+              fprintf(stderr, "Running out of bytes while reading a bitset container.\n");
+              ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+              return false;
+            }
+            // it is now safe to read
+            bitset_container_t *c = bitset_container_create();
+            if(c == NULL) {// memory allocation failure
+              fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate memory for a bitset container.\n");
+              ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+              return false;
+            }
+            answer->size++;
+            buf += bitset_container_read(thiscard, c, buf);
+            answer->containers[k] = c;
+            answer->typecodes[k] = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        } else if (isrun) {
+            // we check that the read is allowed
+            *readbytes += sizeof(uint16_t);
+            if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {
+              fprintf(stderr, "Running out of bytes while reading a run container (header).\n");
+              ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+              return false;
+            }
+            uint16_t n_runs;
+            memcpy(&n_runs, buf, sizeof(uint16_t));
+            size_t containersize = n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t);
+            *readbytes += containersize;
+            if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {// data is corrupted?
+              fprintf(stderr, "Running out of bytes while reading a run container.\n");
+              ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+              return false;
+            }
+            // it is now safe to read
+
+            run_container_t *c = run_container_create();
+            if(c == NULL) {// memory allocation failure
+              fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate memory for a run container.\n");
+              ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+              return false;
+            }
+            answer->size++;
+            buf += run_container_read(thiscard, c, buf);
+            answer->containers[k] = c;
+            answer->typecodes[k] = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        } else {
+            // we check that the read is allowed
+            size_t containersize = thiscard * sizeof(uint16_t);
+            *readbytes += containersize;
+            if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {// data is corrupted?
+              fprintf(stderr, "Running out of bytes while reading an array container.\n");
+              ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+              return false;
+            }
+            // it is now safe to read
+            array_container_t *c =
+                array_container_create_given_capacity(thiscard);
+            if(c == NULL) {// memory allocation failure
+              fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate memory for an array container.\n");
+              ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+              return false;
+            }
+            answer->size++;
+            buf += array_container_read(thiscard, c, buf);
+            answer->containers[k] = c;
+            answer->typecodes[k] = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        }
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/roaring_array.c */
+/* begin file src/memory.c */
+#include <stdlib.h>
+
+// without the following, we get lots of warnings about posix_memalign
+#ifndef __cplusplus
+extern int posix_memalign(void **__memptr, size_t __alignment, size_t __size);
+#endif  //__cplusplus // C++ does not have a well defined signature
+
+// portable version of  posix_memalign
+static void *roaring_bitmap_aligned_malloc(size_t alignment, size_t size) {
+    void *p;
+#ifdef _MSC_VER
+    p = _aligned_malloc(size, alignment);
+#elif defined(__MINGW32__) || defined(__MINGW64__)
+    p = __mingw_aligned_malloc(size, alignment);
+#else
+    // somehow, if this is used before including "x86intrin.h", it creates an
+    // implicit defined warning.
+    if (posix_memalign(&p, alignment, size) != 0) return NULL;
+#endif
+    return p;
+}
+
+static void roaring_bitmap_aligned_free(void *memblock) {
+#ifdef _MSC_VER
+    _aligned_free(memblock);
+#elif defined(__MINGW32__) || defined(__MINGW64__)
+    __mingw_aligned_free(memblock);
+#else
+    free(memblock);
+#endif
+}
+
+static roaring_memory_t global_memory_hook = {
+    .malloc = malloc,
+    .realloc = realloc,
+    .calloc = calloc,
+    .free = free,
+    .aligned_malloc = roaring_bitmap_aligned_malloc,
+    .aligned_free = roaring_bitmap_aligned_free,
+};
+
+void roaring_init_memory_hook(roaring_memory_t memory_hook) {
+    global_memory_hook = memory_hook;
+}
+
+void* roaring_malloc(size_t n) {
+    return global_memory_hook.malloc(n);
+}
+
+void* roaring_realloc(void* p, size_t new_sz) {
+    return global_memory_hook.realloc(p, new_sz);
+}
+
+void* roaring_calloc(size_t n_elements, size_t element_size) {
+    return global_memory_hook.calloc(n_elements, element_size);
+}
+
+void roaring_free(void* p) {
+    global_memory_hook.free(p);
+}
+
+void* roaring_aligned_malloc(size_t alignment, size_t size) {
+    return global_memory_hook.aligned_malloc(alignment, size);
+}
+
+void roaring_aligned_free(void* p) {
+    global_memory_hook.aligned_free(p);
+}
+/* end file src/memory.c */
+/* begin file src/roaring_priority_queue.c */
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+using namespace ::roaring::internal;
+
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+struct roaring_pq_element_s {
+    uint64_t size;
+    bool is_temporary;
+    roaring_bitmap_t *bitmap;
+};
+
+typedef struct roaring_pq_element_s roaring_pq_element_t;
+
+struct roaring_pq_s {
+    roaring_pq_element_t *elements;
+    uint64_t size;
+};
+
+typedef struct roaring_pq_s roaring_pq_t;
+
+static inline bool compare(roaring_pq_element_t *t1, roaring_pq_element_t *t2) {
+    return t1->size < t2->size;
+}
+
+static void pq_add(roaring_pq_t *pq, roaring_pq_element_t *t) {
+    uint64_t i = pq->size;
+    pq->elements[pq->size++] = *t;
+    while (i > 0) {
+        uint64_t p = (i - 1) >> 1;
+        roaring_pq_element_t ap = pq->elements[p];
+        if (!compare(t, &ap)) break;
+        pq->elements[i] = ap;
+        i = p;
+    }
+    pq->elements[i] = *t;
+}
+
+static void pq_free(roaring_pq_t *pq) {
+    roaring_free(pq);
+}
+
+static void percolate_down(roaring_pq_t *pq, uint32_t i) {
+    uint32_t size = (uint32_t)pq->size;
+    uint32_t hsize = size >> 1;
+    roaring_pq_element_t ai = pq->elements[i];
+    while (i < hsize) {
+        uint32_t l = (i << 1) + 1;
+        uint32_t r = l + 1;
+        roaring_pq_element_t bestc = pq->elements[l];
+        if (r < size) {
+            if (compare(pq->elements + r, &bestc)) {
+                l = r;
+                bestc = pq->elements[r];
+            }
+        }
+        if (!compare(&bestc, &ai)) {
+            break;
+        }
+        pq->elements[i] = bestc;
+        i = l;
+    }
+    pq->elements[i] = ai;
+}
+
+static roaring_pq_t *create_pq(const roaring_bitmap_t **arr, uint32_t length) {
+    size_t alloc_size = sizeof(roaring_pq_t) + sizeof(roaring_pq_element_t) * length;
+    roaring_pq_t *answer = (roaring_pq_t *)roaring_malloc(alloc_size);
+    answer->elements = (roaring_pq_element_t *)(answer + 1);
+    answer->size = length;
+    for (uint32_t i = 0; i < length; i++) {
+        answer->elements[i].bitmap = (roaring_bitmap_t *)arr[i];
+        answer->elements[i].is_temporary = false;
+        answer->elements[i].size =
+            roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(arr[i]);
+    }
+    for (int32_t i = (length >> 1); i >= 0; i--) {
+        percolate_down(answer, i);
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+static roaring_pq_element_t pq_poll(roaring_pq_t *pq) {
+    roaring_pq_element_t ans = *pq->elements;
+    if (pq->size > 1) {
+        pq->elements[0] = pq->elements[--pq->size];
+        percolate_down(pq, 0);
+    } else
+        --pq->size;
+    // memmove(pq->elements,pq->elements+1,(pq->size-1)*sizeof(roaring_pq_element_t));--pq->size;
+    return ans;
+}
+
+// this function consumes and frees the inputs
+static roaring_bitmap_t *lazy_or_from_lazy_inputs(roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                                  roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    const int length1 = ra_get_size(&x1->high_low_container),
+              length2 = ra_get_size(&x2->high_low_container);
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        roaring_bitmap_free(x1);
+        return x2;
+    }
+    if (0 == length2) {
+        roaring_bitmap_free(x2);
+        return x1;
+    }
+    uint32_t neededcap = length1 > length2 ? length2 : length1;
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer = roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(neededcap);
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            // todo: unsharing can be inefficient as it may create a clone where
+            // none
+            // is needed, but it has the benefit of being easy to reason about.
+
+            ra_unshare_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            assert(type1 != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+
+            ra_unshare_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            assert(type2 != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+
+            container_t *c;
+
+            if ((type2 == BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE) &&
+                (type1 != BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE)
+            ){
+                c = container_lazy_ior(c2, type2, c1, type1, &result_type);
+                container_free(c1, type1);
+                if (c != c2) {
+                    container_free(c2, type2);
+                }
+            } else {
+                c = container_lazy_ior(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+                container_free(c2, type2);
+                if (c != c1) {
+                    container_free(c1, type1);
+                }
+            }
+            // since we assume that the initial containers are non-empty, the
+            // result here
+            // can only be non-empty
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c, result_type);
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c1, type1);
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s2, c2, type2);
+            pos2++;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1) {
+        ra_append_move_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x2->high_low_container, pos2, length2);
+    } else if (pos2 == length2) {
+        ra_append_move_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x1->high_low_container, pos1, length1);
+    }
+    ra_clear_without_containers(&x1->high_low_container);
+    ra_clear_without_containers(&x2->high_low_container);
+    roaring_free(x1);
+    roaring_free(x2);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute the union of 'number' bitmaps using a heap. This can
+ * sometimes be faster than roaring_bitmap_or_many which uses
+ * a naive algorithm. Caller is responsible for freeing the
+ * result.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_or_many_heap(uint32_t number,
+                                              const roaring_bitmap_t **x) {
+    if (number == 0) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_create();
+    }
+    if (number == 1) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x[0]);
+    }
+    roaring_pq_t *pq = create_pq(x, number);
+    while (pq->size > 1) {
+        roaring_pq_element_t x1 = pq_poll(pq);
+        roaring_pq_element_t x2 = pq_poll(pq);
+
+        if (x1.is_temporary && x2.is_temporary) {
+            roaring_bitmap_t *newb =
+                lazy_or_from_lazy_inputs(x1.bitmap, x2.bitmap);
+            // should normally return a fresh new bitmap *except* that
+            // it can return x1.bitmap or x2.bitmap in degenerate cases
+            bool temporary = !((newb == x1.bitmap) && (newb == x2.bitmap));
+            uint64_t bsize = roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(newb);
+            roaring_pq_element_t newelement = {
+                .size = bsize, .is_temporary = temporary, .bitmap = newb};
+            pq_add(pq, &newelement);
+        } else if (x2.is_temporary) {
+            roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace(x2.bitmap, x1.bitmap, false);
+            x2.size = roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(x2.bitmap);
+            pq_add(pq, &x2);
+        } else if (x1.is_temporary) {
+            roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace(x1.bitmap, x2.bitmap, false);
+            x1.size = roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(x1.bitmap);
+
+            pq_add(pq, &x1);
+        } else {
+            roaring_bitmap_t *newb =
+                roaring_bitmap_lazy_or(x1.bitmap, x2.bitmap, false);
+            uint64_t bsize = roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(newb);
+            roaring_pq_element_t newelement = {
+                .size = bsize, .is_temporary = true, .bitmap = newb};
+
+            pq_add(pq, &newelement);
+        }
+    }
+    roaring_pq_element_t X = pq_poll(pq);
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer = X.bitmap;
+    roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy(answer);
+    pq_free(pq);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+/* end file src/roaring_priority_queue.c */
+/* begin file src/roaring.c */
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stdarg.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+using namespace ::roaring::internal;
+
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+#define CROARING_SERIALIZATION_ARRAY_UINT32 1
+#define CROARING_SERIALIZATION_CONTAINER 2
+
+extern inline bool roaring_bitmap_get_copy_on_write(const roaring_bitmap_t* r);
+extern inline void roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(roaring_bitmap_t* r, bool cow);
+
+static inline bool is_cow(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    return r->high_low_container.flags & ROARING_FLAG_COW;
+}
+static inline bool is_frozen(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    return r->high_low_container.flags & ROARING_FLAG_FROZEN;
+}
+
+// this is like roaring_bitmap_add, but it populates pointer arguments in such a
+// way
+// that we can recover the container touched, which, in turn can be used to
+// accelerate some functions (when you repeatedly need to add to the same
+// container)
+static inline container_t *containerptr_roaring_bitmap_add(
+    roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t val,
+    uint8_t *type, int *index
+){
+    roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    uint16_t hb = val >> 16;
+    const int i = ra_get_index(ra, hb);
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        ra_unshare_container_at_index(ra, i);
+        container_t *c = ra_get_container_at_index(ra, i, type);
+        uint8_t new_type = *type;
+        container_t *c2 = container_add(c, val & 0xFFFF, *type, &new_type);
+        *index = i;
+        if (c2 != c) {
+            container_free(c, *type);
+            ra_set_container_at_index(ra, i, c2, new_type);
+            *type = new_type;
+            return c2;
+        } else {
+            return c;
+        }
+    } else {
+        array_container_t *new_ac = array_container_create();
+        container_t *c = container_add(new_ac, val & 0xFFFF,
+                                       ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE, type);
+        // we could just assume that it stays an array container
+        ra_insert_new_key_value_at(ra, -i - 1, hb, c, *type);
+        *index = -i - 1;
+        return c;
+    }
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(uint32_t cap) {
+    roaring_bitmap_t *ans =
+        (roaring_bitmap_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(roaring_bitmap_t));
+    if (!ans) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    bool is_ok = ra_init_with_capacity(&ans->high_low_container, cap);
+    if (!is_ok) {
+        roaring_free(ans);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    return ans;
+}
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_init_with_capacity(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t cap) {
+    return ra_init_with_capacity(&r->high_low_container, cap);
+}
+
+
+void roaring_bitmap_add_many(roaring_bitmap_t *r, size_t n_args,
+                             const uint32_t *vals) {
+    container_t *container = NULL;  // hold value of last container touched
+    uint8_t typecode = 0;    // typecode of last container touched
+    uint32_t prev = 0;       // previous valued inserted
+    size_t i = 0;            // index of value
+    int containerindex = 0;
+    if (n_args == 0) return;
+    uint32_t val;
+    memcpy(&val, vals + i, sizeof(val));
+    container =
+        containerptr_roaring_bitmap_add(r, val, &typecode, &containerindex);
+    prev = val;
+    i++;
+    for (; i < n_args; i++) {
+        memcpy(&val, vals + i, sizeof(val));
+        if (((prev ^ val) >> 16) ==
+            0) {  // no need to seek the container, it is at hand
+            // because we already have the container at hand, we can do the
+            // insertion
+            // automatically, bypassing the roaring_bitmap_add call
+            uint8_t newtypecode = typecode;
+            container_t *container2 =
+                container_add(container, val & 0xFFFF, typecode, &newtypecode);
+            if (container2 != container) {  // rare instance when we need to
+                                            // change the container type
+                container_free(container, typecode);
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container,
+                                          containerindex, container2,
+                                          newtypecode);
+                typecode = newtypecode;
+                container = container2;
+            }
+        } else {
+            container = containerptr_roaring_bitmap_add(r, val, &typecode,
+                                                        &containerindex);
+        }
+        prev = val;
+    }
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_of_ptr(size_t n_args, const uint32_t *vals) {
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer = roaring_bitmap_create();
+    roaring_bitmap_add_many(answer, n_args, vals);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_of(size_t n_args, ...) {
+    // todo: could be greatly optimized but we do not expect this call to ever
+    // include long lists
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer = roaring_bitmap_create();
+    va_list ap;
+    va_start(ap, n_args);
+    for (size_t i = 1; i <= n_args; i++) {
+        uint32_t val = va_arg(ap, uint32_t);
+        roaring_bitmap_add(answer, val);
+    }
+    va_end(ap);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+static inline uint32_t minimum_uint32(uint32_t a, uint32_t b) {
+    return (a < b) ? a : b;
+}
+
+static inline uint64_t minimum_uint64(uint64_t a, uint64_t b) {
+    return (a < b) ? a : b;
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_from_range(uint64_t min, uint64_t max,
+                                            uint32_t step) {
+    if(max >= UINT64_C(0x100000000)) {
+        max = UINT64_C(0x100000000);
+    }
+    if (step == 0) return NULL;
+    if (max <= min) return NULL;
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer = roaring_bitmap_create();
+    if (step >= (1 << 16)) {
+        for (uint32_t value = (uint32_t)min; value < max; value += step) {
+            roaring_bitmap_add(answer, value);
+        }
+        return answer;
+    }
+    uint64_t min_tmp = min;
+    do {
+        uint32_t key = (uint32_t)min_tmp >> 16;
+        uint32_t container_min = min_tmp & 0xFFFF;
+        uint32_t container_max = (uint32_t)minimum_uint64(max - (key << 16), 1 << 16);
+        uint8_t type;
+        container_t *container = container_from_range(&type, container_min,
+                                               container_max, (uint16_t)step);
+        ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, key, container, type);
+        uint32_t gap = container_max - container_min + step - 1;
+        min_tmp += gap - (gap % step);
+    } while (min_tmp < max);
+    // cardinality of bitmap will be ((uint64_t) max - min + step - 1 ) / step
+    return answer;
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_add_range_closed(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t min, uint32_t max) {
+    if (min > max) {
+        return;
+    }
+
+    roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    uint32_t min_key = min >> 16;
+    uint32_t max_key = max >> 16;
+
+    int32_t num_required_containers = max_key - min_key + 1;
+    int32_t suffix_length = count_greater(ra->keys, ra->size, max_key);
+    int32_t prefix_length = count_less(ra->keys, ra->size - suffix_length,
+                                       min_key);
+    int32_t common_length = ra->size - prefix_length - suffix_length;
+
+    if (num_required_containers > common_length) {
+        ra_shift_tail(ra, suffix_length,
+                      num_required_containers - common_length);
+    }
+
+    int32_t src = prefix_length + common_length - 1;
+    int32_t dst = ra->size - suffix_length - 1;
+    for (uint32_t key = max_key; key != min_key-1; key--) { // beware of min_key==0
+        uint32_t container_min = (min_key == key) ? (min & 0xffff) : 0;
+        uint32_t container_max = (max_key == key) ? (max & 0xffff) : 0xffff;
+        container_t* new_container;
+        uint8_t new_type;
+
+        if (src >= 0 && ra->keys[src] == key) {
+            ra_unshare_container_at_index(ra, src);
+            new_container = container_add_range(ra->containers[src],
+                                                ra->typecodes[src],
+                                                container_min, container_max,
+                                                &new_type);
+            if (new_container != ra->containers[src]) {
+                container_free(ra->containers[src],
+                               ra->typecodes[src]);
+            }
+            src--;
+        } else {
+            new_container = container_from_range(&new_type, container_min,
+                                                 container_max+1, 1);
+        }
+        ra_replace_key_and_container_at_index(ra, dst, key, new_container,
+                                              new_type);
+        dst--;
+    }
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_remove_range_closed(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t min, uint32_t max) {
+    if (min > max) {
+        return;
+    }
+
+    roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    uint32_t min_key = min >> 16;
+    uint32_t max_key = max >> 16;
+
+    int32_t src = count_less(ra->keys, ra->size, min_key);
+    int32_t dst = src;
+    while (src < ra->size && ra->keys[src] <= max_key) {
+        uint32_t container_min = (min_key == ra->keys[src]) ? (min & 0xffff) : 0;
+        uint32_t container_max = (max_key == ra->keys[src]) ? (max & 0xffff) : 0xffff;
+        ra_unshare_container_at_index(ra, src);
+        container_t *new_container;
+        uint8_t new_type;
+        new_container = container_remove_range(ra->containers[src],
+                                               ra->typecodes[src],
+                                               container_min, container_max,
+                                               &new_type);
+        if (new_container != ra->containers[src]) {
+            container_free(ra->containers[src],
+                           ra->typecodes[src]);
+        }
+        if (new_container) {
+            ra_replace_key_and_container_at_index(ra, dst, ra->keys[src],
+                                                  new_container, new_type);
+            dst++;
+        }
+        src++;
+    }
+    if (src > dst) {
+        ra_shift_tail(ra, ra->size - src, dst - src);
+    }
+}
+
+extern inline void roaring_bitmap_add_range(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint64_t min, uint64_t max);
+extern inline void roaring_bitmap_remove_range(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint64_t min, uint64_t max);
+
+void roaring_bitmap_printf(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    printf("{");
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i) {
+        container_printf_as_uint32_array(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i],
+                                         ((uint32_t)ra->keys[i]) << 16);
+
+        if (i + 1 < ra->size) {
+            printf(",");
+        }
+    }
+    printf("}");
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_printf_describe(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    printf("{");
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i) {
+        printf("%d: %s (%d)", ra->keys[i],
+               get_full_container_name(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]),
+               container_get_cardinality(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]));
+        if (ra->typecodes[i] == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+            printf(
+                "(shared count = %" PRIu32 " )",
+                    CAST_shared(ra->containers[i])->counter);
+        }
+
+        if (i + 1 < ra->size) {
+            printf(", ");
+        }
+    }
+    printf("}");
+}
+
+typedef struct min_max_sum_s {
+    uint32_t min;
+    uint32_t max;
+    uint64_t sum;
+} min_max_sum_t;
+
+static bool min_max_sum_fnc(uint32_t value, void *param) {
+    min_max_sum_t *mms = (min_max_sum_t *)param;
+    if (value > mms->max) mms->max = value;
+    if (value < mms->min) mms->min = value;
+    mms->sum += value;
+    return true;  // we always process all data points
+}
+
+/**
+*  (For advanced users.)
+* Collect statistics about the bitmap
+*/
+void roaring_bitmap_statistics(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                               roaring_statistics_t *stat) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    memset(stat, 0, sizeof(*stat));
+    stat->n_containers = ra->size;
+    stat->cardinality = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(r);
+    min_max_sum_t mms;
+    mms.min = UINT32_C(0xFFFFFFFF);
+    mms.max = UINT32_C(0);
+    mms.sum = 0;
+    roaring_iterate(r, &min_max_sum_fnc, &mms);
+    stat->min_value = mms.min;
+    stat->max_value = mms.max;
+    stat->sum_value = mms.sum;
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i) {
+        uint8_t truetype =
+            get_container_type(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]);
+        uint32_t card =
+            container_get_cardinality(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]);
+        uint32_t sbytes =
+            container_size_in_bytes(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]);
+        switch (truetype) {
+            case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                stat->n_bitset_containers++;
+                stat->n_values_bitset_containers += card;
+                stat->n_bytes_bitset_containers += sbytes;
+                break;
+            case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                stat->n_array_containers++;
+                stat->n_values_array_containers += card;
+                stat->n_bytes_array_containers += sbytes;
+                break;
+            case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                stat->n_run_containers++;
+                stat->n_values_run_containers += card;
+                stat->n_bytes_run_containers += sbytes;
+                break;
+            default:
+                assert(false);
+                __builtin_unreachable();
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_copy(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    roaring_bitmap_t *ans =
+        (roaring_bitmap_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(roaring_bitmap_t));
+    if (!ans) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    if (!ra_init_with_capacity(  // allocation of list of containers can fail
+                &ans->high_low_container, r->high_low_container.size)
+    ){
+        roaring_free(ans);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    if (!ra_overwrite(  // memory allocation of individual containers may fail
+                &r->high_low_container, &ans->high_low_container, is_cow(r))
+    ){
+        roaring_bitmap_free(ans);  // overwrite should leave in freeable state
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(ans, is_cow(r));
+    return ans;
+}
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_overwrite(roaring_bitmap_t *dest,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *src) {
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(dest, is_cow(src));
+    return ra_overwrite(&src->high_low_container, &dest->high_low_container,
+                        is_cow(src));
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_free(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    if (!is_frozen(r)) {
+      ra_clear((roaring_array_t*)&r->high_low_container);
+    }
+    roaring_free((roaring_bitmap_t*)r);
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_clear(roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+  ra_reset(&r->high_low_container);
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_add(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t val) {
+    roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    const uint16_t hb = val >> 16;
+    const int i = ra_get_index(ra, hb);
+    uint8_t typecode;
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        ra_unshare_container_at_index(ra, i);
+        container_t *container =
+            ra_get_container_at_index(ra, i, &typecode);
+        uint8_t newtypecode = typecode;
+        container_t *container2 =
+            container_add(container, val & 0xFFFF, typecode, &newtypecode);
+        if (container2 != container) {
+            container_free(container, typecode);
+            ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, container2,
+                                      newtypecode);
+        }
+    } else {
+        array_container_t *newac = array_container_create();
+        container_t *container = container_add(newac, val & 0xFFFF,
+                                        ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE, &typecode);
+        // we could just assume that it stays an array container
+        ra_insert_new_key_value_at(&r->high_low_container, -i - 1, hb,
+                                   container, typecode);
+    }
+}
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_add_checked(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t val) {
+    const uint16_t hb = val >> 16;
+    const int i = ra_get_index(&r->high_low_container, hb);
+    uint8_t typecode;
+    bool result = false;
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        ra_unshare_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i);
+        container_t *container =
+            ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, &typecode);
+
+        const int oldCardinality =
+            container_get_cardinality(container, typecode);
+
+        uint8_t newtypecode = typecode;
+        container_t *container2 =
+            container_add(container, val & 0xFFFF, typecode, &newtypecode);
+        if (container2 != container) {
+            container_free(container, typecode);
+            ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, container2,
+                                      newtypecode);
+            result = true;
+        } else {
+            const int newCardinality =
+                container_get_cardinality(container, newtypecode);
+
+            result = oldCardinality != newCardinality;
+        }
+    } else {
+        array_container_t *newac = array_container_create();
+        container_t *container = container_add(newac, val & 0xFFFF,
+                                        ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE, &typecode);
+        // we could just assume that it stays an array container
+        ra_insert_new_key_value_at(&r->high_low_container, -i - 1, hb,
+                                   container, typecode);
+        result = true;
+    }
+
+    return result;
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_remove(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t val) {
+    const uint16_t hb = val >> 16;
+    const int i = ra_get_index(&r->high_low_container, hb);
+    uint8_t typecode;
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        ra_unshare_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i);
+        container_t *container =
+            ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, &typecode);
+        uint8_t newtypecode = typecode;
+        container_t *container2 =
+            container_remove(container, val & 0xFFFF, typecode, &newtypecode);
+        if (container2 != container) {
+            container_free(container, typecode);
+            ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, container2,
+                                      newtypecode);
+        }
+        if (container_get_cardinality(container2, newtypecode) != 0) {
+            ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, container2,
+                                      newtypecode);
+        } else {
+            ra_remove_at_index_and_free(&r->high_low_container, i);
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_remove_checked(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t val) {
+    const uint16_t hb = val >> 16;
+    const int i = ra_get_index(&r->high_low_container, hb);
+    uint8_t typecode;
+    bool result = false;
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        ra_unshare_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i);
+        container_t *container =
+            ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, &typecode);
+
+        const int oldCardinality =
+            container_get_cardinality(container, typecode);
+
+        uint8_t newtypecode = typecode;
+        container_t *container2 =
+            container_remove(container, val & 0xFFFF, typecode, &newtypecode);
+        if (container2 != container) {
+            container_free(container, typecode);
+            ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, container2,
+                                      newtypecode);
+        }
+
+        const int newCardinality =
+            container_get_cardinality(container2, newtypecode);
+
+        if (newCardinality != 0) {
+            ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, container2,
+                                      newtypecode);
+        } else {
+            ra_remove_at_index_and_free(&r->high_low_container, i);
+        }
+
+        result = oldCardinality != newCardinality;
+    }
+    return result;
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_remove_many(roaring_bitmap_t *r, size_t n_args,
+                                const uint32_t *vals) {
+    if (n_args == 0 || r->high_low_container.size == 0) {
+        return;
+    }
+    int32_t pos = -1; // position of the container used in the previous iteration
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < n_args; i++) {
+        uint16_t key = (uint16_t)(vals[i] >> 16);
+        if (pos < 0 || key != r->high_low_container.keys[pos]) {
+            pos = ra_get_index(&r->high_low_container, key);
+        }
+        if (pos >= 0) {
+            uint8_t new_typecode;
+            container_t *new_container;
+            new_container = container_remove(r->high_low_container.containers[pos],
+                                             vals[i] & 0xffff,
+                                             r->high_low_container.typecodes[pos],
+                                             &new_typecode);
+            if (new_container != r->high_low_container.containers[pos]) {
+                container_free(r->high_low_container.containers[pos],
+                               r->high_low_container.typecodes[pos]);
+                ra_replace_key_and_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container,
+                                                      pos, key, new_container,
+                                                      new_typecode);
+            }
+            if (!container_nonzero_cardinality(new_container, new_typecode)) {
+                container_free(new_container, new_typecode);
+                ra_remove_at_index(&r->high_low_container, pos);
+                pos = -1;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+// there should be some SIMD optimizations possible here
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_and(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    const int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size,
+              length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+    uint32_t neededcap = length1 > length2 ? length2 : length1;
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer = roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(neededcap);
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(answer, is_cow(x1) || is_cow(x2));
+
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+
+    while (pos1 < length1 && pos2 < length2) {
+        const uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+        const uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            uint8_t type1, type2;
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            container_t *c = container_and(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+
+            if (container_nonzero_cardinality(c, result_type)) {
+                ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c, result_type);
+            } else {
+                container_free(c, result_type);  // otherwise: memory leak!
+            }
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            pos1 = ra_advance_until(&x1->high_low_container, s2, pos1);
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            pos2 = ra_advance_until(&x2->high_low_container, s1, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute the union of 'number' bitmaps.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_or_many(size_t number,
+                                         const roaring_bitmap_t **x) {
+    if (number == 0) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_create();
+    }
+    if (number == 1) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x[0]);
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer =
+        roaring_bitmap_lazy_or(x[0], x[1], LAZY_OR_BITSET_CONVERSION);
+    for (size_t i = 2; i < number; i++) {
+        roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace(answer, x[i], LAZY_OR_BITSET_CONVERSION);
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy(answer);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Compute the xor of 'number' bitmaps.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_xor_many(size_t number,
+                                          const roaring_bitmap_t **x) {
+    if (number == 0) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_create();
+    }
+    if (number == 1) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x[0]);
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer = roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor(x[0], x[1]);
+    for (size_t i = 2; i < number; i++) {
+        roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor_inplace(answer, x[i]);
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy(answer);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+// inplace and (modifies its first argument).
+void roaring_bitmap_and_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    if (x1 == x2) return;
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0, intersection_size = 0;
+    const int length1 = ra_get_size(&x1->high_low_container);
+    const int length2 = ra_get_size(&x2->high_low_container);
+
+    // any skipped-over or newly emptied containers in x1
+    // have to be freed.
+    while (pos1 < length1 && pos2 < length2) {
+        const uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+        const uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            uint8_t type1, type2, result_type;
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+
+            // We do the computation "in place" only when c1 is not a shared container.
+            // Rationale: using a shared container safely with in place computation would
+            // require making a copy and then doing the computation in place which is likely
+            // less efficient than avoiding in place entirely and always generating a new
+            // container.
+            container_t *c =
+                (type1 == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE)
+                    ? container_and(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type)
+                    : container_iand(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+
+            if (c != c1) {  // in this instance a new container was created, and
+                            // we need to free the old one
+                container_free(c1, type1);
+            }
+            if (container_nonzero_cardinality(c, result_type)) {
+                ra_replace_key_and_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container,
+                                                      intersection_size, s1, c,
+                                                      result_type);
+                intersection_size++;
+            } else {
+                container_free(c, result_type);
+            }
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {
+            pos1 = ra_advance_until_freeing(&x1->high_low_container, s2, pos1);
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            pos2 = ra_advance_until(&x2->high_low_container, s1, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+
+    // if we ended early because x2 ran out, then all remaining in x1 should be
+    // freed
+    while (pos1 < length1) {
+        container_free(x1->high_low_container.containers[pos1],
+                       x1->high_low_container.typecodes[pos1]);
+        ++pos1;
+    }
+
+    // all containers after this have either been copied or freed
+    ra_downsize(&x1->high_low_container, intersection_size);
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_or(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                    const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    const int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size,
+              length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x2);
+    }
+    if (0 == length2) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x1);
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer =
+        roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(length1 + length2);
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(answer, is_cow(x1) || is_cow(x2));
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            container_t *c = container_or(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+
+            // since we assume that the initial containers are non-empty, the
+            // result here
+            // can only be non-empty
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c, result_type);
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            // c1 = container_clone(c1, type1);
+            c1 = get_copy_of_container(c1, &type1, is_cow(x1));
+            if (is_cow(x1)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, c1,
+                                          type1);
+            }
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c1, type1);
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            // c2 = container_clone(c2, type2);
+            c2 = get_copy_of_container(c2, &type2, is_cow(x2));
+            if (is_cow(x2)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2, c2,
+                                          type2);
+            }
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s2, c2, type2);
+            pos2++;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x2->high_low_container, pos2, length2,
+                             is_cow(x2));
+    } else if (pos2 == length2) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x1->high_low_container, pos1, length1,
+                             is_cow(x1));
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+// inplace or (modifies its first argument).
+void roaring_bitmap_or_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                               const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size;
+    const int length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+
+    if (0 == length2) return;
+
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        roaring_bitmap_overwrite(x1, x2);
+        return;
+    }
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            if (!container_is_full(c1, type1)) {
+                container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                        &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+                container_t *c =
+                    (type1 == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE)
+                        ? container_or(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type)
+                        : container_ior(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+
+                if (c != c1) {  // in this instance a new container was created,
+                                // and we need to free the old one
+                    container_free(c1, type1);
+                }
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, c,
+                                          result_type);
+            }
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container,
+                                                        pos2, &type2);
+            c2 = get_copy_of_container(c2, &type2, is_cow(x2));
+            if (is_cow(x2)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2, c2,
+                                          type2);
+            }
+
+            // container_t *c2_clone = container_clone(c2, type2);
+            ra_insert_new_key_value_at(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, s2, c2,
+                                       type2);
+            pos1++;
+            length1++;
+            pos2++;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&x1->high_low_container, &x2->high_low_container,
+                             pos2, length2, is_cow(x2));
+    }
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_xor(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    const int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size,
+              length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x2);
+    }
+    if (0 == length2) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x1);
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer =
+        roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(length1 + length2);
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(answer, is_cow(x1) || is_cow(x2));
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            container_t *c = container_xor(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+
+            if (container_nonzero_cardinality(c, result_type)) {
+                ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c, result_type);
+            } else {
+                container_free(c, result_type);
+            }
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            c1 = get_copy_of_container(c1, &type1, is_cow(x1));
+            if (is_cow(x1)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, c1,
+                                          type1);
+            }
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c1, type1);
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            c2 = get_copy_of_container(c2, &type2, is_cow(x2));
+            if (is_cow(x2)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2, c2,
+                                          type2);
+            }
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s2, c2, type2);
+            pos2++;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x2->high_low_container, pos2, length2,
+                             is_cow(x2));
+    } else if (pos2 == length2) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x1->high_low_container, pos1, length1,
+                             is_cow(x1));
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+// inplace xor (modifies its first argument).
+
+void roaring_bitmap_xor_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    assert(x1 != x2);
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size;
+    const int length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+
+    if (0 == length2) return;
+
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        roaring_bitmap_overwrite(x1, x2);
+        return;
+    }
+
+    // XOR can have new containers inserted from x2, but can also
+    // lose containers when x1 and x2 are nonempty and identical.
+
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+
+            // We do the computation "in place" only when c1 is not a shared container.
+            // Rationale: using a shared container safely with in place computation would
+            // require making a copy and then doing the computation in place which is likely
+            // less efficient than avoiding in place entirely and always generating a new
+            // container.
+
+            container_t *c;
+            if (type1 == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+                c = container_xor(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+                shared_container_free(CAST_shared(c1));  // so release
+            }
+            else {
+                c = container_ixor(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+            }
+
+            if (container_nonzero_cardinality(c, result_type)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, c,
+                                          result_type);
+                ++pos1;
+            } else {
+                container_free(c, result_type);
+                ra_remove_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+                --length1;
+            }
+
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            c2 = get_copy_of_container(c2, &type2, is_cow(x2));
+            if (is_cow(x2)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2, c2,
+                                          type2);
+            }
+
+            ra_insert_new_key_value_at(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, s2, c2,
+                                       type2);
+            pos1++;
+            length1++;
+            pos2++;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&x1->high_low_container, &x2->high_low_container,
+                             pos2, length2, is_cow(x2));
+    }
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_andnot(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                        const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    const int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size,
+              length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        roaring_bitmap_t *empty_bitmap = roaring_bitmap_create();
+        roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(empty_bitmap, is_cow(x1) || is_cow(x2));
+        return empty_bitmap;
+    }
+    if (0 == length2) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x1);
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer = roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(length1);
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(answer, is_cow(x1) || is_cow(x2));
+
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = 0;
+    uint16_t s2 = 0;
+    while (true) {
+        s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+        s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            container_t *c = container_andnot(c1, type1, c2, type2,
+                                              &result_type);
+
+            if (container_nonzero_cardinality(c, result_type)) {
+                ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c, result_type);
+            } else {
+                container_free(c, result_type);
+            }
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            const int next_pos1 =
+                ra_advance_until(&x1->high_low_container, s2, pos1);
+            ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                                 &x1->high_low_container, pos1, next_pos1,
+                                 is_cow(x1));
+            // TODO : perhaps some of the copy_on_write should be based on
+            // answer rather than x1 (more stringent?).  Many similar cases
+            pos1 = next_pos1;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            pos2 = ra_advance_until(&x2->high_low_container, s1, pos2);
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos2 == length2) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x1->high_low_container, pos1, length1,
+                             is_cow(x1));
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+// inplace andnot (modifies its first argument).
+
+void roaring_bitmap_andnot_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                   const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    assert(x1 != x2);
+
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size;
+    const int length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+    int intersection_size = 0;
+
+    if (0 == length2) return;
+
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        roaring_bitmap_clear(x1);
+        return;
+    }
+
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+
+            // We do the computation "in place" only when c1 is not a shared container.
+            // Rationale: using a shared container safely with in place computation would
+            // require making a copy and then doing the computation in place which is likely
+            // less efficient than avoiding in place entirely and always generating a new
+            // container.
+
+            container_t *c;
+            if (type1 == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+                c = container_andnot(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+                shared_container_free(CAST_shared(c1));  // release
+            }
+            else {
+                c = container_iandnot(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+            }
+
+            if (container_nonzero_cardinality(c, result_type)) {
+                ra_replace_key_and_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container,
+                                                      intersection_size++, s1,
+                                                      c, result_type);
+            } else {
+                container_free(c, result_type);
+            }
+
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            if (pos1 != intersection_size) {
+                container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                        &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+
+                ra_replace_key_and_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container,
+                                                      intersection_size, s1, c1,
+                                                      type1);
+            }
+            intersection_size++;
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            pos2 = ra_advance_until(&x2->high_low_container, s1, pos2);
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (pos1 < length1) {
+        // all containers between intersection_size and
+        // pos1 are junk.  However, they have either been moved
+        // (thus still referenced) or involved in an iandnot
+        // that will clean up all containers that could not be reused.
+        // Thus we should not free the junk containers between
+        // intersection_size and pos1.
+        if (pos1 > intersection_size) {
+            // left slide of remaining items
+            ra_copy_range(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, length1,
+                          intersection_size);
+        }
+        // else current placement is fine
+        intersection_size += (length1 - pos1);
+    }
+    ra_downsize(&x1->high_low_container, intersection_size);
+}
+
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    uint64_t card = 0;
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i)
+        card += container_get_cardinality(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]);
+    return card;
+}
+
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_range_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                          uint64_t range_start,
+                                          uint64_t range_end) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    if (range_end > UINT32_MAX) {
+        range_end = UINT32_MAX + UINT64_C(1);
+    }
+    if (range_start >= range_end) {
+        return 0;
+    }
+    range_end--; // make range_end inclusive
+    // now we have: 0 <= range_start <= range_end <= UINT32_MAX
+
+    uint16_t minhb = range_start >> 16;
+    uint16_t maxhb = range_end >> 16;
+
+    uint64_t card = 0;
+
+    int i = ra_get_index(ra, minhb);
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        if (minhb == maxhb) {
+            card += container_rank(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i],
+                                   range_end & 0xffff);
+        } else {
+            card += container_get_cardinality(ra->containers[i],
+                                              ra->typecodes[i]);
+        }
+        if ((range_start & 0xffff) != 0) {
+            card -= container_rank(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i],
+                                   (range_start & 0xffff) - 1);
+        }
+        i++;
+    } else {
+        i = -i - 1;
+    }
+
+    for (; i < ra->size; i++) {
+        uint16_t key = ra->keys[i];
+        if (key < maxhb) {
+            card += container_get_cardinality(ra->containers[i],
+                                              ra->typecodes[i]);
+        } else if (key == maxhb) {
+            card += container_rank(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i],
+                                   range_end & 0xffff);
+            break;
+        } else {
+            break;
+        }
+    }
+
+    return card;
+}
+
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_is_empty(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    return r->high_low_container.size == 0;
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_to_uint32_array(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t *ans) {
+    ra_to_uint32_array(&r->high_low_container, ans);
+}
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_range_uint32_array(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                       size_t offset, size_t limit,
+                                       uint32_t *ans) {
+    return ra_range_uint32_array(&r->high_low_container, offset, limit, ans);
+}
+
+/** convert array and bitmap containers to run containers when it is more
+ * efficient;
+ * also convert from run containers when more space efficient.  Returns
+ * true if the result has at least one run container.
+*/
+bool roaring_bitmap_run_optimize(roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    bool answer = false;
+    for (int i = 0; i < r->high_low_container.size; i++) {
+        uint8_t type_original, type_after;
+        ra_unshare_container_at_index(
+            &r->high_low_container, i);  // TODO: this introduces extra cloning!
+        container_t *c = ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i,
+                                                   &type_original);
+        container_t *c1 = convert_run_optimize(c, type_original, &type_after);
+        if (type_after == RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+            answer = true;
+        }
+        ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, c1, type_after);
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+size_t roaring_bitmap_shrink_to_fit(roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    size_t answer = 0;
+    for (int i = 0; i < r->high_low_container.size; i++) {
+        uint8_t type_original;
+        container_t *c = ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i,
+                                                   &type_original);
+        answer += container_shrink_to_fit(c, type_original);
+    }
+    answer += ra_shrink_to_fit(&r->high_low_container);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+/**
+ *  Remove run-length encoding even when it is more space efficient
+ *  return whether a change was applied
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_remove_run_compression(roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    bool answer = false;
+    for (int i = 0; i < r->high_low_container.size; i++) {
+        uint8_t type_original, type_after;
+        container_t *c = ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i,
+                                                   &type_original);
+        if (get_container_type(c, type_original) == RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+            answer = true;
+            if (type_original == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+                run_container_t *truec = CAST_run(CAST_shared(c)->container);
+                int32_t card = run_container_cardinality(truec);
+                container_t *c1 = convert_to_bitset_or_array_container(
+                                        truec, card, &type_after);
+                shared_container_free(CAST_shared(c));  // frees run as needed
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, c1,
+                                          type_after);
+
+            } else {
+                int32_t card = run_container_cardinality(CAST_run(c));
+                container_t *c1 = convert_to_bitset_or_array_container(
+                                    CAST_run(c), card, &type_after);
+                run_container_free(CAST_run(c));
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, c1,
+                                          type_after);
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+size_t roaring_bitmap_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, char *buf) {
+    size_t portablesize = roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(r);
+    uint64_t cardinality = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(r);
+    uint64_t sizeasarray = cardinality * sizeof(uint32_t) + sizeof(uint32_t);
+    if (portablesize < sizeasarray) {
+        buf[0] = CROARING_SERIALIZATION_CONTAINER;
+        return roaring_bitmap_portable_serialize(r, buf + 1) + 1;
+    } else {
+        buf[0] = CROARING_SERIALIZATION_ARRAY_UINT32;
+        memcpy(buf + 1, &cardinality, sizeof(uint32_t));
+        roaring_bitmap_to_uint32_array(
+            r, (uint32_t *)(buf + 1 + sizeof(uint32_t)));
+        return 1 + (size_t)sizeasarray;
+    }
+}
+
+size_t roaring_bitmap_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    size_t portablesize = roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(r);
+    uint64_t sizeasarray = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(r) * sizeof(uint32_t) +
+                         sizeof(uint32_t);
+    return portablesize < sizeasarray ? portablesize + 1 : (size_t)sizeasarray + 1;
+}
+
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    return ra_portable_size_in_bytes(&r->high_low_container);
+}
+
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(const char *buf, size_t maxbytes) {
+    roaring_bitmap_t *ans =
+        (roaring_bitmap_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(roaring_bitmap_t));
+    if (ans == NULL) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    size_t bytesread;
+    bool is_ok = ra_portable_deserialize(&ans->high_low_container, buf, maxbytes, &bytesread);
+    if(is_ok) assert(bytesread <= maxbytes);
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(ans, false);
+    if (!is_ok) {
+        roaring_free(ans);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    return ans;
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize(const char *buf) {
+    return roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(buf, SIZE_MAX);
+}
+
+
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf, size_t maxbytes) {
+  return ra_portable_deserialize_size(buf, maxbytes);
+}
+
+
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                         char *buf) {
+    return ra_portable_serialize(&r->high_low_container, buf);
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_deserialize(const void *buf) {
+    const char *bufaschar = (const char *)buf;
+    if (*(const unsigned char *)buf == CROARING_SERIALIZATION_ARRAY_UINT32) {
+        /* This looks like a compressed set of uint32_t elements */
+        uint32_t card;
+        memcpy(&card, bufaschar + 1, sizeof(uint32_t));
+        const uint32_t *elems =
+            (const uint32_t *)(bufaschar + 1 + sizeof(uint32_t));
+
+        return roaring_bitmap_of_ptr(card, elems);
+    } else if (bufaschar[0] == CROARING_SERIALIZATION_CONTAINER) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize(bufaschar + 1);
+    } else
+        return (NULL);
+}
+
+bool roaring_iterate(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, roaring_iterator iterator,
+                     void *ptr) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i)
+        if (!container_iterate(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i],
+                               ((uint32_t)ra->keys[i]) << 16,
+                               iterator, ptr)) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool roaring_iterate64(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, roaring_iterator64 iterator,
+                       uint64_t high_bits, void *ptr) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i)
+        if (!container_iterate64(
+                ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i],
+                ((uint32_t)ra->keys[i]) << 16, iterator,
+                high_bits, ptr)) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    return true;
+}
+
+/****
+* begin roaring_uint32_iterator_t
+*****/
+
+// Partially initializes the roaring iterator when it begins looking at
+// a new container.
+static bool iter_new_container_partial_init(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit) {
+    newit->in_container_index = 0;
+    newit->run_index = 0;
+    newit->current_value = 0;
+    if (newit->container_index >= newit->parent->high_low_container.size ||
+        newit->container_index < 0) {
+        newit->current_value = UINT32_MAX;
+        return (newit->has_value = false);
+    }
+    // assume not empty
+    newit->has_value = true;
+    // we precompute container, typecode and highbits so that successive
+    // iterators do not have to grab them from odd memory locations
+    // and have to worry about the (easily predicted) container_unwrap_shared
+    // call.
+    newit->container =
+            newit->parent->high_low_container.containers[newit->container_index];
+    newit->typecode =
+            newit->parent->high_low_container.typecodes[newit->container_index];
+    newit->highbits =
+            ((uint32_t)
+                    newit->parent->high_low_container.keys[newit->container_index])
+                    << 16;
+    newit->container =
+            container_unwrap_shared(newit->container, &(newit->typecode));
+    return newit->has_value;
+}
+
+static bool loadfirstvalue(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit) {
+    if (!iter_new_container_partial_init(newit))
+        return newit->has_value;
+
+    switch (newit->typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const bitset_container_t *bc = const_CAST_bitset(newit->container);
+
+            uint32_t wordindex = 0;
+            uint64_t word;
+            while ((word = bc->words[wordindex]) == 0) {
+                wordindex++;  // advance
+            }
+            // here "word" is non-zero
+            newit->in_container_index = wordindex * 64 + __builtin_ctzll(word);
+            newit->current_value = newit->highbits | newit->in_container_index;
+            break; }
+
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const array_container_t *ac = const_CAST_array(newit->container);
+            newit->current_value = newit->highbits | ac->array[0];
+            break; }
+
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const run_container_t *rc = const_CAST_run(newit->container);
+            newit->current_value = newit->highbits | rc->runs[0].value;
+            break; }
+
+        default:
+            // if this ever happens, bug!
+            assert(false);
+    }  // switch (typecode)
+    return true;
+}
+
+static bool loadlastvalue(roaring_uint32_iterator_t* newit) {
+    if (!iter_new_container_partial_init(newit))
+        return newit->has_value;
+
+    switch(newit->typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            uint32_t wordindex = BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS - 1;
+            uint64_t word;
+            const bitset_container_t* bitset_container = (const bitset_container_t*)newit->container;
+            while ((word = bitset_container->words[wordindex]) == 0)
+                --wordindex;
+
+            int num_leading_zeros = __builtin_clzll(word);
+            newit->in_container_index = (wordindex * 64) + (63 - num_leading_zeros);
+            newit->current_value = newit->highbits | newit->in_container_index;
+            break;
+        }
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const array_container_t* array_container = (const array_container_t*)newit->container;
+            newit->in_container_index = array_container->cardinality - 1;
+            newit->current_value = newit->highbits | array_container->array[newit->in_container_index];
+            break;
+        }
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const run_container_t* run_container = (const run_container_t*)newit->container;
+            newit->run_index = run_container->n_runs - 1;
+            const rle16_t* last_run = &run_container->runs[newit->run_index];
+            newit->current_value = newit->highbits | (last_run->value + last_run->length);
+            break;
+        }
+        default:
+            // if this ever happens, bug!
+            assert(false);
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+// prerequesite: the value should be in range of the container
+static bool loadfirstvalue_largeorequal(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit, uint32_t val) {
+    // Don't have to check return value because of prerequisite
+    iter_new_container_partial_init(newit);
+    uint16_t lb = val & 0xFFFF;
+
+    switch (newit->typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const bitset_container_t *bc = const_CAST_bitset(newit->container);
+            newit->in_container_index =
+                        bitset_container_index_equalorlarger(bc, lb);
+            newit->current_value = newit->highbits | newit->in_container_index;
+            break; }
+
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const array_container_t *ac = const_CAST_array(newit->container);
+            newit->in_container_index =
+                        array_container_index_equalorlarger(ac, lb);
+            newit->current_value =
+                        newit->highbits | ac->array[newit->in_container_index];
+            break; }
+
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const run_container_t *rc = const_CAST_run(newit->container);
+            newit->run_index = run_container_index_equalorlarger(rc, lb);
+            if (rc->runs[newit->run_index].value <= lb) {
+                newit->current_value = val;
+            } else {
+                newit->current_value =
+                        newit->highbits | rc->runs[newit->run_index].value;
+            }
+            break; }
+
+        default:
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+
+    return true;
+}
+
+void roaring_init_iterator(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                           roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit) {
+    newit->parent = r;
+    newit->container_index = 0;
+    newit->has_value = loadfirstvalue(newit);
+}
+
+void roaring_init_iterator_last(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit) {
+    newit->parent = r;
+    newit->container_index = newit->parent->high_low_container.size - 1;
+    newit->has_value = loadlastvalue(newit);
+}
+
+roaring_uint32_iterator_t *roaring_create_iterator(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit =
+        (roaring_uint32_iterator_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(roaring_uint32_iterator_t));
+    if (newit == NULL) return NULL;
+    roaring_init_iterator(r, newit);
+    return newit;
+}
+
+roaring_uint32_iterator_t *roaring_copy_uint32_iterator(
+    const roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it) {
+    roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit =
+        (roaring_uint32_iterator_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(roaring_uint32_iterator_t));
+    memcpy(newit, it, sizeof(roaring_uint32_iterator_t));
+    return newit;
+}
+
+bool roaring_move_uint32_iterator_equalorlarger(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it, uint32_t val) {
+    uint16_t hb = val >> 16;
+    const int i = ra_get_index(& it->parent->high_low_container, hb);
+    if (i >= 0) {
+      uint32_t lowvalue = container_maximum(it->parent->high_low_container.containers[i], it->parent->high_low_container.typecodes[i]);
+      uint16_t lb = val & 0xFFFF;
+      if(lowvalue < lb ) {
+        it->container_index = i+1; // will have to load first value of next container
+      } else {// the value is necessarily within the range of the container
+        it->container_index = i;
+        it->has_value = loadfirstvalue_largeorequal(it, val);
+        return it->has_value;
+      }
+    } else {
+      // there is no matching, so we are going for the next container
+      it->container_index = -i-1;
+    }
+    it->has_value = loadfirstvalue(it);
+    return it->has_value;
+}
+
+
+bool roaring_advance_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it) {
+    if (it->container_index >= it->parent->high_low_container.size) {
+        return (it->has_value = false);
+    }
+    if (it->container_index < 0) {
+        it->container_index = 0;
+        return (it->has_value = loadfirstvalue(it));
+    }
+
+    switch (it->typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const bitset_container_t *bc = const_CAST_bitset(it->container);
+            it->in_container_index++;
+
+            uint32_t wordindex = it->in_container_index / 64;
+            if (wordindex >= BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS) break;
+
+            uint64_t word = bc->words[wordindex] &
+                   (UINT64_MAX << (it->in_container_index % 64));
+            // next part could be optimized/simplified
+            while ((word == 0) &&
+                   (wordindex + 1 < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS)) {
+                wordindex++;
+                word = bc->words[wordindex];
+            }
+            if (word != 0) {
+                it->in_container_index = wordindex * 64 + __builtin_ctzll(word);
+                it->current_value = it->highbits | it->in_container_index;
+                return (it->has_value = true);
+            }
+            break; }
+
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            const array_container_t *ac = const_CAST_array(it->container);
+            it->in_container_index++;
+            if (it->in_container_index < ac->cardinality) {
+                it->current_value =
+                        it->highbits | ac->array[it->in_container_index];
+                return (it->has_value = true);
+            }
+            break; }
+
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            if(it->current_value == UINT32_MAX) {  // avoid overflow to zero
+                return (it->has_value = false);
+            }
+
+            const run_container_t* rc = const_CAST_run(it->container);
+            uint32_t limit = (it->highbits | (rc->runs[it->run_index].value +
+                                              rc->runs[it->run_index].length));
+            if (++it->current_value <= limit) {
+                return (it->has_value = true);
+            }
+
+            if (++it->run_index < rc->n_runs) {  // Assume the run has a value
+                it->current_value =
+                        it->highbits | rc->runs[it->run_index].value;
+                return (it->has_value = true);
+            }
+            break;
+        }
+
+        default:
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+
+    // moving to next container
+    it->container_index++;
+    return (it->has_value = loadfirstvalue(it));
+}
+
+bool roaring_previous_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it) {
+    if (it->container_index < 0) {
+        return (it->has_value = false);
+    }
+    if (it->container_index >= it->parent->high_low_container.size) {
+        it->container_index = it->parent->high_low_container.size - 1;
+        return (it->has_value = loadlastvalue(it));
+    }
+
+    switch (it->typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            if (--it->in_container_index < 0)
+                break;
+
+            const bitset_container_t* bitset_container = (const bitset_container_t*)it->container;
+            int32_t wordindex = it->in_container_index / 64;
+            uint64_t word = bitset_container->words[wordindex] & (UINT64_MAX >> (63 - (it->in_container_index % 64)));
+
+            while (word == 0 && --wordindex >= 0) {
+                word = bitset_container->words[wordindex];
+            }
+            if (word == 0)
+                break;
+
+            int num_leading_zeros = __builtin_clzll(word);
+            it->in_container_index = (wordindex * 64) + (63 - num_leading_zeros);
+            it->current_value = it->highbits | it->in_container_index;
+            return (it->has_value = true);
+        }
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            if (--it->in_container_index < 0)
+                break;
+
+            const array_container_t* array_container = (const array_container_t*)it->container;
+            it->current_value = it->highbits | array_container->array[it->in_container_index];
+            return (it->has_value = true);
+        }
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+            if(it->current_value == 0)
+                return (it->has_value = false);
+
+            const run_container_t* run_container = (const run_container_t*)it->container;
+            if (--it->current_value >= (it->highbits | run_container->runs[it->run_index].value)) {
+                return (it->has_value = true);
+            }
+
+            if (--it->run_index < 0)
+                break;
+
+            it->current_value = it->highbits | (run_container->runs[it->run_index].value +
+                                                run_container->runs[it->run_index].length);
+            return (it->has_value = true);
+        }
+        default:
+            // if this ever happens, bug!
+            assert(false);
+    }  // switch (typecode)
+
+    // moving to previous container
+    it->container_index--;
+    return (it->has_value = loadlastvalue(it));
+}
+
+uint32_t roaring_read_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it, uint32_t* buf, uint32_t count) {
+  uint32_t ret = 0;
+  uint32_t num_values;
+  uint32_t wordindex;  // used for bitsets
+  uint64_t word;       // used for bitsets
+  const array_container_t* acont; //TODO remove
+  const run_container_t* rcont; //TODO remove
+  const bitset_container_t* bcont; //TODO remove
+
+  while (it->has_value && ret < count) {
+    switch (it->typecode) {
+      case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+        bcont = const_CAST_bitset(it->container);
+        wordindex = it->in_container_index / 64;
+        word = bcont->words[wordindex] & (UINT64_MAX << (it->in_container_index % 64));
+        do {
+          while (word != 0 && ret < count) {
+            buf[0] = it->highbits | (wordindex * 64 + __builtin_ctzll(word));
+            word = word & (word - 1);
+            buf++;
+            ret++;
+          }
+          while (word == 0 && wordindex+1 < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS) {
+            wordindex++;
+            word = bcont->words[wordindex];
+          }
+        } while (word != 0 && ret < count);
+        it->has_value = (word != 0);
+        if (it->has_value) {
+          it->in_container_index = wordindex * 64 + __builtin_ctzll(word);
+          it->current_value = it->highbits | it->in_container_index;
+        }
+        break;
+      case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+        acont = const_CAST_array(it->container);
+        num_values = minimum_uint32(acont->cardinality - it->in_container_index, count - ret);
+        for (uint32_t i = 0; i < num_values; i++) {
+          buf[i] = it->highbits | acont->array[it->in_container_index + i];
+        }
+        buf += num_values;
+        ret += num_values;
+        it->in_container_index += num_values;
+        it->has_value = (it->in_container_index < acont->cardinality);
+        if (it->has_value) {
+          it->current_value = it->highbits | acont->array[it->in_container_index];
+        }
+        break;
+      case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+        rcont = const_CAST_run(it->container);
+        //"in_run_index" name is misleading, read it as "max_value_in_current_run"
+        do {
+          uint32_t largest_run_value = it->highbits | (rcont->runs[it->run_index].value + rcont->runs[it->run_index].length);
+          num_values = minimum_uint32(largest_run_value - it->current_value + 1, count - ret);
+          for (uint32_t i = 0; i < num_values; i++) {
+            buf[i] = it->current_value + i;
+          }
+          it->current_value += num_values; // this can overflow to zero: UINT32_MAX+1=0
+          buf += num_values;
+          ret += num_values;
+
+          if (it->current_value > largest_run_value || it->current_value == 0) {
+            it->run_index++;
+            if (it->run_index < rcont->n_runs) {
+              it->current_value = it->highbits | rcont->runs[it->run_index].value;
+            } else {
+              it->has_value = false;
+            }
+          }
+        } while ((ret < count) && it->has_value);
+        break;
+      default:
+        assert(false);
+    }
+    if (it->has_value) {
+      assert(ret == count);
+      return ret;
+    }
+    it->container_index++;
+    it->has_value = loadfirstvalue(it);
+  }
+  return ret;
+}
+
+
+
+void roaring_free_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it) { roaring_free(it); }
+
+/****
+* end of roaring_uint32_iterator_t
+*****/
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_equals(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                           const roaring_bitmap_t *r2) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra1 = &r1->high_low_container;
+    const roaring_array_t *ra2 = &r2->high_low_container;
+
+    if (ra1->size != ra2->size) {
+        return false;
+    }
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra1->size; ++i) {
+        if (ra1->keys[i] != ra2->keys[i]) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra1->size; ++i) {
+        bool areequal = container_equals(ra1->containers[i],
+                                         ra1->typecodes[i],
+                                         ra2->containers[i],
+                                         ra2->typecodes[i]);
+        if (!areequal) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_is_subset(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                              const roaring_bitmap_t *r2) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra1 = &r1->high_low_container;
+    const roaring_array_t *ra2 = &r2->high_low_container;
+
+    const int length1 = ra1->size,
+              length2 = ra2->size;
+
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+
+    while (pos1 < length1 && pos2 < length2) {
+        const uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(ra1, pos1);
+        const uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(ra2, pos2);
+
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            uint8_t type1, type2;
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(ra1, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(ra2, pos2, &type2);
+            if (!container_is_subset(c1, type1, c2, type2))
+                return false;
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            return false;
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            pos2 = ra_advance_until(ra2, s1, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1)
+        return true;
+    else
+        return false;
+}
+
+static void insert_flipped_container(roaring_array_t *ans_arr,
+                                     const roaring_array_t *x1_arr, uint16_t hb,
+                                     uint16_t lb_start, uint16_t lb_end) {
+    const int i = ra_get_index(x1_arr, hb);
+    const int j = ra_get_index(ans_arr, hb);
+    uint8_t ctype_in, ctype_out;
+    container_t *flipped_container = NULL;
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        container_t *container_to_flip =
+            ra_get_container_at_index(x1_arr, i, &ctype_in);
+        flipped_container =
+            container_not_range(container_to_flip, ctype_in, (uint32_t)lb_start,
+                                (uint32_t)(lb_end + 1), &ctype_out);
+
+        if (container_get_cardinality(flipped_container, ctype_out))
+            ra_insert_new_key_value_at(ans_arr, -j - 1, hb, flipped_container,
+                                       ctype_out);
+        else {
+            container_free(flipped_container, ctype_out);
+        }
+    } else {
+        flipped_container = container_range_of_ones(
+            (uint32_t)lb_start, (uint32_t)(lb_end + 1), &ctype_out);
+        ra_insert_new_key_value_at(ans_arr, -j - 1, hb, flipped_container,
+                                   ctype_out);
+    }
+}
+
+static void inplace_flip_container(roaring_array_t *x1_arr, uint16_t hb,
+                                   uint16_t lb_start, uint16_t lb_end) {
+    const int i = ra_get_index(x1_arr, hb);
+    uint8_t ctype_in, ctype_out;
+    container_t *flipped_container = NULL;
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        container_t *container_to_flip =
+            ra_get_container_at_index(x1_arr, i, &ctype_in);
+        flipped_container = container_inot_range(
+            container_to_flip, ctype_in, (uint32_t)lb_start,
+            (uint32_t)(lb_end + 1), &ctype_out);
+        // if a new container was created, the old one was already freed
+        if (container_get_cardinality(flipped_container, ctype_out)) {
+            ra_set_container_at_index(x1_arr, i, flipped_container, ctype_out);
+        } else {
+            container_free(flipped_container, ctype_out);
+            ra_remove_at_index(x1_arr, i);
+        }
+
+    } else {
+        flipped_container = container_range_of_ones(
+            (uint32_t)lb_start, (uint32_t)(lb_end + 1), &ctype_out);
+        ra_insert_new_key_value_at(x1_arr, -i - 1, hb, flipped_container,
+                                   ctype_out);
+    }
+}
+
+static void insert_fully_flipped_container(roaring_array_t *ans_arr,
+                                           const roaring_array_t *x1_arr,
+                                           uint16_t hb) {
+    const int i = ra_get_index(x1_arr, hb);
+    const int j = ra_get_index(ans_arr, hb);
+    uint8_t ctype_in, ctype_out;
+    container_t *flipped_container = NULL;
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        container_t *container_to_flip =
+            ra_get_container_at_index(x1_arr, i, &ctype_in);
+        flipped_container =
+            container_not(container_to_flip, ctype_in, &ctype_out);
+        if (container_get_cardinality(flipped_container, ctype_out))
+            ra_insert_new_key_value_at(ans_arr, -j - 1, hb, flipped_container,
+                                       ctype_out);
+        else {
+            container_free(flipped_container, ctype_out);
+        }
+    } else {
+        flipped_container = container_range_of_ones(0U, 0x10000U, &ctype_out);
+        ra_insert_new_key_value_at(ans_arr, -j - 1, hb, flipped_container,
+                                   ctype_out);
+    }
+}
+
+static void inplace_fully_flip_container(roaring_array_t *x1_arr, uint16_t hb) {
+    const int i = ra_get_index(x1_arr, hb);
+    uint8_t ctype_in, ctype_out;
+    container_t *flipped_container = NULL;
+    if (i >= 0) {
+        container_t *container_to_flip =
+            ra_get_container_at_index(x1_arr, i, &ctype_in);
+        flipped_container =
+            container_inot(container_to_flip, ctype_in, &ctype_out);
+
+        if (container_get_cardinality(flipped_container, ctype_out)) {
+            ra_set_container_at_index(x1_arr, i, flipped_container, ctype_out);
+        } else {
+            container_free(flipped_container, ctype_out);
+            ra_remove_at_index(x1_arr, i);
+        }
+
+    } else {
+        flipped_container = container_range_of_ones(0U, 0x10000U, &ctype_out);
+        ra_insert_new_key_value_at(x1_arr, -i - 1, hb, flipped_container,
+                                   ctype_out);
+    }
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_flip(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                      uint64_t range_start,
+                                      uint64_t range_end) {
+    if (range_start >= range_end) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x1);
+    }
+    if(range_end >= UINT64_C(0x100000000)) {
+        range_end = UINT64_C(0x100000000);
+    }
+
+    roaring_bitmap_t *ans = roaring_bitmap_create();
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(ans, is_cow(x1));
+
+    uint16_t hb_start = (uint16_t)(range_start >> 16);
+    const uint16_t lb_start = (uint16_t)range_start;  // & 0xFFFF;
+    uint16_t hb_end = (uint16_t)((range_end - 1) >> 16);
+    const uint16_t lb_end = (uint16_t)(range_end - 1);  // & 0xFFFF;
+
+    ra_append_copies_until(&ans->high_low_container, &x1->high_low_container,
+                           hb_start, is_cow(x1));
+    if (hb_start == hb_end) {
+        insert_flipped_container(&ans->high_low_container,
+                                 &x1->high_low_container, hb_start, lb_start,
+                                 lb_end);
+    } else {
+        // start and end containers are distinct
+        if (lb_start > 0) {
+            // handle first (partial) container
+            insert_flipped_container(&ans->high_low_container,
+                                     &x1->high_low_container, hb_start,
+                                     lb_start, 0xFFFF);
+            ++hb_start;  // for the full containers.  Can't wrap.
+        }
+
+        if (lb_end != 0xFFFF) --hb_end;  // later we'll handle the partial block
+
+        for (uint32_t hb = hb_start; hb <= hb_end; ++hb) {
+            insert_fully_flipped_container(&ans->high_low_container,
+                                           &x1->high_low_container, hb);
+        }
+
+        // handle a partial final container
+        if (lb_end != 0xFFFF) {
+            insert_flipped_container(&ans->high_low_container,
+                                     &x1->high_low_container, hb_end + 1, 0,
+                                     lb_end);
+            ++hb_end;
+        }
+    }
+    ra_append_copies_after(&ans->high_low_container, &x1->high_low_container,
+                           hb_end, is_cow(x1));
+    return ans;
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_flip_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *x1, uint64_t range_start,
+                                 uint64_t range_end) {
+    if (range_start >= range_end) {
+        return;  // empty range
+    }
+    if(range_end >= UINT64_C(0x100000000)) {
+        range_end = UINT64_C(0x100000000);
+    }
+
+    uint16_t hb_start = (uint16_t)(range_start >> 16);
+    const uint16_t lb_start = (uint16_t)range_start;
+    uint16_t hb_end = (uint16_t)((range_end - 1) >> 16);
+    const uint16_t lb_end = (uint16_t)(range_end - 1);
+
+    if (hb_start == hb_end) {
+        inplace_flip_container(&x1->high_low_container, hb_start, lb_start,
+                               lb_end);
+    } else {
+        // start and end containers are distinct
+        if (lb_start > 0) {
+            // handle first (partial) container
+            inplace_flip_container(&x1->high_low_container, hb_start, lb_start,
+                                   0xFFFF);
+            ++hb_start;  // for the full containers.  Can't wrap.
+        }
+
+        if (lb_end != 0xFFFF) --hb_end;
+
+        for (uint32_t hb = hb_start; hb <= hb_end; ++hb) {
+            inplace_fully_flip_container(&x1->high_low_container, hb);
+        }
+        // handle a partial final container
+        if (lb_end != 0xFFFF) {
+            inplace_flip_container(&x1->high_low_container, hb_end + 1, 0,
+                                   lb_end);
+            ++hb_end;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+static void offset_append_with_merge(roaring_array_t *ra, int k, container_t *c, uint8_t t) {
+    int size = ra_get_size(ra);
+    if (size == 0 || ra_get_key_at_index(ra, size-1) != k) {
+        // No merge.
+        ra_append(ra, k, c, t);
+        return;
+    }
+
+    uint8_t last_t, new_t;
+    container_t *last_c, *new_c;
+
+    // NOTE: we don't need to unwrap here, since we added last_c ourselves
+    // we have the certainty it's not a shared container.
+    // The same applies to c, as it's the result of calling container_offset.
+    last_c = ra_get_container_at_index(ra, size-1, &last_t);
+    new_c = container_ior(last_c, last_t, c, t, &new_t);
+
+    ra_set_container_at_index(ra, size-1, new_c, new_t);
+
+    // Comparison of pointers of different origin is UB (or so claim some compiler
+    // makers), so we compare their bit representation only.
+    if ((uintptr_t)last_c != (uintptr_t)new_c) {
+        container_free(last_c, last_t);
+    }
+    container_free(c, t);
+}
+
+// roaring_bitmap_add_offset adds the value 'offset' to each and every value in
+// a bitmap, generating a new bitmap in the process. If offset + element is
+// outside of the range [0,2^32), that the element will be dropped.
+// We need "offset" to be 64 bits because we want to support values
+// between -0xFFFFFFFF up to +0xFFFFFFFF.
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_add_offset(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm,
+                                            int64_t offset) {
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer;
+    roaring_array_t *ans_ra;
+    int64_t container_offset;
+    uint16_t in_offset;
+
+    const roaring_array_t *bm_ra = &bm->high_low_container;
+    int length = bm_ra->size;
+
+    if (offset == 0) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(bm);
+    }
+
+    container_offset = offset >> 16;
+    in_offset = (uint16_t)(offset - container_offset * (1 << 16));
+
+    answer = roaring_bitmap_create();
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(answer, is_cow(bm));
+
+    ans_ra = &answer->high_low_container;
+
+    if (in_offset == 0) {
+        ans_ra = &answer->high_low_container;
+
+        for (int i = 0, j = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+            int64_t key = ra_get_key_at_index(bm_ra, i);
+            key += container_offset;
+
+            if (key < 0 || key >= (1 << 16)) {
+                continue;
+            }
+
+            ra_append_copy(ans_ra, bm_ra, i, false);
+            ans_ra->keys[j++] = key;
+        }
+
+        return answer;
+    }
+
+    uint8_t t;
+    const container_t *c;
+    container_t *lo, *hi, **lo_ptr, **hi_ptr;
+    int64_t k;
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+        lo = hi = NULL;
+        lo_ptr = hi_ptr = NULL;
+
+        k = ra_get_key_at_index(bm_ra, i)+container_offset;
+        if (k >= 0 && k < (1 << 16)) {
+            lo_ptr = &lo;
+        }
+        if (k+1 >= 0 && k+1 < (1 << 16)) {
+            hi_ptr = &hi;
+        }
+        if (lo_ptr == NULL && hi_ptr == NULL) {
+            continue;
+        }
+
+        c = ra_get_container_at_index(bm_ra, i, &t);
+        c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &t);
+
+        container_add_offset(c, t, lo_ptr, hi_ptr, in_offset);
+        if (lo != NULL) {
+            offset_append_with_merge(ans_ra, k, lo, t);
+        }
+        if (hi != NULL) {
+            ra_append(ans_ra, k+1, hi, t);
+        }
+    }
+
+    return answer;
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_lazy_or(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                         const roaring_bitmap_t *x2,
+                                         const bool bitsetconversion) {
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    const int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size,
+              length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x2);
+    }
+    if (0 == length2) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x1);
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer =
+        roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(length1 + length2);
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(answer, is_cow(x1) || is_cow(x2));
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            container_t *c;
+            if (bitsetconversion &&
+                (get_container_type(c1, type1) != BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE) &&
+                (get_container_type(c2, type2) != BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE)
+            ){
+                container_t *newc1 =
+                    container_mutable_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+                newc1 = container_to_bitset(newc1, type1);
+                type1 = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                c = container_lazy_ior(newc1, type1, c2, type2,
+                                       &result_type);
+                if (c != newc1) {  // should not happen
+                    container_free(newc1, type1);
+                }
+            } else {
+                c = container_lazy_or(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+            }
+            // since we assume that the initial containers are non-empty,
+            // the
+            // result here
+            // can only be non-empty
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c, result_type);
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            c1 = get_copy_of_container(c1, &type1, is_cow(x1));
+            if (is_cow(x1)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, c1,
+                                          type1);
+            }
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c1, type1);
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            c2 = get_copy_of_container(c2, &type2, is_cow(x2));
+            if (is_cow(x2)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2, c2,
+                                          type2);
+            }
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s2, c2, type2);
+            pos2++;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x2->high_low_container, pos2, length2,
+                             is_cow(x2));
+    } else if (pos2 == length2) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x1->high_low_container, pos1, length1,
+                             is_cow(x1));
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                    const roaring_bitmap_t *x2,
+                                    const bool bitsetconversion) {
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size;
+    const int length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+
+    if (0 == length2) return;
+
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        roaring_bitmap_overwrite(x1, x2);
+        return;
+    }
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            if (!container_is_full(c1, type1)) {
+                if ((bitsetconversion == false) ||
+                    (get_container_type(c1, type1) == BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE)
+                ){
+                    c1 = get_writable_copy_if_shared(c1, &type1);
+                } else {
+                    // convert to bitset
+                    container_t *old_c1 = c1;
+                    uint8_t old_type1 = type1;
+                    c1 = container_mutable_unwrap_shared(c1, &type1);
+                    c1 = container_to_bitset(c1, type1);
+                    container_free(old_c1, old_type1);
+                    type1 = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                }
+
+                container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                        &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+                container_t *c = container_lazy_ior(c1, type1, c2, type2,
+                                                    &result_type);
+
+                if (c != c1) {  // in this instance a new container was created,
+                                // and we need to free the old one
+                    container_free(c1, type1);
+                }
+
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, c,
+                                          result_type);
+            }
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            // container_t *c2_clone = container_clone(c2, type2);
+            c2 = get_copy_of_container(c2, &type2, is_cow(x2));
+            if (is_cow(x2)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2, c2,
+                                          type2);
+            }
+            ra_insert_new_key_value_at(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, s2, c2,
+                                       type2);
+            pos1++;
+            length1++;
+            pos2++;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&x1->high_low_container, &x2->high_low_container,
+                             pos2, length2, is_cow(x2));
+    }
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                          const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    const int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size,
+              length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x2);
+    }
+    if (0 == length2) {
+        return roaring_bitmap_copy(x1);
+    }
+    roaring_bitmap_t *answer =
+        roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(length1 + length2);
+    roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(answer, is_cow(x1) || is_cow(x2));
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            container_t *c = container_lazy_xor(
+                                    c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+
+            if (container_nonzero_cardinality(c, result_type)) {
+                ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c, result_type);
+            } else {
+                container_free(c, result_type);
+            }
+
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            c1 = get_copy_of_container(c1, &type1, is_cow(x1));
+            if (is_cow(x1)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, c1,
+                                          type1);
+            }
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s1, c1, type1);
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            c2 = get_copy_of_container(c2, &type2, is_cow(x2));
+            if (is_cow(x2)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2, c2,
+                                          type2);
+            }
+            ra_append(&answer->high_low_container, s2, c2, type2);
+            pos2++;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x2->high_low_container, pos2, length2,
+                             is_cow(x2));
+    } else if (pos2 == length2) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&answer->high_low_container,
+                             &x1->high_low_container, pos1, length1,
+                             is_cow(x1));
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    assert(x1 != x2);
+    uint8_t result_type = 0;
+    int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size;
+    const int length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+
+    if (0 == length2) return;
+
+    if (0 == length1) {
+        roaring_bitmap_overwrite(x1, x2);
+        return;
+    }
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+    uint8_t type1, type2;
+    uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+    uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+
+            // We do the computation "in place" only when c1 is not a shared container.
+            // Rationale: using a shared container safely with in place computation would
+            // require making a copy and then doing the computation in place which is likely
+            // less efficient than avoiding in place entirely and always generating a new
+            // container.
+
+            container_t *c;
+            if (type1 == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+                c = container_lazy_xor(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+                shared_container_free(CAST_shared(c1));  // release
+            }
+            else {
+                c = container_lazy_ixor(c1, type1, c2, type2, &result_type);
+            }
+
+            if (container_nonzero_cardinality(c, result_type)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, c,
+                                          result_type);
+                ++pos1;
+            } else {
+                container_free(c, result_type);
+                ra_remove_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+                --length1;
+            }
+            ++pos2;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            pos1++;
+            if (pos1 == length1) break;
+            s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            // container_t *c2_clone = container_clone(c2, type2);
+            c2 = get_copy_of_container(c2, &type2, is_cow(x2));
+            if (is_cow(x2)) {
+                ra_set_container_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2, c2,
+                                          type2);
+            }
+            ra_insert_new_key_value_at(&x1->high_low_container, pos1, s2, c2,
+                                       type2);
+            pos1++;
+            length1++;
+            pos2++;
+            if (pos2 == length2) break;
+            s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 == length1) {
+        ra_append_copy_range(&x1->high_low_container, &x2->high_low_container,
+                             pos2, length2, is_cow(x2));
+    }
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy(roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
+    roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
+
+    for (int i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i) {
+        const uint8_t old_type = ra->typecodes[i];
+        container_t *old_c = ra->containers[i];
+        uint8_t new_type = old_type;
+        container_t *new_c = container_repair_after_lazy(old_c, &new_type);
+        ra->containers[i] = new_c;
+        ra->typecodes[i] = new_type;
+    }
+}
+
+
+
+/**
+* roaring_bitmap_rank returns the number of integers that are smaller or equal
+* to x.
+*/
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_rank(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm, uint32_t x) {
+    uint64_t size = 0;
+    uint32_t xhigh = x >> 16;
+    for (int i = 0; i < bm->high_low_container.size; i++) {
+        uint32_t key = bm->high_low_container.keys[i];
+        if (xhigh > key) {
+            size +=
+                container_get_cardinality(bm->high_low_container.containers[i],
+                                          bm->high_low_container.typecodes[i]);
+        } else if (xhigh == key) {
+            return size + container_rank(bm->high_low_container.containers[i],
+                                         bm->high_low_container.typecodes[i],
+                                         x & 0xFFFF);
+        } else {
+            return size;
+        }
+    }
+    return size;
+}
+
+/**
+* roaring_bitmap_smallest returns the smallest value in the set.
+* Returns UINT32_MAX if the set is empty.
+*/
+uint32_t roaring_bitmap_minimum(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm) {
+    if (bm->high_low_container.size > 0) {
+        container_t *c = bm->high_low_container.containers[0];
+        uint8_t type = bm->high_low_container.typecodes[0];
+        uint32_t key = bm->high_low_container.keys[0];
+        uint32_t lowvalue = container_minimum(c, type);
+        return lowvalue | (key << 16);
+    }
+    return UINT32_MAX;
+}
+
+/**
+* roaring_bitmap_smallest returns the greatest value in the set.
+* Returns 0 if the set is empty.
+*/
+uint32_t roaring_bitmap_maximum(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm) {
+    if (bm->high_low_container.size > 0) {
+        container_t *container =
+            bm->high_low_container.containers[bm->high_low_container.size - 1];
+        uint8_t typecode =
+            bm->high_low_container.typecodes[bm->high_low_container.size - 1];
+        uint32_t key =
+            bm->high_low_container.keys[bm->high_low_container.size - 1];
+        uint32_t lowvalue = container_maximum(container, typecode);
+        return lowvalue | (key << 16);
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_select(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm, uint32_t rank,
+                           uint32_t *element) {
+    container_t *container;
+    uint8_t typecode;
+    uint16_t key;
+    uint32_t start_rank = 0;
+    int i = 0;
+    bool valid = false;
+    while (!valid && i < bm->high_low_container.size) {
+        container = bm->high_low_container.containers[i];
+        typecode = bm->high_low_container.typecodes[i];
+        valid =
+            container_select(container, typecode, &start_rank, rank, element);
+        i++;
+    }
+
+    if (valid) {
+        key = bm->high_low_container.keys[i - 1];
+        *element |= (((uint32_t)key) << 16);  // w/o cast, key promotes signed
+        return true;
+    } else
+        return false;
+}
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_intersect(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    const int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size,
+              length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+    uint64_t answer = 0;
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+
+    while (pos1 < length1 && pos2 < length2) {
+        const uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(& x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+        const uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(& x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            uint8_t type1, type2;
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            if (container_intersect(c1, type1, c2, type2))
+                return true;
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            pos1 = ra_advance_until(& x1->high_low_container, s2, pos1);
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            pos2 = ra_advance_until(& x2->high_low_container, s1, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    return answer != 0;
+}
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_intersect_with_range(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm,
+                                         uint64_t x, uint64_t y) {
+    if (x >= y) {
+        // Empty range.
+        return false;
+    }
+    roaring_uint32_iterator_t it;
+    roaring_init_iterator(bm, &it);
+    if (!roaring_move_uint32_iterator_equalorlarger(&it, x)) {
+        // No values above x.
+        return false;
+    }
+    if (it.current_value >= y) {
+        // No values below y.
+        return false;
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_and_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                        const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    const int length1 = x1->high_low_container.size,
+              length2 = x2->high_low_container.size;
+    uint64_t answer = 0;
+    int pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0;
+
+    while (pos1 < length1 && pos2 < length2) {
+        const uint16_t s1 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x1->high_low_container, pos1);
+        const uint16_t s2 = ra_get_key_at_index(&x2->high_low_container, pos2);
+
+        if (s1 == s2) {
+            uint8_t type1, type2;
+            container_t *c1 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x1->high_low_container, pos1, &type1);
+            container_t *c2 = ra_get_container_at_index(
+                                    &x2->high_low_container, pos2, &type2);
+            answer += container_and_cardinality(c1, type1, c2, type2);
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+        } else if (s1 < s2) {  // s1 < s2
+            pos1 = ra_advance_until(&x1->high_low_container, s2, pos1);
+        } else {  // s1 > s2
+            pos2 = ra_advance_until(&x2->high_low_container, s1, pos2);
+        }
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+double roaring_bitmap_jaccard_index(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                    const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    const uint64_t c1 = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(x1);
+    const uint64_t c2 = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(x2);
+    const uint64_t inter = roaring_bitmap_and_cardinality(x1, x2);
+    return (double)inter / (double)(c1 + c2 - inter);
+}
+
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_or_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                       const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    const uint64_t c1 = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(x1);
+    const uint64_t c2 = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(x2);
+    const uint64_t inter = roaring_bitmap_and_cardinality(x1, x2);
+    return c1 + c2 - inter;
+}
+
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_andnot_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                           const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    const uint64_t c1 = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(x1);
+    const uint64_t inter = roaring_bitmap_and_cardinality(x1, x2);
+    return c1 - inter;
+}
+
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_xor_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *x1,
+                                        const roaring_bitmap_t *x2) {
+    const uint64_t c1 = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(x1);
+    const uint64_t c2 = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(x2);
+    const uint64_t inter = roaring_bitmap_and_cardinality(x1, x2);
+    return c1 + c2 - 2 * inter;
+}
+
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_contains(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t val) {
+    const uint16_t hb = val >> 16;
+    /*
+     * the next function call involves a binary search and lots of branching.
+     */
+    int32_t i = ra_get_index(&r->high_low_container, hb);
+    if (i < 0) return false;
+
+    uint8_t typecode;
+    // next call ought to be cheap
+    container_t *container =
+        ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, &typecode);
+    // rest might be a tad expensive, possibly involving another round of binary search
+    return container_contains(container, val & 0xFFFF, typecode);
+}
+
+
+/**
+ * Check whether a range of values from range_start (included) to range_end (excluded) is present
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_contains_range(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint64_t range_start, uint64_t range_end) {
+    if(range_end >= UINT64_C(0x100000000)) {
+        range_end = UINT64_C(0x100000000);
+    }
+    if (range_start >= range_end) return true;  // empty range are always contained!
+    if (range_end - range_start == 1) return roaring_bitmap_contains(r, (uint32_t)range_start);
+    uint16_t hb_rs = (uint16_t)(range_start >> 16);
+    uint16_t hb_re = (uint16_t)((range_end - 1) >> 16);
+    const int32_t span = hb_re - hb_rs;
+    const int32_t hlc_sz = ra_get_size(&r->high_low_container);
+    if (hlc_sz < span + 1) {
+      return false;
+    }
+    int32_t is = ra_get_index(&r->high_low_container, hb_rs);
+    int32_t ie = ra_get_index(&r->high_low_container, hb_re);
+    ie = (ie < 0 ? -ie - 1 : ie);
+    if ((is < 0) || ((ie - is) != span)) {
+       return false;
+    }
+    const uint32_t lb_rs = range_start & 0xFFFF;
+    const uint32_t lb_re = ((range_end - 1) & 0xFFFF) + 1;
+    uint8_t type;
+    container_t *c = ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, is,
+                                               &type);
+    if (hb_rs == hb_re) {
+      return container_contains_range(c, lb_rs, lb_re, type);
+    }
+    if (!container_contains_range(c, lb_rs, 1 << 16, type)) {
+      return false;
+    }
+    assert(ie < hlc_sz); // would indicate an algorithmic bug
+    c = ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, ie, &type);
+    if (!container_contains_range(c, 0, lb_re, type)) {
+        return false;
+    }
+    for (int32_t i = is + 1; i < ie; ++i) {
+        c = ra_get_container_at_index(&r->high_low_container, i, &type);
+        if (!container_is_full(c, type) ) {
+          return false;
+        }
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+
+bool roaring_bitmap_is_strict_subset(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *r2) {
+    return (roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(r2) >
+                roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(r1) &&
+            roaring_bitmap_is_subset(r1, r2));
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * FROZEN SERIALIZATION FORMAT DESCRIPTION
+ *
+ * -- (beginning must be aligned by 32 bytes) --
+ * <bitset_data> uint64_t[BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * num_bitset_containers]
+ * <run_data>    rle16_t[total number of rle elements in all run containers]
+ * <array_data>  uint16_t[total number of array elements in all array containers]
+ * <keys>        uint16_t[num_containers]
+ * <counts>      uint16_t[num_containers]
+ * <typecodes>   uint8_t[num_containers]
+ * <header>      uint32_t
+ *
+ * <header> is a 4-byte value which is a bit union of FROZEN_COOKIE (15 bits)
+ * and the number of containers (17 bits).
+ *
+ * <counts> stores number of elements for every container.
+ * Its meaning depends on container type.
+ * For array and bitset containers, this value is the container cardinality minus one.
+ * For run container, it is the number of rle_t elements (n_runs).
+ *
+ * <bitset_data>,<array_data>,<run_data> are flat arrays of elements of
+ * all containers of respective type.
+ *
+ * <*_data> and <keys> are kept close together because they are not accessed
+ * during deserilization. This may reduce IO in case of large mmaped bitmaps.
+ * All members have their native alignments during deserilization except <header>,
+ * which is not guaranteed to be aligned by 4 bytes.
+ */
+
+size_t roaring_bitmap_frozen_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *rb) {
+    const roaring_array_t *ra = &rb->high_low_container;
+    size_t num_bytes = 0;
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < ra->size; i++) {
+        switch (ra->typecodes[i]) {
+            case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                num_bytes += BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t);
+                break;
+            }
+            case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                const run_container_t *rc = const_CAST_run(ra->containers[i]);
+                num_bytes += rc->n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t);
+                break;
+            }
+            case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                const array_container_t *ac =
+                        const_CAST_array(ra->containers[i]);
+                num_bytes += ac->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t);
+                break;
+            }
+            default:
+                __builtin_unreachable();
+        }
+    }
+    num_bytes += (2 + 2 + 1) * ra->size; // keys, counts, typecodes
+    num_bytes += 4; // header
+    return num_bytes;
+}
+
+inline static void *arena_alloc(char **arena, size_t num_bytes) {
+    char *res = *arena;
+    *arena += num_bytes;
+    return res;
+}
+
+void roaring_bitmap_frozen_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *rb, char *buf) {
+    /*
+     * Note: we do not require user to supply a specifically aligned buffer.
+     * Thus we have to use memcpy() everywhere.
+     */
+
+    const roaring_array_t *ra = &rb->high_low_container;
+
+    size_t bitset_zone_size = 0;
+    size_t run_zone_size = 0;
+    size_t array_zone_size = 0;
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < ra->size; i++) {
+        switch (ra->typecodes[i]) {
+            case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                bitset_zone_size +=
+                        BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t);
+                break;
+            }
+            case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                const run_container_t *rc = const_CAST_run(ra->containers[i]);
+                run_zone_size += rc->n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t);
+                break;
+            }
+            case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                const array_container_t *ac =
+                        const_CAST_array(ra->containers[i]);
+                array_zone_size += ac->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t);
+                break;
+            }
+            default:
+                __builtin_unreachable();
+        }
+    }
+
+    uint64_t *bitset_zone = (uint64_t *)arena_alloc(&buf, bitset_zone_size);
+    rle16_t *run_zone = (rle16_t *)arena_alloc(&buf, run_zone_size);
+    uint16_t *array_zone = (uint16_t *)arena_alloc(&buf, array_zone_size);
+    uint16_t *key_zone = (uint16_t *)arena_alloc(&buf, 2*ra->size);
+    uint16_t *count_zone = (uint16_t *)arena_alloc(&buf, 2*ra->size);
+    uint8_t *typecode_zone = (uint8_t *)arena_alloc(&buf, ra->size);
+    uint32_t *header_zone = (uint32_t *)arena_alloc(&buf, 4);
+
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < ra->size; i++) {
+        uint16_t count;
+        switch (ra->typecodes[i]) {
+            case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                const bitset_container_t *bc =
+                            const_CAST_bitset(ra->containers[i]);
+                memcpy(bitset_zone, bc->words,
+                       BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t));
+                bitset_zone += BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS;
+                if (bc->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) {
+                    count = bc->cardinality - 1;
+                } else {
+                    count = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(bc) - 1;
+                }
+                break;
+            }
+            case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                const run_container_t *rc = const_CAST_run(ra->containers[i]);
+                size_t num_bytes = rc->n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t);
+                memcpy(run_zone, rc->runs, num_bytes);
+                run_zone += rc->n_runs;
+                count = rc->n_runs;
+                break;
+            }
+            case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                const array_container_t *ac =
+                            const_CAST_array(ra->containers[i]);
+                size_t num_bytes = ac->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t);
+                memcpy(array_zone, ac->array, num_bytes);
+                array_zone += ac->cardinality;
+                count = ac->cardinality - 1;
+                break;
+            }
+            default:
+                __builtin_unreachable();
+        }
+        memcpy(&count_zone[i], &count, 2);
+    }
+    memcpy(key_zone, ra->keys, ra->size * sizeof(uint16_t));
+    memcpy(typecode_zone, ra->typecodes, ra->size * sizeof(uint8_t));
+    uint32_t header = ((uint32_t)ra->size << 15) | FROZEN_COOKIE;
+    memcpy(header_zone, &header, 4);
+}
+
+const roaring_bitmap_t *
+roaring_bitmap_frozen_view(const char *buf, size_t length) {
+    if ((uintptr_t)buf % 32 != 0) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    // cookie and num_containers
+    if (length < 4) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    uint32_t header;
+    memcpy(&header, buf + length - 4, 4); // header may be misaligned
+    if ((header & 0x7FFF) != FROZEN_COOKIE) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    int32_t num_containers = (header >> 15);
+
+    // typecodes, counts and keys
+    if (length < 4 + (size_t)num_containers * (1 + 2 + 2)) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    uint16_t *keys = (uint16_t *)(buf + length - 4 - num_containers * 5);
+    uint16_t *counts = (uint16_t *)(buf + length - 4 - num_containers * 3);
+    uint8_t *typecodes = (uint8_t *)(buf + length - 4 - num_containers * 1);
+
+    // {bitset,array,run}_zone
+    int32_t num_bitset_containers = 0;
+    int32_t num_run_containers = 0;
+    int32_t num_array_containers = 0;
+    size_t bitset_zone_size = 0;
+    size_t run_zone_size = 0;
+    size_t array_zone_size = 0;
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < num_containers; i++) {
+        switch (typecodes[i]) {
+            case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                num_bitset_containers++;
+                bitset_zone_size += BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t);
+                break;
+            case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                num_run_containers++;
+                run_zone_size += counts[i] * sizeof(rle16_t);
+                break;
+            case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+                num_array_containers++;
+                array_zone_size += (counts[i] + UINT32_C(1)) * sizeof(uint16_t);
+                break;
+            default:
+                return NULL;
+        }
+    }
+    if (length != bitset_zone_size + run_zone_size + array_zone_size +
+                  5 * num_containers + 4) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    uint64_t *bitset_zone = (uint64_t*) (buf);
+    rle16_t *run_zone = (rle16_t*) (buf + bitset_zone_size);
+    uint16_t *array_zone = (uint16_t*) (buf + bitset_zone_size + run_zone_size);
+
+    size_t alloc_size = 0;
+    alloc_size += sizeof(roaring_bitmap_t);
+    alloc_size += num_containers * sizeof(container_t*);
+    alloc_size += num_bitset_containers * sizeof(bitset_container_t);
+    alloc_size += num_run_containers * sizeof(run_container_t);
+    alloc_size += num_array_containers * sizeof(array_container_t);
+
+    char *arena = (char *)roaring_malloc(alloc_size);
+    if (arena == NULL) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    roaring_bitmap_t *rb = (roaring_bitmap_t *)
+            arena_alloc(&arena, sizeof(roaring_bitmap_t));
+    rb->high_low_container.flags = ROARING_FLAG_FROZEN;
+    rb->high_low_container.allocation_size = num_containers;
+    rb->high_low_container.size = num_containers;
+    rb->high_low_container.keys = (uint16_t *)keys;
+    rb->high_low_container.typecodes = (uint8_t *)typecodes;
+    rb->high_low_container.containers =
+        (container_t **)arena_alloc(&arena,
+                                    sizeof(container_t*) * num_containers);
+    // Ensure offset of high_low_container.containers is known distance used in
+    // C++ wrapper. sizeof(roaring_bitmap_t) is used as it is the size of the
+    // only allocation that precedes high_low_container.containers. If this is
+    // changed (new allocation or changed order), this offset will also need to
+    // be changed in the C++ wrapper.
+    assert(rb ==
+           (roaring_bitmap_t *)((char *)rb->high_low_container.containers -
+                                sizeof(roaring_bitmap_t)));
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < num_containers; i++) {
+        switch (typecodes[i]) {
+            case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                bitset_container_t *bitset = (bitset_container_t *)
+                        arena_alloc(&arena, sizeof(bitset_container_t));
+                bitset->words = bitset_zone;
+                bitset->cardinality = counts[i] + UINT32_C(1);
+                rb->high_low_container.containers[i] = bitset;
+                bitset_zone += BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS;
+                break;
+            }
+            case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                run_container_t *run = (run_container_t *)
+                        arena_alloc(&arena, sizeof(run_container_t));
+                run->capacity = counts[i];
+                run->n_runs = counts[i];
+                run->runs = run_zone;
+                rb->high_low_container.containers[i] = run;
+                run_zone += run->n_runs;
+                break;
+            }
+            case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE: {
+                array_container_t *array = (array_container_t *)
+                        arena_alloc(&arena, sizeof(array_container_t));
+                array->capacity = counts[i] + UINT32_C(1);
+                array->cardinality = counts[i] + UINT32_C(1);
+                array->array = array_zone;
+                rb->high_low_container.containers[i] = array;
+                array_zone += counts[i] + UINT32_C(1);
+                break;
+            }
+            default:
+                roaring_free(arena);
+                return NULL;
+        }
+    }
+
+    return rb;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring {
+#endif
+/* end file src/roaring.c */
+/* begin file src/array_util.c */
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+extern inline int32_t binarySearch(const uint16_t *array, int32_t lenarray,
+                                   uint16_t ikey);
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+// used by intersect_vector16
+ALIGNED(0x1000)
+static const uint8_t shuffle_mask16[] = {
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    6,    7,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    6,    7,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    8,    9,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    8,    9,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,
+    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    6,    7,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    10,   11,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,
+    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    12,   13,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    12,   13,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    6,    7,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 8,    9,    12,   13,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    8,    9,    12,   13,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    8,    9,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   0xFF, 0xFF, 14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    6,    7,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    8,    9,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    8,    9,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    6,    7,    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,    14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    10,   11,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    10,   11,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    10,   11,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    10,   11,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    6,    7,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,    10,   11,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,
+    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,
+    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 8,    9,    10,   11,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    6,    7,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,    12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    6,    7,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    8,    9,
+    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    8,    9,    12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    8,    9,
+    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,    12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,
+    8,    9,    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 10,   11,   12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    10,   11,   12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    6,    7,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    6,    7,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    6,    7,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,
+    14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,
+    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 6,    7,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    2,    3,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0,    1,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,
+    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF, 2,    3,    4,    5,
+    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,   12,   13,   14,   15,   0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0,    1,    2,    3,    4,    5,    6,    7,    8,    9,    10,   11,
+    12,   13,   14,   15};
+
+/**
+ * From Schlegel et al., Fast Sorted-Set Intersection using SIMD Instructions
+ * Optimized by D. Lemire on May 3rd 2013
+ */
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+int32_t intersect_vector16(const uint16_t *__restrict__ A, size_t s_a,
+                           const uint16_t *__restrict__ B, size_t s_b,
+                           uint16_t *C) {
+    size_t count = 0;
+    size_t i_a = 0, i_b = 0;
+    const int vectorlength = sizeof(__m128i) / sizeof(uint16_t);
+    const size_t st_a = (s_a / vectorlength) * vectorlength;
+    const size_t st_b = (s_b / vectorlength) * vectorlength;
+    __m128i v_a, v_b;
+    if ((i_a < st_a) && (i_b < st_b)) {
+        v_a = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&A[i_a]);
+        v_b = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&B[i_b]);
+        while ((A[i_a] == 0) || (B[i_b] == 0)) {
+            const __m128i res_v = _mm_cmpestrm(
+                v_b, vectorlength, v_a, vectorlength,
+                _SIDD_UWORD_OPS | _SIDD_CMP_EQUAL_ANY | _SIDD_BIT_MASK);
+            const int r = _mm_extract_epi32(res_v, 0);
+            __m128i sm16 = _mm_load_si128((const __m128i *)shuffle_mask16 + r);
+            __m128i p = _mm_shuffle_epi8(v_a, sm16);
+            _mm_storeu_si128((__m128i *)&C[count], p);  // can overflow
+            count += _mm_popcnt_u32(r);
+            const uint16_t a_max = A[i_a + vectorlength - 1];
+            const uint16_t b_max = B[i_b + vectorlength - 1];
+            if (a_max <= b_max) {
+                i_a += vectorlength;
+                if (i_a == st_a) break;
+                v_a = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&A[i_a]);
+            }
+            if (b_max <= a_max) {
+                i_b += vectorlength;
+                if (i_b == st_b) break;
+                v_b = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&B[i_b]);
+            }
+        }
+        if ((i_a < st_a) && (i_b < st_b))
+            while (true) {
+                const __m128i res_v = _mm_cmpistrm(
+                    v_b, v_a,
+                    _SIDD_UWORD_OPS | _SIDD_CMP_EQUAL_ANY | _SIDD_BIT_MASK);
+                const int r = _mm_extract_epi32(res_v, 0);
+                __m128i sm16 =
+                    _mm_load_si128((const __m128i *)shuffle_mask16 + r);
+                __m128i p = _mm_shuffle_epi8(v_a, sm16);
+                _mm_storeu_si128((__m128i *)&C[count], p);  // can overflow
+                count += _mm_popcnt_u32(r);
+                const uint16_t a_max = A[i_a + vectorlength - 1];
+                const uint16_t b_max = B[i_b + vectorlength - 1];
+                if (a_max <= b_max) {
+                    i_a += vectorlength;
+                    if (i_a == st_a) break;
+                    v_a = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&A[i_a]);
+                }
+                if (b_max <= a_max) {
+                    i_b += vectorlength;
+                    if (i_b == st_b) break;
+                    v_b = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&B[i_b]);
+                }
+            }
+    }
+    // intersect the tail using scalar intersection
+    while (i_a < s_a && i_b < s_b) {
+        uint16_t a = A[i_a];
+        uint16_t b = B[i_b];
+        if (a < b) {
+            i_a++;
+        } else if (b < a) {
+            i_b++;
+        } else {
+            C[count] = a;  //==b;
+            count++;
+            i_a++;
+            i_b++;
+        }
+    }
+    return (int32_t)count;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+int32_t intersect_vector16_cardinality(const uint16_t *__restrict__ A,
+                                       size_t s_a,
+                                       const uint16_t *__restrict__ B,
+                                       size_t s_b) {
+    size_t count = 0;
+    size_t i_a = 0, i_b = 0;
+    const int vectorlength = sizeof(__m128i) / sizeof(uint16_t);
+    const size_t st_a = (s_a / vectorlength) * vectorlength;
+    const size_t st_b = (s_b / vectorlength) * vectorlength;
+    __m128i v_a, v_b;
+    if ((i_a < st_a) && (i_b < st_b)) {
+        v_a = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&A[i_a]);
+        v_b = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&B[i_b]);
+        while ((A[i_a] == 0) || (B[i_b] == 0)) {
+            const __m128i res_v = _mm_cmpestrm(
+                v_b, vectorlength, v_a, vectorlength,
+                _SIDD_UWORD_OPS | _SIDD_CMP_EQUAL_ANY | _SIDD_BIT_MASK);
+            const int r = _mm_extract_epi32(res_v, 0);
+            count += _mm_popcnt_u32(r);
+            const uint16_t a_max = A[i_a + vectorlength - 1];
+            const uint16_t b_max = B[i_b + vectorlength - 1];
+            if (a_max <= b_max) {
+                i_a += vectorlength;
+                if (i_a == st_a) break;
+                v_a = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&A[i_a]);
+            }
+            if (b_max <= a_max) {
+                i_b += vectorlength;
+                if (i_b == st_b) break;
+                v_b = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&B[i_b]);
+            }
+        }
+        if ((i_a < st_a) && (i_b < st_b))
+            while (true) {
+                const __m128i res_v = _mm_cmpistrm(
+                    v_b, v_a,
+                    _SIDD_UWORD_OPS | _SIDD_CMP_EQUAL_ANY | _SIDD_BIT_MASK);
+                const int r = _mm_extract_epi32(res_v, 0);
+                count += _mm_popcnt_u32(r);
+                const uint16_t a_max = A[i_a + vectorlength - 1];
+                const uint16_t b_max = B[i_b + vectorlength - 1];
+                if (a_max <= b_max) {
+                    i_a += vectorlength;
+                    if (i_a == st_a) break;
+                    v_a = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&A[i_a]);
+                }
+                if (b_max <= a_max) {
+                    i_b += vectorlength;
+                    if (i_b == st_b) break;
+                    v_b = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&B[i_b]);
+                }
+            }
+    }
+    // intersect the tail using scalar intersection
+    while (i_a < s_a && i_b < s_b) {
+        uint16_t a = A[i_a];
+        uint16_t b = B[i_b];
+        if (a < b) {
+            i_a++;
+        } else if (b < a) {
+            i_b++;
+        } else {
+            count++;
+            i_a++;
+            i_b++;
+        }
+    }
+    return (int32_t)count;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+/////////
+// Warning:
+// This function may not be safe if A == C or B == C.
+/////////
+int32_t difference_vector16(const uint16_t *__restrict__ A, size_t s_a,
+                            const uint16_t *__restrict__ B, size_t s_b,
+                            uint16_t *C) {
+    // we handle the degenerate case
+    if (s_a == 0) return 0;
+    if (s_b == 0) {
+        if (A != C) memcpy(C, A, sizeof(uint16_t) * s_a);
+        return (int32_t)s_a;
+    }
+    // handle the leading zeroes, it is messy but it allows us to use the fast
+    // _mm_cmpistrm instrinsic safely
+    int32_t count = 0;
+    if ((A[0] == 0) || (B[0] == 0)) {
+        if ((A[0] == 0) && (B[0] == 0)) {
+            A++;
+            s_a--;
+            B++;
+            s_b--;
+        } else if (A[0] == 0) {
+            C[count++] = 0;
+            A++;
+            s_a--;
+        } else {
+            B++;
+            s_b--;
+        }
+    }
+    // at this point, we have two non-empty arrays, made of non-zero
+    // increasing values.
+    size_t i_a = 0, i_b = 0;
+    const size_t vectorlength = sizeof(__m128i) / sizeof(uint16_t);
+    const size_t st_a = (s_a / vectorlength) * vectorlength;
+    const size_t st_b = (s_b / vectorlength) * vectorlength;
+    if ((i_a < st_a) && (i_b < st_b)) {  // this is the vectorized code path
+        __m128i v_a, v_b;                //, v_bmax;
+        // we load a vector from A and a vector from B
+        v_a = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&A[i_a]);
+        v_b = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&B[i_b]);
+        // we have a runningmask which indicates which values from A have been
+        // spotted in B, these don't get written out.
+        __m128i runningmask_a_found_in_b = _mm_setzero_si128();
+        /****
+        * start of the main vectorized loop
+        *****/
+        while (true) {
+            // afoundinb will contain a mask indicate for each entry in A
+            // whether it is seen
+            // in B
+            const __m128i a_found_in_b =
+                _mm_cmpistrm(v_b, v_a, _SIDD_UWORD_OPS | _SIDD_CMP_EQUAL_ANY |
+                                           _SIDD_BIT_MASK);
+            runningmask_a_found_in_b =
+                _mm_or_si128(runningmask_a_found_in_b, a_found_in_b);
+            // we always compare the last values of A and B
+            const uint16_t a_max = A[i_a + vectorlength - 1];
+            const uint16_t b_max = B[i_b + vectorlength - 1];
+            if (a_max <= b_max) {
+                // Ok. In this code path, we are ready to write our v_a
+                // because there is no need to read more from B, they will
+                // all be large values.
+                const int bitmask_belongs_to_difference =
+                    _mm_extract_epi32(runningmask_a_found_in_b, 0) ^ 0xFF;
+                /*** next few lines are probably expensive *****/
+                __m128i sm16 = _mm_load_si128((const __m128i *)shuffle_mask16 +
+                                              bitmask_belongs_to_difference);
+                __m128i p = _mm_shuffle_epi8(v_a, sm16);
+                _mm_storeu_si128((__m128i *)&C[count], p);  // can overflow
+                count += _mm_popcnt_u32(bitmask_belongs_to_difference);
+                // we advance a
+                i_a += vectorlength;
+                if (i_a == st_a)  // no more
+                    break;
+                runningmask_a_found_in_b = _mm_setzero_si128();
+                v_a = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&A[i_a]);
+            }
+            if (b_max <= a_max) {
+                // in this code path, the current v_b has become useless
+                i_b += vectorlength;
+                if (i_b == st_b) break;
+                v_b = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)&B[i_b]);
+            }
+        }
+        // at this point, either we have i_a == st_a, which is the end of the
+        // vectorized processing,
+        // or we have i_b == st_b,  and we are not done processing the vector...
+        // so we need to finish it off.
+        if (i_a < st_a) {        // we have unfinished business...
+            uint16_t buffer[8];  // buffer to do a masked load
+            memset(buffer, 0, 8 * sizeof(uint16_t));
+            memcpy(buffer, B + i_b, (s_b - i_b) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+            v_b = _mm_lddqu_si128((__m128i *)buffer);
+            const __m128i a_found_in_b =
+                _mm_cmpistrm(v_b, v_a, _SIDD_UWORD_OPS | _SIDD_CMP_EQUAL_ANY |
+                                           _SIDD_BIT_MASK);
+            runningmask_a_found_in_b =
+                _mm_or_si128(runningmask_a_found_in_b, a_found_in_b);
+            const int bitmask_belongs_to_difference =
+                _mm_extract_epi32(runningmask_a_found_in_b, 0) ^ 0xFF;
+            __m128i sm16 = _mm_load_si128((const __m128i *)shuffle_mask16 +
+                                          bitmask_belongs_to_difference);
+            __m128i p = _mm_shuffle_epi8(v_a, sm16);
+            _mm_storeu_si128((__m128i *)&C[count], p);  // can overflow
+            count += _mm_popcnt_u32(bitmask_belongs_to_difference);
+            i_a += vectorlength;
+        }
+        // at this point we should have i_a == st_a and i_b == st_b
+    }
+    // do the tail using scalar code
+    while (i_a < s_a && i_b < s_b) {
+        uint16_t a = A[i_a];
+        uint16_t b = B[i_b];
+        if (b < a) {
+            i_b++;
+        } else if (a < b) {
+            C[count] = a;
+            count++;
+            i_a++;
+        } else {  //==
+            i_a++;
+            i_b++;
+        }
+    }
+    if (i_a < s_a) {
+        if(C == A) {
+          assert((size_t)count <= i_a);
+          if((size_t)count < i_a) {
+            memmove(C + count, A + i_a, sizeof(uint16_t) * (s_a - i_a));
+          }
+        } else {
+           for(size_t i = 0; i < (s_a - i_a); i++) {
+                C[count + i] = A[i + i_a];
+           }
+        }
+        count += (int32_t)(s_a - i_a);
+    }
+    return count;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+#endif  // CROARING_IS_X64
+
+
+
+/**
+* Branchless binary search going after 4 values at once.
+* Assumes that array is sorted.
+* You have that array[*index1] >= target1, array[*index12] >= target2, ...
+* except when *index1 = n, in which case you know that all values in array are
+* smaller than target1, and so forth.
+* It has logarithmic complexity.
+*/
+static void binarySearch4(const uint16_t *array, int32_t n, uint16_t target1,
+                   uint16_t target2, uint16_t target3, uint16_t target4,
+                   int32_t *index1, int32_t *index2, int32_t *index3,
+                   int32_t *index4) {
+  const uint16_t *base1 = array;
+  const uint16_t *base2 = array;
+  const uint16_t *base3 = array;
+  const uint16_t *base4 = array;
+  if (n == 0)
+    return;
+  while (n > 1) {
+    int32_t half = n >> 1;
+    base1 = (base1[half] < target1) ? &base1[half] : base1;
+    base2 = (base2[half] < target2) ? &base2[half] : base2;
+    base3 = (base3[half] < target3) ? &base3[half] : base3;
+    base4 = (base4[half] < target4) ? &base4[half] : base4;
+    n -= half;
+  }
+  *index1 = (int32_t)((*base1 < target1) + base1 - array);
+  *index2 = (int32_t)((*base2 < target2) + base2 - array);
+  *index3 = (int32_t)((*base3 < target3) + base3 - array);
+  *index4 = (int32_t)((*base4 < target4) + base4 - array);
+}
+
+/**
+* Branchless binary search going after 2 values at once.
+* Assumes that array is sorted.
+* You have that array[*index1] >= target1, array[*index12] >= target2.
+* except when *index1 = n, in which case you know that all values in array are
+* smaller than target1, and so forth.
+* It has logarithmic complexity.
+*/
+static void binarySearch2(const uint16_t *array, int32_t n, uint16_t target1,
+                   uint16_t target2, int32_t *index1, int32_t *index2) {
+  const uint16_t *base1 = array;
+  const uint16_t *base2 = array;
+  if (n == 0)
+    return;
+  while (n > 1) {
+    int32_t half = n >> 1;
+    base1 = (base1[half] < target1) ? &base1[half] : base1;
+    base2 = (base2[half] < target2) ? &base2[half] : base2;
+    n -= half;
+  }
+  *index1 = (int32_t)((*base1 < target1) + base1 - array);
+  *index2 = (int32_t)((*base2 < target2) + base2 - array);
+}
+
+/* Computes the intersection between one small and one large set of uint16_t.
+ * Stores the result into buffer and return the number of elements.
+ * Processes the small set in blocks of 4 values calling binarySearch4
+ * and binarySearch2. This approach can be slightly superior to a conventional
+ * galloping search in some instances.
+ */
+int32_t intersect_skewed_uint16(const uint16_t *small, size_t size_s,
+                                         const uint16_t *large, size_t size_l,
+                                         uint16_t *buffer) {
+  size_t pos = 0, idx_l = 0, idx_s = 0;
+
+  if (0 == size_s) {
+    return 0;
+  }
+  int32_t index1 = 0, index2 = 0, index3 = 0, index4 = 0;
+  while ((idx_s + 4 <= size_s) && (idx_l < size_l)) {
+    uint16_t target1 = small[idx_s];
+    uint16_t target2 = small[idx_s + 1];
+    uint16_t target3 = small[idx_s + 2];
+    uint16_t target4 = small[idx_s + 3];
+    binarySearch4(large + idx_l, (int32_t)(size_l - idx_l), target1, target2, target3,
+                  target4, &index1, &index2, &index3, &index4);
+    if ((index1 + idx_l < size_l) && (large[idx_l + index1] == target1)) {
+      buffer[pos++] = target1;
+    }
+    if ((index2 + idx_l < size_l) && (large[idx_l + index2] == target2)) {
+      buffer[pos++] = target2;
+    }
+    if ((index3 + idx_l < size_l) && (large[idx_l + index3] == target3)) {
+      buffer[pos++] = target3;
+    }
+    if ((index4 + idx_l < size_l) && (large[idx_l + index4] == target4)) {
+      buffer[pos++] = target4;
+    }
+    idx_s += 4;
+    idx_l += index4;
+  }
+  if ((idx_s + 2 <= size_s) && (idx_l < size_l)) {
+    uint16_t target1 = small[idx_s];
+    uint16_t target2 = small[idx_s + 1];
+    binarySearch2(large + idx_l, (int32_t)(size_l - idx_l), target1, target2, &index1,
+                  &index2);
+    if ((index1 + idx_l < size_l) && (large[idx_l + index1] == target1)) {
+      buffer[pos++] = target1;
+    }
+    if ((index2 + idx_l < size_l) && (large[idx_l + index2] == target2)) {
+      buffer[pos++] = target2;
+    }
+    idx_s += 2;
+    idx_l += index2;
+  }
+  if ((idx_s < size_s) && (idx_l < size_l)) {
+    uint16_t val_s = small[idx_s];
+    int32_t index = binarySearch(large + idx_l, (int32_t)(size_l - idx_l), val_s);
+    if (index >= 0)
+      buffer[pos++] = val_s;
+  }
+  return (int32_t)pos;
+}
+
+
+
+// TODO: this could be accelerated, possibly, by using binarySearch4 as above.
+int32_t intersect_skewed_uint16_cardinality(const uint16_t *small,
+                                            size_t size_s,
+                                            const uint16_t *large,
+                                            size_t size_l) {
+    size_t pos = 0, idx_l = 0, idx_s = 0;
+
+    if (0 == size_s) {
+        return 0;
+    }
+
+    uint16_t val_l = large[idx_l], val_s = small[idx_s];
+
+    while (true) {
+        if (val_l < val_s) {
+            idx_l = advanceUntil(large, (int32_t)idx_l, (int32_t)size_l, val_s);
+            if (idx_l == size_l) break;
+            val_l = large[idx_l];
+        } else if (val_s < val_l) {
+            idx_s++;
+            if (idx_s == size_s) break;
+            val_s = small[idx_s];
+        } else {
+            pos++;
+            idx_s++;
+            if (idx_s == size_s) break;
+            val_s = small[idx_s];
+            idx_l = advanceUntil(large, (int32_t)idx_l, (int32_t)size_l, val_s);
+            if (idx_l == size_l) break;
+            val_l = large[idx_l];
+        }
+    }
+
+    return (int32_t)pos;
+}
+
+bool intersect_skewed_uint16_nonempty(const uint16_t *small, size_t size_s,
+                                const uint16_t *large, size_t size_l) {
+    size_t idx_l = 0, idx_s = 0;
+
+    if (0 == size_s) {
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    uint16_t val_l = large[idx_l], val_s = small[idx_s];
+
+    while (true) {
+        if (val_l < val_s) {
+            idx_l = advanceUntil(large, (int32_t)idx_l, (int32_t)size_l, val_s);
+            if (idx_l == size_l) break;
+            val_l = large[idx_l];
+        } else if (val_s < val_l) {
+            idx_s++;
+            if (idx_s == size_s) break;
+            val_s = small[idx_s];
+        } else {
+            return true;
+        }
+    }
+
+    return false;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Generic intersection function.
+ */
+int32_t intersect_uint16(const uint16_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                         const uint16_t *B, const size_t lenB, uint16_t *out) {
+    const uint16_t *initout = out;
+    if (lenA == 0 || lenB == 0) return 0;
+    const uint16_t *endA = A + lenA;
+    const uint16_t *endB = B + lenB;
+
+    while (1) {
+        while (*A < *B) {
+        SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE:
+            if (++A == endA) return (int32_t)(out - initout);
+        }
+        while (*A > *B) {
+            if (++B == endB) return (int32_t)(out - initout);
+        }
+        if (*A == *B) {
+            *out++ = *A;
+            if (++A == endA || ++B == endB) return (int32_t)(out - initout);
+        } else {
+            goto SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE;
+        }
+    }
+    return (int32_t)(out - initout);  // NOTREACHED
+}
+
+int32_t intersect_uint16_cardinality(const uint16_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                                     const uint16_t *B, const size_t lenB) {
+    int32_t answer = 0;
+    if (lenA == 0 || lenB == 0) return 0;
+    const uint16_t *endA = A + lenA;
+    const uint16_t *endB = B + lenB;
+
+    while (1) {
+        while (*A < *B) {
+        SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE:
+            if (++A == endA) return answer;
+        }
+        while (*A > *B) {
+            if (++B == endB) return answer;
+        }
+        if (*A == *B) {
+            ++answer;
+            if (++A == endA || ++B == endB) return answer;
+        } else {
+            goto SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE;
+        }
+    }
+    return answer;  // NOTREACHED
+}
+
+
+bool intersect_uint16_nonempty(const uint16_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                         const uint16_t *B, const size_t lenB) {
+    if (lenA == 0 || lenB == 0) return 0;
+    const uint16_t *endA = A + lenA;
+    const uint16_t *endB = B + lenB;
+
+    while (1) {
+        while (*A < *B) {
+        SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE:
+            if (++A == endA) return false;
+        }
+        while (*A > *B) {
+            if (++B == endB) return false;
+        }
+        if (*A == *B) {
+            return true;
+        } else {
+            goto SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE;
+        }
+    }
+    return false;  // NOTREACHED
+}
+
+
+
+/**
+ * Generic intersection function.
+ */
+size_t intersection_uint32(const uint32_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                           const uint32_t *B, const size_t lenB,
+                           uint32_t *out) {
+    const uint32_t *initout = out;
+    if (lenA == 0 || lenB == 0) return 0;
+    const uint32_t *endA = A + lenA;
+    const uint32_t *endB = B + lenB;
+
+    while (1) {
+        while (*A < *B) {
+        SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE:
+            if (++A == endA) return (out - initout);
+        }
+        while (*A > *B) {
+            if (++B == endB) return (out - initout);
+        }
+        if (*A == *B) {
+            *out++ = *A;
+            if (++A == endA || ++B == endB) return (out - initout);
+        } else {
+            goto SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE;
+        }
+    }
+    return (out - initout);  // NOTREACHED
+}
+
+size_t intersection_uint32_card(const uint32_t *A, const size_t lenA,
+                                const uint32_t *B, const size_t lenB) {
+    if (lenA == 0 || lenB == 0) return 0;
+    size_t card = 0;
+    const uint32_t *endA = A + lenA;
+    const uint32_t *endB = B + lenB;
+
+    while (1) {
+        while (*A < *B) {
+        SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE:
+            if (++A == endA) return card;
+        }
+        while (*A > *B) {
+            if (++B == endB) return card;
+        }
+        if (*A == *B) {
+            card++;
+            if (++A == endA || ++B == endB) return card;
+        } else {
+            goto SKIP_FIRST_COMPARE;
+        }
+    }
+    return card;  // NOTREACHED
+}
+
+// can one vectorize the computation of the union? (Update: Yes! See
+// union_vector16).
+
+size_t union_uint16(const uint16_t *set_1, size_t size_1, const uint16_t *set_2,
+                    size_t size_2, uint16_t *buffer) {
+    size_t pos = 0, idx_1 = 0, idx_2 = 0;
+
+    if (0 == size_2) {
+        memmove(buffer, set_1, size_1 * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        return size_1;
+    }
+    if (0 == size_1) {
+        memmove(buffer, set_2, size_2 * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        return size_2;
+    }
+
+    uint16_t val_1 = set_1[idx_1], val_2 = set_2[idx_2];
+
+    while (true) {
+        if (val_1 < val_2) {
+            buffer[pos++] = val_1;
+            ++idx_1;
+            if (idx_1 >= size_1) break;
+            val_1 = set_1[idx_1];
+        } else if (val_2 < val_1) {
+            buffer[pos++] = val_2;
+            ++idx_2;
+            if (idx_2 >= size_2) break;
+            val_2 = set_2[idx_2];
+        } else {
+            buffer[pos++] = val_1;
+            ++idx_1;
+            ++idx_2;
+            if (idx_1 >= size_1 || idx_2 >= size_2) break;
+            val_1 = set_1[idx_1];
+            val_2 = set_2[idx_2];
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (idx_1 < size_1) {
+        const size_t n_elems = size_1 - idx_1;
+        memmove(buffer + pos, set_1 + idx_1, n_elems * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        pos += n_elems;
+    } else if (idx_2 < size_2) {
+        const size_t n_elems = size_2 - idx_2;
+        memmove(buffer + pos, set_2 + idx_2, n_elems * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        pos += n_elems;
+    }
+
+    return pos;
+}
+
+int difference_uint16(const uint16_t *a1, int length1, const uint16_t *a2,
+                      int length2, uint16_t *a_out) {
+    int out_card = 0;
+    int k1 = 0, k2 = 0;
+    if (length1 == 0) return 0;
+    if (length2 == 0) {
+        if (a1 != a_out) memcpy(a_out, a1, sizeof(uint16_t) * length1);
+        return length1;
+    }
+    uint16_t s1 = a1[k1];
+    uint16_t s2 = a2[k2];
+    while (true) {
+        if (s1 < s2) {
+            a_out[out_card++] = s1;
+            ++k1;
+            if (k1 >= length1) {
+                break;
+            }
+            s1 = a1[k1];
+        } else if (s1 == s2) {
+            ++k1;
+            ++k2;
+            if (k1 >= length1) {
+                break;
+            }
+            if (k2 >= length2) {
+                memmove(a_out + out_card, a1 + k1,
+                        sizeof(uint16_t) * (length1 - k1));
+                return out_card + length1 - k1;
+            }
+            s1 = a1[k1];
+            s2 = a2[k2];
+        } else {  // if (val1>val2)
+            ++k2;
+            if (k2 >= length2) {
+                memmove(a_out + out_card, a1 + k1,
+                        sizeof(uint16_t) * (length1 - k1));
+                return out_card + length1 - k1;
+            }
+            s2 = a2[k2];
+        }
+    }
+    return out_card;
+}
+
+int32_t xor_uint16(const uint16_t *array_1, int32_t card_1,
+                   const uint16_t *array_2, int32_t card_2, uint16_t *out) {
+    int32_t pos1 = 0, pos2 = 0, pos_out = 0;
+    while (pos1 < card_1 && pos2 < card_2) {
+        const uint16_t v1 = array_1[pos1];
+        const uint16_t v2 = array_2[pos2];
+        if (v1 == v2) {
+            ++pos1;
+            ++pos2;
+            continue;
+        }
+        if (v1 < v2) {
+            out[pos_out++] = v1;
+            ++pos1;
+        } else {
+            out[pos_out++] = v2;
+            ++pos2;
+        }
+    }
+    if (pos1 < card_1) {
+        const size_t n_elems = card_1 - pos1;
+        memcpy(out + pos_out, array_1 + pos1, n_elems * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        pos_out += (int32_t)n_elems;
+    } else if (pos2 < card_2) {
+        const size_t n_elems = card_2 - pos2;
+        memcpy(out + pos_out, array_2 + pos2, n_elems * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        pos_out += (int32_t)n_elems;
+    }
+    return pos_out;
+}
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+
+/***
+ * start of the SIMD 16-bit union code
+ *
+ */
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+
+// Assuming that vInput1 and vInput2 are sorted, produces a sorted output going
+// from vecMin all the way to vecMax
+// developed originally for merge sort using SIMD instructions.
+// Standard merge. See, e.g., Inoue and Taura, SIMD- and Cache-Friendly
+// Algorithm for Sorting an Array of Structures
+static inline void sse_merge(const __m128i *vInput1,
+                             const __m128i *vInput2,              // input 1 & 2
+                             __m128i *vecMin, __m128i *vecMax) {  // output
+    __m128i vecTmp;
+    vecTmp = _mm_min_epu16(*vInput1, *vInput2);
+    *vecMax = _mm_max_epu16(*vInput1, *vInput2);
+    vecTmp = _mm_alignr_epi8(vecTmp, vecTmp, 2);
+    *vecMin = _mm_min_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    *vecMax = _mm_max_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    vecTmp = _mm_alignr_epi8(*vecMin, *vecMin, 2);
+    *vecMin = _mm_min_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    *vecMax = _mm_max_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    vecTmp = _mm_alignr_epi8(*vecMin, *vecMin, 2);
+    *vecMin = _mm_min_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    *vecMax = _mm_max_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    vecTmp = _mm_alignr_epi8(*vecMin, *vecMin, 2);
+    *vecMin = _mm_min_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    *vecMax = _mm_max_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    vecTmp = _mm_alignr_epi8(*vecMin, *vecMin, 2);
+    *vecMin = _mm_min_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    *vecMax = _mm_max_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    vecTmp = _mm_alignr_epi8(*vecMin, *vecMin, 2);
+    *vecMin = _mm_min_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    *vecMax = _mm_max_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    vecTmp = _mm_alignr_epi8(*vecMin, *vecMin, 2);
+    *vecMin = _mm_min_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    *vecMax = _mm_max_epu16(vecTmp, *vecMax);
+    *vecMin = _mm_alignr_epi8(*vecMin, *vecMin, 2);
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+// used by store_unique, generated by simdunion.py
+static uint8_t uniqshuf[] = {
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xa,  0xb,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0xe,  0xf,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xe,  0xf,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x8,  0x9,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xc,  0xd,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xc,  0xd,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0xa,  0xb,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xa,  0xb,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x8,  0x9,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,
+    0x6,  0x7,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0x6,  0x7,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0x6,  0x7,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x6,  0x7,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x6,  0x7,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,
+    0x4,  0x5,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x2,  0x3,  0x4,  0x5,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0x4,  0x5,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x4,  0x5,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0x0,  0x1,  0x2,  0x3,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x2,  0x3,  0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x0,  0x1,  0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF,
+    0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF};
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+// write vector new, while omitting repeated values assuming that previously
+// written vector was "old"
+static inline int store_unique(__m128i old, __m128i newval, uint16_t *output) {
+    __m128i vecTmp = _mm_alignr_epi8(newval, old, 16 - 2);
+    // lots of high latency instructions follow (optimize?)
+    int M = _mm_movemask_epi8(
+        _mm_packs_epi16(_mm_cmpeq_epi16(vecTmp, newval), _mm_setzero_si128()));
+    int numberofnewvalues = 8 - _mm_popcnt_u32(M);
+    __m128i key = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)uniqshuf + M);
+    __m128i val = _mm_shuffle_epi8(newval, key);
+    _mm_storeu_si128((__m128i *)output, val);
+    return numberofnewvalues;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+// working in-place, this function overwrites the repeated values
+// could be avoided?
+static inline uint32_t unique(uint16_t *out, uint32_t len) {
+    uint32_t pos = 1;
+    for (uint32_t i = 1; i < len; ++i) {
+        if (out[i] != out[i - 1]) {
+            out[pos++] = out[i];
+        }
+    }
+    return pos;
+}
+
+// use with qsort, could be avoided
+static int uint16_compare(const void *a, const void *b) {
+    return (*(uint16_t *)a - *(uint16_t *)b);
+}
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+// a one-pass SSE union algorithm
+// This function may not be safe if array1 == output or array2 == output.
+uint32_t union_vector16(const uint16_t *__restrict__ array1, uint32_t length1,
+                        const uint16_t *__restrict__ array2, uint32_t length2,
+                        uint16_t *__restrict__ output) {
+    if ((length1 < 8) || (length2 < 8)) {
+        return (uint32_t)union_uint16(array1, length1, array2, length2, output);
+    }
+    __m128i vA, vB, V, vecMin, vecMax;
+    __m128i laststore;
+    uint16_t *initoutput = output;
+    uint32_t len1 = length1 / 8;
+    uint32_t len2 = length2 / 8;
+    uint32_t pos1 = 0;
+    uint32_t pos2 = 0;
+    // we start the machine
+    vA = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)array1 + pos1);
+    pos1++;
+    vB = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)array2 + pos2);
+    pos2++;
+    sse_merge(&vA, &vB, &vecMin, &vecMax);
+    laststore = _mm_set1_epi16(-1);
+    output += store_unique(laststore, vecMin, output);
+    laststore = vecMin;
+    if ((pos1 < len1) && (pos2 < len2)) {
+        uint16_t curA, curB;
+        curA = array1[8 * pos1];
+        curB = array2[8 * pos2];
+        while (true) {
+            if (curA <= curB) {
+                V = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)array1 + pos1);
+                pos1++;
+                if (pos1 < len1) {
+                    curA = array1[8 * pos1];
+                } else {
+                    break;
+                }
+            } else {
+                V = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)array2 + pos2);
+                pos2++;
+                if (pos2 < len2) {
+                    curB = array2[8 * pos2];
+                } else {
+                    break;
+                }
+            }
+            sse_merge(&V, &vecMax, &vecMin, &vecMax);
+            output += store_unique(laststore, vecMin, output);
+            laststore = vecMin;
+        }
+        sse_merge(&V, &vecMax, &vecMin, &vecMax);
+        output += store_unique(laststore, vecMin, output);
+        laststore = vecMin;
+    }
+    // we finish the rest off using a scalar algorithm
+    // could be improved?
+    //
+    // copy the small end on a tmp buffer
+    uint32_t len = (uint32_t)(output - initoutput);
+    uint16_t buffer[16];
+    uint32_t leftoversize = store_unique(laststore, vecMax, buffer);
+    if (pos1 == len1) {
+        memcpy(buffer + leftoversize, array1 + 8 * pos1,
+               (length1 - 8 * len1) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        leftoversize += length1 - 8 * len1;
+        qsort(buffer, leftoversize, sizeof(uint16_t), uint16_compare);
+
+        leftoversize = unique(buffer, leftoversize);
+        len += (uint32_t)union_uint16(buffer, leftoversize, array2 + 8 * pos2,
+                                      length2 - 8 * pos2, output);
+    } else {
+        memcpy(buffer + leftoversize, array2 + 8 * pos2,
+               (length2 - 8 * len2) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        leftoversize += length2 - 8 * len2;
+        qsort(buffer, leftoversize, sizeof(uint16_t), uint16_compare);
+        leftoversize = unique(buffer, leftoversize);
+        len += (uint32_t)union_uint16(buffer, leftoversize, array1 + 8 * pos1,
+                                      length1 - 8 * pos1, output);
+    }
+    return len;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+/**
+ * End of the SIMD 16-bit union code
+ *
+ */
+
+/**
+ * Start of SIMD 16-bit XOR code
+ */
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+// write vector new, while omitting repeated values assuming that previously
+// written vector was "old"
+static inline int store_unique_xor(__m128i old, __m128i newval,
+                                   uint16_t *output) {
+    __m128i vecTmp1 = _mm_alignr_epi8(newval, old, 16 - 4);
+    __m128i vecTmp2 = _mm_alignr_epi8(newval, old, 16 - 2);
+    __m128i equalleft = _mm_cmpeq_epi16(vecTmp2, vecTmp1);
+    __m128i equalright = _mm_cmpeq_epi16(vecTmp2, newval);
+    __m128i equalleftoright = _mm_or_si128(equalleft, equalright);
+    int M = _mm_movemask_epi8(
+        _mm_packs_epi16(equalleftoright, _mm_setzero_si128()));
+    int numberofnewvalues = 8 - _mm_popcnt_u32(M);
+    __m128i key = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)uniqshuf + M);
+    __m128i val = _mm_shuffle_epi8(vecTmp2, key);
+    _mm_storeu_si128((__m128i *)output, val);
+    return numberofnewvalues;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+// working in-place, this function overwrites the repeated values
+// could be avoided? Warning: assumes len > 0
+static inline uint32_t unique_xor(uint16_t *out, uint32_t len) {
+    uint32_t pos = 1;
+    for (uint32_t i = 1; i < len; ++i) {
+        if (out[i] != out[i - 1]) {
+            out[pos++] = out[i];
+        } else
+            pos--;  // if it is identical to previous, delete it
+    }
+    return pos;
+}
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+// a one-pass SSE xor algorithm
+uint32_t xor_vector16(const uint16_t *__restrict__ array1, uint32_t length1,
+                      const uint16_t *__restrict__ array2, uint32_t length2,
+                      uint16_t *__restrict__ output) {
+    if ((length1 < 8) || (length2 < 8)) {
+        return xor_uint16(array1, length1, array2, length2, output);
+    }
+    __m128i vA, vB, V, vecMin, vecMax;
+    __m128i laststore;
+    uint16_t *initoutput = output;
+    uint32_t len1 = length1 / 8;
+    uint32_t len2 = length2 / 8;
+    uint32_t pos1 = 0;
+    uint32_t pos2 = 0;
+    // we start the machine
+    vA = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)array1 + pos1);
+    pos1++;
+    vB = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)array2 + pos2);
+    pos2++;
+    sse_merge(&vA, &vB, &vecMin, &vecMax);
+    laststore = _mm_set1_epi16(-1);
+    uint16_t buffer[17];
+    output += store_unique_xor(laststore, vecMin, output);
+
+    laststore = vecMin;
+    if ((pos1 < len1) && (pos2 < len2)) {
+        uint16_t curA, curB;
+        curA = array1[8 * pos1];
+        curB = array2[8 * pos2];
+        while (true) {
+            if (curA <= curB) {
+                V = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)array1 + pos1);
+                pos1++;
+                if (pos1 < len1) {
+                    curA = array1[8 * pos1];
+                } else {
+                    break;
+                }
+            } else {
+                V = _mm_lddqu_si128((const __m128i *)array2 + pos2);
+                pos2++;
+                if (pos2 < len2) {
+                    curB = array2[8 * pos2];
+                } else {
+                    break;
+                }
+            }
+            sse_merge(&V, &vecMax, &vecMin, &vecMax);
+            // conditionally stores the last value of laststore as well as all
+            // but the
+            // last value of vecMin
+            output += store_unique_xor(laststore, vecMin, output);
+            laststore = vecMin;
+        }
+        sse_merge(&V, &vecMax, &vecMin, &vecMax);
+        // conditionally stores the last value of laststore as well as all but
+        // the
+        // last value of vecMin
+        output += store_unique_xor(laststore, vecMin, output);
+        laststore = vecMin;
+    }
+    uint32_t len = (uint32_t)(output - initoutput);
+
+    // we finish the rest off using a scalar algorithm
+    // could be improved?
+    // conditionally stores the last value of laststore as well as all but the
+    // last value of vecMax,
+    // we store to "buffer"
+    int leftoversize = store_unique_xor(laststore, vecMax, buffer);
+    uint16_t vec7 = _mm_extract_epi16(vecMax, 7);
+    uint16_t vec6 = _mm_extract_epi16(vecMax, 6);
+    if (vec7 != vec6) buffer[leftoversize++] = vec7;
+    if (pos1 == len1) {
+        memcpy(buffer + leftoversize, array1 + 8 * pos1,
+               (length1 - 8 * len1) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        leftoversize += length1 - 8 * len1;
+        if (leftoversize == 0) {  // trivial case
+            memcpy(output, array2 + 8 * pos2,
+                   (length2 - 8 * pos2) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+            len += (length2 - 8 * pos2);
+        } else {
+            qsort(buffer, leftoversize, sizeof(uint16_t), uint16_compare);
+            leftoversize = unique_xor(buffer, leftoversize);
+            len += xor_uint16(buffer, leftoversize, array2 + 8 * pos2,
+                              length2 - 8 * pos2, output);
+        }
+    } else {
+        memcpy(buffer + leftoversize, array2 + 8 * pos2,
+               (length2 - 8 * len2) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        leftoversize += length2 - 8 * len2;
+        if (leftoversize == 0) {  // trivial case
+            memcpy(output, array1 + 8 * pos1,
+                   (length1 - 8 * pos1) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+            len += (length1 - 8 * pos1);
+        } else {
+            qsort(buffer, leftoversize, sizeof(uint16_t), uint16_compare);
+            leftoversize = unique_xor(buffer, leftoversize);
+            len += xor_uint16(buffer, leftoversize, array1 + 8 * pos1,
+                              length1 - 8 * pos1, output);
+        }
+    }
+    return len;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+/**
+ * End of SIMD 16-bit XOR code
+ */
+
+#endif  // CROARING_IS_X64
+
+size_t union_uint32(const uint32_t *set_1, size_t size_1, const uint32_t *set_2,
+                    size_t size_2, uint32_t *buffer) {
+    size_t pos = 0, idx_1 = 0, idx_2 = 0;
+
+    if (0 == size_2) {
+        memmove(buffer, set_1, size_1 * sizeof(uint32_t));
+        return size_1;
+    }
+    if (0 == size_1) {
+        memmove(buffer, set_2, size_2 * sizeof(uint32_t));
+        return size_2;
+    }
+
+    uint32_t val_1 = set_1[idx_1], val_2 = set_2[idx_2];
+
+    while (true) {
+        if (val_1 < val_2) {
+            buffer[pos++] = val_1;
+            ++idx_1;
+            if (idx_1 >= size_1) break;
+            val_1 = set_1[idx_1];
+        } else if (val_2 < val_1) {
+            buffer[pos++] = val_2;
+            ++idx_2;
+            if (idx_2 >= size_2) break;
+            val_2 = set_2[idx_2];
+        } else {
+            buffer[pos++] = val_1;
+            ++idx_1;
+            ++idx_2;
+            if (idx_1 >= size_1 || idx_2 >= size_2) break;
+            val_1 = set_1[idx_1];
+            val_2 = set_2[idx_2];
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (idx_1 < size_1) {
+        const size_t n_elems = size_1 - idx_1;
+        memmove(buffer + pos, set_1 + idx_1, n_elems * sizeof(uint32_t));
+        pos += n_elems;
+    } else if (idx_2 < size_2) {
+        const size_t n_elems = size_2 - idx_2;
+        memmove(buffer + pos, set_2 + idx_2, n_elems * sizeof(uint32_t));
+        pos += n_elems;
+    }
+
+    return pos;
+}
+
+size_t union_uint32_card(const uint32_t *set_1, size_t size_1,
+                         const uint32_t *set_2, size_t size_2) {
+    size_t pos = 0, idx_1 = 0, idx_2 = 0;
+
+    if (0 == size_2) {
+        return size_1;
+    }
+    if (0 == size_1) {
+        return size_2;
+    }
+
+    uint32_t val_1 = set_1[idx_1], val_2 = set_2[idx_2];
+
+    while (true) {
+        if (val_1 < val_2) {
+            ++idx_1;
+            ++pos;
+            if (idx_1 >= size_1) break;
+            val_1 = set_1[idx_1];
+        } else if (val_2 < val_1) {
+            ++idx_2;
+            ++pos;
+            if (idx_2 >= size_2) break;
+            val_2 = set_2[idx_2];
+        } else {
+            ++idx_1;
+            ++idx_2;
+            ++pos;
+            if (idx_1 >= size_1 || idx_2 >= size_2) break;
+            val_1 = set_1[idx_1];
+            val_2 = set_2[idx_2];
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (idx_1 < size_1) {
+        const size_t n_elems = size_1 - idx_1;
+        pos += n_elems;
+    } else if (idx_2 < size_2) {
+        const size_t n_elems = size_2 - idx_2;
+        pos += n_elems;
+    }
+    return pos;
+}
+
+
+
+size_t fast_union_uint16(const uint16_t *set_1, size_t size_1, const uint16_t *set_2,
+                    size_t size_2, uint16_t *buffer) {
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+    if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+        // compute union with smallest array first
+      if (size_1 < size_2) {
+        return union_vector16(set_1, (uint32_t)size_1,
+                                          set_2, (uint32_t)size_2, buffer);
+      } else {
+        return union_vector16(set_2, (uint32_t)size_2,
+                                          set_1, (uint32_t)size_1, buffer);
+      }
+    } else {
+       // compute union with smallest array first
+      if (size_1 < size_2) {
+        return union_uint16(
+            set_1, size_1, set_2, size_2, buffer);
+      } else {
+        return union_uint16(
+            set_2, size_2, set_1, size_1, buffer);
+      }
+    }
+#else
+    // compute union with smallest array first
+    if (size_1 < size_2) {
+        return union_uint16(
+            set_1, size_1, set_2, size_2, buffer);
+    } else {
+        return union_uint16(
+            set_2, size_2, set_1, size_1, buffer);
+    }
+#endif
+}
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+static inline bool _avx2_memequals(const void *s1, const void *s2, size_t n) {
+    const uint8_t *ptr1 = (const uint8_t *)s1;
+    const uint8_t *ptr2 = (const uint8_t *)s2;
+    const uint8_t *end1 = ptr1 + n;
+    const uint8_t *end8 = ptr1 + n/8*8;
+    const uint8_t *end32 = ptr1 + n/32*32;
+
+    while (ptr1 < end32) {
+        __m256i r1 = _mm256_loadu_si256((const __m256i*)ptr1);
+        __m256i r2 = _mm256_loadu_si256((const __m256i*)ptr2);
+        int mask = _mm256_movemask_epi8(_mm256_cmpeq_epi8(r1, r2));
+        if ((uint32_t)mask != UINT32_MAX) {
+            return false;
+        }
+        ptr1 += 32;
+        ptr2 += 32;
+    }
+
+    while (ptr1 < end8) {
+        uint64_t v1 = *((const uint64_t*)ptr1);
+        uint64_t v2 = *((const uint64_t*)ptr2);
+        if (v1 != v2) {
+            return false;
+        }
+        ptr1 += 8;
+        ptr2 += 8;
+    }
+
+    while (ptr1 < end1) {
+        if (*ptr1 != *ptr2) {
+            return false;
+        }
+        ptr1++;
+        ptr2++;
+    }
+
+    return true;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+#endif
+
+bool memequals(const void *s1, const void *s2, size_t n) {
+    if (n == 0) {
+        return true;
+    }
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+    if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+      return _avx2_memequals(s1, s2, n);
+    } else {
+      return memcmp(s1, s2, n) == 0;
+    }
+#else
+    return memcmp(s1, s2, n) == 0;
+#endif
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/array_util.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/array.c */
+/*
+ * array.c
+ *
+ */
+
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+extern inline uint16_t array_container_minimum(const array_container_t *arr);
+extern inline uint16_t array_container_maximum(const array_container_t *arr);
+extern inline int array_container_index_equalorlarger(const array_container_t *arr, uint16_t x);
+
+extern inline int array_container_rank(const array_container_t *arr,
+                                       uint16_t x);
+extern inline bool array_container_contains(const array_container_t *arr,
+                                            uint16_t pos);
+extern inline int array_container_cardinality(const array_container_t *array);
+extern inline bool array_container_nonzero_cardinality(const array_container_t *array);
+extern inline void array_container_clear(array_container_t *array);
+extern inline int32_t array_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(int32_t card);
+extern inline bool array_container_empty(const array_container_t *array);
+extern inline bool array_container_full(const array_container_t *array);
+
+/* Create a new array with capacity size. Return NULL in case of failure. */
+array_container_t *array_container_create_given_capacity(int32_t size) {
+    array_container_t *container;
+
+    if ((container = (array_container_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(array_container_t))) ==
+        NULL) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    if( size <= 0 ) { // we don't want to rely on malloc(0)
+        container->array = NULL;
+    } else if ((container->array = (uint16_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(uint16_t) * size)) ==
+        NULL) {
+        roaring_free(container);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+
+    container->capacity = size;
+    container->cardinality = 0;
+
+    return container;
+}
+
+/* Create a new array. Return NULL in case of failure. */
+array_container_t *array_container_create() {
+    return array_container_create_given_capacity(ARRAY_DEFAULT_INIT_SIZE);
+}
+
+/* Create a new array containing all values in [min,max). */
+array_container_t * array_container_create_range(uint32_t min, uint32_t max) {
+    array_container_t * answer = array_container_create_given_capacity(max - min + 1);
+    if(answer == NULL) return answer;
+    answer->cardinality = 0;
+    for(uint32_t k = min; k < max; k++) {
+      answer->array[answer->cardinality++] = k;
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+/* Duplicate container */
+array_container_t *array_container_clone(const array_container_t *src) {
+    array_container_t *newcontainer =
+        array_container_create_given_capacity(src->capacity);
+    if (newcontainer == NULL) return NULL;
+
+    newcontainer->cardinality = src->cardinality;
+
+    memcpy(newcontainer->array, src->array,
+           src->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t));
+
+    return newcontainer;
+}
+
+void array_container_offset(const array_container_t *c,
+                            container_t **loc, container_t **hic,
+                            uint16_t offset) {
+    array_container_t *lo = NULL, *hi = NULL;
+    int top, lo_cap, hi_cap;
+
+    top = (1 << 16) - offset;
+
+    lo_cap = count_less(c->array, c->cardinality, top);
+    if (loc && lo_cap) {
+        lo = array_container_create_given_capacity(lo_cap);
+        for (int i = 0; i < lo_cap; ++i) {
+            array_container_add(lo, c->array[i] + offset);
+        }
+        *loc = (container_t*)lo;
+    }
+
+    hi_cap = c->cardinality - lo_cap;
+    if (hic && hi_cap) {
+        hi = array_container_create_given_capacity(hi_cap);
+        for (int i = lo_cap; i < c->cardinality; ++i) {
+            array_container_add(hi, c->array[i] + offset);
+        }
+        *hic = (container_t*)hi;
+    }
+}
+
+int array_container_shrink_to_fit(array_container_t *src) {
+    if (src->cardinality == src->capacity) return 0;  // nothing to do
+    int savings = src->capacity - src->cardinality;
+    src->capacity = src->cardinality;
+    if( src->capacity == 0) { // we do not want to rely on realloc for zero allocs
+      roaring_free(src->array);
+      src->array = NULL;
+    } else {
+      uint16_t *oldarray = src->array;
+      src->array =
+        (uint16_t *)roaring_realloc(oldarray, src->capacity * sizeof(uint16_t));
+      if (src->array == NULL) roaring_free(oldarray);  // should never happen?
+    }
+    return savings;
+}
+
+/* Free memory. */
+void array_container_free(array_container_t *arr) {
+    if(arr->array != NULL) {// Jon Strabala reports that some tools complain otherwise
+        roaring_free(arr->array);
+      arr->array = NULL; // pedantic
+    }
+    roaring_free(arr);
+}
+
+static inline int32_t grow_capacity(int32_t capacity) {
+    return (capacity <= 0) ? ARRAY_DEFAULT_INIT_SIZE
+                           : capacity < 64 ? capacity * 2
+                                           : capacity < 1024 ? capacity * 3 / 2
+                                                             : capacity * 5 / 4;
+}
+
+static inline int32_t clamp(int32_t val, int32_t min, int32_t max) {
+    return ((val < min) ? min : (val > max) ? max : val);
+}
+
+void array_container_grow(array_container_t *container, int32_t min,
+                          bool preserve) {
+
+    int32_t max = (min <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE ? DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE : 65536);
+    int32_t new_capacity = clamp(grow_capacity(container->capacity), min, max);
+
+    container->capacity = new_capacity;
+    uint16_t *array = container->array;
+
+    if (preserve) {
+        container->array =
+            (uint16_t *)roaring_realloc(array, new_capacity * sizeof(uint16_t));
+        if (container->array == NULL) roaring_free(array);
+    } else {
+        // Jon Strabala reports that some tools complain otherwise
+        if (array != NULL) {
+          roaring_free(array);
+        }
+        container->array = (uint16_t *)roaring_malloc(new_capacity * sizeof(uint16_t));
+    }
+
+    //  handle the case where realloc fails
+    if (container->array == NULL) {
+      fprintf(stderr, "could not allocate memory\n");
+    }
+    assert(container->array != NULL);
+}
+
+/* Copy one container into another. We assume that they are distinct. */
+void array_container_copy(const array_container_t *src,
+                          array_container_t *dst) {
+    const int32_t cardinality = src->cardinality;
+    if (cardinality > dst->capacity) {
+        array_container_grow(dst, cardinality, false);
+    }
+
+    dst->cardinality = cardinality;
+    memcpy(dst->array, src->array, cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t));
+}
+
+void array_container_add_from_range(array_container_t *arr, uint32_t min,
+                                    uint32_t max, uint16_t step) {
+    for (uint32_t value = min; value < max; value += step) {
+        array_container_append(arr, value);
+    }
+}
+
+/* Computes the union of array1 and array2 and write the result to arrayout.
+ * It is assumed that arrayout is distinct from both array1 and array2.
+ */
+void array_container_union(const array_container_t *array_1,
+                           const array_container_t *array_2,
+                           array_container_t *out) {
+    const int32_t card_1 = array_1->cardinality, card_2 = array_2->cardinality;
+    const int32_t max_cardinality = card_1 + card_2;
+
+    if (out->capacity < max_cardinality) {
+      array_container_grow(out, max_cardinality, false);
+    }
+    out->cardinality = (int32_t)fast_union_uint16(array_1->array, card_1,
+                                      array_2->array, card_2, out->array);
+
+}
+
+/* Computes the  difference of array1 and array2 and write the result
+ * to array out.
+ * Array out does not need to be distinct from array_1
+ */
+void array_container_andnot(const array_container_t *array_1,
+                            const array_container_t *array_2,
+                            array_container_t *out) {
+    if (out->capacity < array_1->cardinality)
+        array_container_grow(out, array_1->cardinality, false);
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+    if(( croaring_avx2() ) && (out != array_1) && (out != array_2)) {
+      out->cardinality =
+          difference_vector16(array_1->array, array_1->cardinality,
+                            array_2->array, array_2->cardinality, out->array);
+     } else {
+      out->cardinality =
+        difference_uint16(array_1->array, array_1->cardinality, array_2->array,
+                          array_2->cardinality, out->array);
+     }
+#else
+    out->cardinality =
+        difference_uint16(array_1->array, array_1->cardinality, array_2->array,
+                          array_2->cardinality, out->array);
+#endif
+}
+
+/* Computes the symmetric difference of array1 and array2 and write the
+ * result
+ * to arrayout.
+ * It is assumed that arrayout is distinct from both array1 and array2.
+ */
+void array_container_xor(const array_container_t *array_1,
+                         const array_container_t *array_2,
+                         array_container_t *out) {
+    const int32_t card_1 = array_1->cardinality, card_2 = array_2->cardinality;
+    const int32_t max_cardinality = card_1 + card_2;
+    if (out->capacity < max_cardinality) {
+        array_container_grow(out, max_cardinality, false);
+    }
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+    if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+      out->cardinality =
+        xor_vector16(array_1->array, array_1->cardinality, array_2->array,
+                     array_2->cardinality, out->array);
+    } else {
+      out->cardinality =
+        xor_uint16(array_1->array, array_1->cardinality, array_2->array,
+                   array_2->cardinality, out->array);
+    }
+#else
+    out->cardinality =
+        xor_uint16(array_1->array, array_1->cardinality, array_2->array,
+                   array_2->cardinality, out->array);
+#endif
+}
+
+static inline int32_t minimum_int32(int32_t a, int32_t b) {
+    return (a < b) ? a : b;
+}
+
+/* computes the intersection of array1 and array2 and write the result to
+ * arrayout.
+ * It is assumed that arrayout is distinct from both array1 and array2.
+ * */
+void array_container_intersection(const array_container_t *array1,
+                                  const array_container_t *array2,
+                                  array_container_t *out) {
+    int32_t card_1 = array1->cardinality, card_2 = array2->cardinality,
+            min_card = minimum_int32(card_1, card_2);
+    const int threshold = 64;  // subject to tuning
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+    if (out->capacity < min_card) {
+      array_container_grow(out, min_card + sizeof(__m128i) / sizeof(uint16_t),
+        false);
+    }
+#else
+    if (out->capacity < min_card) {
+      array_container_grow(out, min_card, false);
+    }
+#endif
+
+    if (card_1 * threshold < card_2) {
+        out->cardinality = intersect_skewed_uint16(
+            array1->array, card_1, array2->array, card_2, out->array);
+    } else if (card_2 * threshold < card_1) {
+        out->cardinality = intersect_skewed_uint16(
+            array2->array, card_2, array1->array, card_1, out->array);
+    } else {
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+       if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+        out->cardinality = intersect_vector16(
+            array1->array, card_1, array2->array, card_2, out->array);
+       } else {
+        out->cardinality = intersect_uint16(array1->array, card_1,
+                                            array2->array, card_2, out->array);
+       }
+#else
+        out->cardinality = intersect_uint16(array1->array, card_1,
+                                            array2->array, card_2, out->array);
+#endif
+    }
+}
+
+/* computes the size of the intersection of array1 and array2
+ * */
+int array_container_intersection_cardinality(const array_container_t *array1,
+                                             const array_container_t *array2) {
+    int32_t card_1 = array1->cardinality, card_2 = array2->cardinality;
+    const int threshold = 64;  // subject to tuning
+    if (card_1 * threshold < card_2) {
+        return intersect_skewed_uint16_cardinality(array1->array, card_1,
+                                                   array2->array, card_2);
+    } else if (card_2 * threshold < card_1) {
+        return intersect_skewed_uint16_cardinality(array2->array, card_2,
+                                                   array1->array, card_1);
+    } else {
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+    if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+        return intersect_vector16_cardinality(array1->array, card_1,
+                                              array2->array, card_2);
+    } else {
+        return intersect_uint16_cardinality(array1->array, card_1,
+                                            array2->array, card_2);
+    }
+#else
+        return intersect_uint16_cardinality(array1->array, card_1,
+                                            array2->array, card_2);
+#endif
+    }
+}
+
+bool array_container_intersect(const array_container_t *array1,
+                                  const array_container_t *array2) {
+    int32_t card_1 = array1->cardinality, card_2 = array2->cardinality;
+    const int threshold = 64;  // subject to tuning
+    if (card_1 * threshold < card_2) {
+        return intersect_skewed_uint16_nonempty(
+            array1->array, card_1, array2->array, card_2);
+    } else if (card_2 * threshold < card_1) {
+    	return intersect_skewed_uint16_nonempty(
+            array2->array, card_2, array1->array, card_1);
+    } else {
+    	// we do not bother vectorizing
+        return intersect_uint16_nonempty(array1->array, card_1,
+                                            array2->array, card_2);
+    }
+}
+
+/* computes the intersection of array1 and array2 and write the result to
+ * array1.
+ * */
+void array_container_intersection_inplace(array_container_t *src_1,
+                                          const array_container_t *src_2) {
+    // todo: can any of this be vectorized?
+    int32_t card_1 = src_1->cardinality, card_2 = src_2->cardinality;
+    const int threshold = 64;  // subject to tuning
+    if (card_1 * threshold < card_2) {
+        src_1->cardinality = intersect_skewed_uint16(
+            src_1->array, card_1, src_2->array, card_2, src_1->array);
+    } else if (card_2 * threshold < card_1) {
+        src_1->cardinality = intersect_skewed_uint16(
+            src_2->array, card_2, src_1->array, card_1, src_1->array);
+    } else {
+        src_1->cardinality = intersect_uint16(
+            src_1->array, card_1, src_2->array, card_2, src_1->array);
+    }
+}
+
+int array_container_to_uint32_array(void *vout, const array_container_t *cont,
+                                    uint32_t base) {
+    int outpos = 0;
+    uint32_t *out = (uint32_t *)vout;
+    for (int i = 0; i < cont->cardinality; ++i) {
+        const uint32_t val = base + cont->array[i];
+        memcpy(out + outpos, &val,
+               sizeof(uint32_t));  // should be compiled as a MOV on x64
+        outpos++;
+    }
+    return outpos;
+}
+
+void array_container_printf(const array_container_t *v) {
+    if (v->cardinality == 0) {
+        printf("{}");
+        return;
+    }
+    printf("{");
+    printf("%d", v->array[0]);
+    for (int i = 1; i < v->cardinality; ++i) {
+        printf(",%d", v->array[i]);
+    }
+    printf("}");
+}
+
+void array_container_printf_as_uint32_array(const array_container_t *v,
+                                            uint32_t base) {
+    if (v->cardinality == 0) {
+        return;
+    }
+    printf("%u", v->array[0] + base);
+    for (int i = 1; i < v->cardinality; ++i) {
+        printf(",%u", v->array[i] + base);
+    }
+}
+
+/* Compute the number of runs */
+int32_t array_container_number_of_runs(const array_container_t *ac) {
+    // Can SIMD work here?
+    int32_t nr_runs = 0;
+    int32_t prev = -2;
+    for (const uint16_t *p = ac->array; p != ac->array + ac->cardinality; ++p) {
+        if (*p != prev + 1) nr_runs++;
+        prev = *p;
+    }
+    return nr_runs;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Writes the underlying array to buf, outputs how many bytes were written.
+ * The number of bytes written should be
+ * array_container_size_in_bytes(container).
+ *
+ */
+int32_t array_container_write(const array_container_t *container, char *buf) {
+    memcpy(buf, container->array, container->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t));
+    return array_container_size_in_bytes(container);
+}
+
+bool array_container_is_subset(const array_container_t *container1,
+                               const array_container_t *container2) {
+    if (container1->cardinality > container2->cardinality) {
+        return false;
+    }
+    int i1 = 0, i2 = 0;
+    while (i1 < container1->cardinality && i2 < container2->cardinality) {
+        if (container1->array[i1] == container2->array[i2]) {
+            i1++;
+            i2++;
+        } else if (container1->array[i1] > container2->array[i2]) {
+            i2++;
+        } else {  // container1->array[i1] < container2->array[i2]
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    if (i1 == container1->cardinality) {
+        return true;
+    } else {
+        return false;
+    }
+}
+
+int32_t array_container_read(int32_t cardinality, array_container_t *container,
+                             const char *buf) {
+    if (container->capacity < cardinality) {
+        array_container_grow(container, cardinality, false);
+    }
+    container->cardinality = cardinality;
+    memcpy(container->array, buf, container->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t));
+
+    return array_container_size_in_bytes(container);
+}
+
+bool array_container_iterate(const array_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                             roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < cont->cardinality; i++)
+        if (!iterator(cont->array[i] + base, ptr)) return false;
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool array_container_iterate64(const array_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                               roaring_iterator64 iterator, uint64_t high_bits,
+                               void *ptr) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < cont->cardinality; i++)
+        if (!iterator(high_bits | (uint64_t)(cont->array[i] + base), ptr))
+            return false;
+    return true;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/array.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/mixed_union.c */
+/*
+ * mixed_union.c
+ *
+ */
+
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Compute the union of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst.  */
+void array_bitset_container_union(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                  bitset_container_t *dst) {
+    if (src_2 != dst) bitset_container_copy(src_2, dst);
+    dst->cardinality = (int32_t)bitset_set_list_withcard(
+        dst->words, dst->cardinality, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality);
+}
+
+/* Compute the union of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for src_2 to be dst.  This version does not
+ * update the cardinality of dst (it is set to BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY). */
+void array_bitset_container_lazy_union(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                       const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                       bitset_container_t *dst) {
+    if (src_2 != dst) bitset_container_copy(src_2, dst);
+    bitset_set_list(dst->words, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality);
+    dst->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;
+}
+
+void run_bitset_container_union(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                bitset_container_t *dst) {
+    assert(!run_container_is_full(src_1));  // catch this case upstream
+    if (src_2 != dst) bitset_container_copy(src_2, dst);
+    for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+        bitset_set_lenrange(dst->words, rle.value, rle.length);
+    }
+    dst->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(dst);
+}
+
+void run_bitset_container_lazy_union(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                     const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                     bitset_container_t *dst) {
+    assert(!run_container_is_full(src_1));  // catch this case upstream
+    if (src_2 != dst) bitset_container_copy(src_2, dst);
+    for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+        bitset_set_lenrange(dst->words, rle.value, rle.length);
+    }
+    dst->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;
+}
+
+// why do we leave the result as a run container??
+void array_run_container_union(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                               const run_container_t *src_2,
+                               run_container_t *dst) {
+    if (run_container_is_full(src_2)) {
+        run_container_copy(src_2, dst);
+        return;
+    }
+    // TODO: see whether the "2*" is spurious
+    run_container_grow(dst, 2 * (src_1->cardinality + src_2->n_runs), false);
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t arraypos = 0;
+    rle16_t previousrle;
+    if (src_2->runs[rlepos].value <= src_1->array[arraypos]) {
+        previousrle = run_container_append_first(dst, src_2->runs[rlepos]);
+        rlepos++;
+    } else {
+        previousrle =
+            run_container_append_value_first(dst, src_1->array[arraypos]);
+        arraypos++;
+    }
+    while ((rlepos < src_2->n_runs) && (arraypos < src_1->cardinality)) {
+        if (src_2->runs[rlepos].value <= src_1->array[arraypos]) {
+            run_container_append(dst, src_2->runs[rlepos], &previousrle);
+            rlepos++;
+        } else {
+            run_container_append_value(dst, src_1->array[arraypos],
+                                       &previousrle);
+            arraypos++;
+        }
+    }
+    if (arraypos < src_1->cardinality) {
+        while (arraypos < src_1->cardinality) {
+            run_container_append_value(dst, src_1->array[arraypos],
+                                       &previousrle);
+            arraypos++;
+        }
+    } else {
+        while (rlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+            run_container_append(dst, src_2->runs[rlepos], &previousrle);
+            rlepos++;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+void array_run_container_inplace_union(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                       run_container_t *src_2) {
+    if (run_container_is_full(src_2)) {
+        return;
+    }
+    const int32_t maxoutput = src_1->cardinality + src_2->n_runs;
+    const int32_t neededcapacity = maxoutput + src_2->n_runs;
+    if (src_2->capacity < neededcapacity)
+        run_container_grow(src_2, neededcapacity, true);
+    memmove(src_2->runs + maxoutput, src_2->runs,
+            src_2->n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t));
+    rle16_t *inputsrc2 = src_2->runs + maxoutput;
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t arraypos = 0;
+    int src2nruns = src_2->n_runs;
+    src_2->n_runs = 0;
+
+    rle16_t previousrle;
+
+    if (inputsrc2[rlepos].value <= src_1->array[arraypos]) {
+        previousrle = run_container_append_first(src_2, inputsrc2[rlepos]);
+        rlepos++;
+    } else {
+        previousrle =
+            run_container_append_value_first(src_2, src_1->array[arraypos]);
+        arraypos++;
+    }
+
+    while ((rlepos < src2nruns) && (arraypos < src_1->cardinality)) {
+        if (inputsrc2[rlepos].value <= src_1->array[arraypos]) {
+            run_container_append(src_2, inputsrc2[rlepos], &previousrle);
+            rlepos++;
+        } else {
+            run_container_append_value(src_2, src_1->array[arraypos],
+                                       &previousrle);
+            arraypos++;
+        }
+    }
+    if (arraypos < src_1->cardinality) {
+        while (arraypos < src_1->cardinality) {
+            run_container_append_value(src_2, src_1->array[arraypos],
+                                       &previousrle);
+            arraypos++;
+        }
+    } else {
+        while (rlepos < src2nruns) {
+            run_container_append(src_2, inputsrc2[rlepos], &previousrle);
+            rlepos++;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+bool array_array_container_union(
+    const array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int totalCardinality = src_1->cardinality + src_2->cardinality;
+    if (totalCardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_create_given_capacity(totalCardinality);
+        if (*dst != NULL) {
+            array_container_union(src_1, src_2, CAST_array(*dst));
+        } else {
+            return true; // otherwise failure won't be caught
+        }
+        return false;  // not a bitset
+    }
+    *dst = bitset_container_create();
+    bool returnval = true;  // expect a bitset
+    if (*dst != NULL) {
+        bitset_container_t *ourbitset = CAST_bitset(*dst);
+        bitset_set_list(ourbitset->words, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality);
+        ourbitset->cardinality = (int32_t)bitset_set_list_withcard(
+            ourbitset->words, src_1->cardinality, src_2->array,
+            src_2->cardinality);
+        if (ourbitset->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+            // need to convert!
+            *dst = array_container_from_bitset(ourbitset);
+            bitset_container_free(ourbitset);
+            returnval = false;  // not going to be a bitset
+        }
+    }
+    return returnval;
+}
+
+bool array_array_container_inplace_union(
+    array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int totalCardinality = src_1->cardinality + src_2->cardinality;
+    *dst = NULL;
+    if (totalCardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        if(src_1->capacity < totalCardinality) {
+          *dst = array_container_create_given_capacity(2  * totalCardinality); // be purposefully generous
+          if (*dst != NULL) {
+              array_container_union(src_1, src_2, CAST_array(*dst));
+          } else {
+              return true; // otherwise failure won't be caught
+          }
+          return false;  // not a bitset
+        } else {
+          memmove(src_1->array + src_2->cardinality, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t));
+          src_1->cardinality = (int32_t)union_uint16(src_1->array + src_2->cardinality, src_1->cardinality,
+                                  src_2->array, src_2->cardinality, src_1->array);
+          return false; // not a bitset
+        }
+    }
+    *dst = bitset_container_create();
+    bool returnval = true;  // expect a bitset
+    if (*dst != NULL) {
+        bitset_container_t *ourbitset = CAST_bitset(*dst);
+        bitset_set_list(ourbitset->words, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality);
+        ourbitset->cardinality = (int32_t)bitset_set_list_withcard(
+            ourbitset->words, src_1->cardinality, src_2->array,
+            src_2->cardinality);
+        if (ourbitset->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+            // need to convert!
+            if(src_1->capacity < ourbitset->cardinality) {
+              array_container_grow(src_1, ourbitset->cardinality, false);
+            }
+
+            bitset_extract_setbits_uint16(ourbitset->words, BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS,
+                                  src_1->array, 0);
+            src_1->cardinality =  ourbitset->cardinality;
+            *dst = src_1;
+            bitset_container_free(ourbitset);
+            returnval = false;  // not going to be a bitset
+        }
+    }
+    return returnval;
+}
+
+
+bool array_array_container_lazy_union(
+    const array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int totalCardinality = src_1->cardinality + src_2->cardinality;
+    if (totalCardinality <= ARRAY_LAZY_LOWERBOUND) {
+        *dst = array_container_create_given_capacity(totalCardinality);
+        if (*dst != NULL) {
+            array_container_union(src_1, src_2, CAST_array(*dst));
+        } else {
+              return true; // otherwise failure won't be caught
+        }
+        return false;  // not a bitset
+    }
+    *dst = bitset_container_create();
+    bool returnval = true;  // expect a bitset
+    if (*dst != NULL) {
+        bitset_container_t *ourbitset = CAST_bitset(*dst);
+        bitset_set_list(ourbitset->words, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality);
+        bitset_set_list(ourbitset->words, src_2->array, src_2->cardinality);
+        ourbitset->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;
+    }
+    return returnval;
+}
+
+
+bool array_array_container_lazy_inplace_union(
+    array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int totalCardinality = src_1->cardinality + src_2->cardinality;
+    *dst = NULL;
+    if (totalCardinality <= ARRAY_LAZY_LOWERBOUND) {
+        if(src_1->capacity < totalCardinality) {
+          *dst = array_container_create_given_capacity(2  * totalCardinality); // be purposefully generous
+          if (*dst != NULL) {
+              array_container_union(src_1, src_2, CAST_array(*dst));
+          } else {
+            return true; // otherwise failure won't be caught
+          }
+          return false;  // not a bitset
+        } else {
+          memmove(src_1->array + src_2->cardinality, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t));
+          src_1->cardinality = (int32_t)union_uint16(src_1->array + src_2->cardinality, src_1->cardinality,
+                                  src_2->array, src_2->cardinality, src_1->array);
+          return false; // not a bitset
+        }
+    }
+    *dst = bitset_container_create();
+    bool returnval = true;  // expect a bitset
+    if (*dst != NULL) {
+        bitset_container_t *ourbitset = CAST_bitset(*dst);
+        bitset_set_list(ourbitset->words, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality);
+        bitset_set_list(ourbitset->words, src_2->array, src_2->cardinality);
+        ourbitset->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;
+    }
+    return returnval;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/mixed_union.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/convert.c */
+#include <stdio.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+// file contains grubby stuff that must know impl. details of all container
+// types.
+bitset_container_t *bitset_container_from_array(const array_container_t *ac) {
+    bitset_container_t *ans = bitset_container_create();
+    int limit = array_container_cardinality(ac);
+    for (int i = 0; i < limit; ++i) bitset_container_set(ans, ac->array[i]);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+bitset_container_t *bitset_container_from_run(const run_container_t *arr) {
+    int card = run_container_cardinality(arr);
+    bitset_container_t *answer = bitset_container_create();
+    for (int rlepos = 0; rlepos < arr->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        rle16_t vl = arr->runs[rlepos];
+        bitset_set_lenrange(answer->words, vl.value, vl.length);
+    }
+    answer->cardinality = card;
+    return answer;
+}
+
+array_container_t *array_container_from_run(const run_container_t *arr) {
+    array_container_t *answer =
+        array_container_create_given_capacity(run_container_cardinality(arr));
+    answer->cardinality = 0;
+    for (int rlepos = 0; rlepos < arr->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        int run_start = arr->runs[rlepos].value;
+        int run_end = run_start + arr->runs[rlepos].length;
+
+        for (int run_value = run_start; run_value <= run_end; ++run_value) {
+            answer->array[answer->cardinality++] = (uint16_t)run_value;
+        }
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+array_container_t *array_container_from_bitset(const bitset_container_t *bits) {
+    array_container_t *result =
+        array_container_create_given_capacity(bits->cardinality);
+    result->cardinality = bits->cardinality;
+    //  sse version ends up being slower here
+    // (bitset_extract_setbits_sse_uint16)
+    // because of the sparsity of the data
+    bitset_extract_setbits_uint16(bits->words, BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS,
+                                  result->array, 0);
+    return result;
+}
+
+/* assumes that container has adequate space.  Run from [s,e] (inclusive) */
+static void add_run(run_container_t *rc, int s, int e) {
+    rc->runs[rc->n_runs].value = s;
+    rc->runs[rc->n_runs].length = e - s;
+    rc->n_runs++;
+}
+
+run_container_t *run_container_from_array(const array_container_t *c) {
+    int32_t n_runs = array_container_number_of_runs(c);
+    run_container_t *answer = run_container_create_given_capacity(n_runs);
+    int prev = -2;
+    int run_start = -1;
+    int32_t card = c->cardinality;
+    if (card == 0) return answer;
+    for (int i = 0; i < card; ++i) {
+        const uint16_t cur_val = c->array[i];
+        if (cur_val != prev + 1) {
+            // new run starts; flush old one, if any
+            if (run_start != -1) add_run(answer, run_start, prev);
+            run_start = cur_val;
+        }
+        prev = c->array[i];
+    }
+    // now prev is the last seen value
+    add_run(answer, run_start, prev);
+    // assert(run_container_cardinality(answer) == c->cardinality);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Convert the runcontainer to either a Bitmap or an Array Container, depending
+ * on the cardinality.  Frees the container.
+ * Allocates and returns new container, which caller is responsible for freeing.
+ * It does not free the run container.
+ */
+container_t *convert_to_bitset_or_array_container(
+    run_container_t *rc, int32_t card,
+    uint8_t *resulttype
+){
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        array_container_t *answer = array_container_create_given_capacity(card);
+        answer->cardinality = 0;
+        for (int rlepos = 0; rlepos < rc->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+            uint16_t run_start = rc->runs[rlepos].value;
+            uint16_t run_end = run_start + rc->runs[rlepos].length;
+            for (uint16_t run_value = run_start; run_value <= run_end;
+                 ++run_value) {
+                answer->array[answer->cardinality++] = run_value;
+            }
+        }
+        assert(card == answer->cardinality);
+        *resulttype = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        //run_container_free(r);
+        return answer;
+    }
+    bitset_container_t *answer = bitset_container_create();
+    for (int rlepos = 0; rlepos < rc->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        uint16_t run_start = rc->runs[rlepos].value;
+        bitset_set_lenrange(answer->words, run_start, rc->runs[rlepos].length);
+    }
+    answer->cardinality = card;
+    *resulttype = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+    //run_container_free(r);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+/* Converts a run container to either an array or a bitset, IF it saves space.
+ */
+/* If a conversion occurs, the caller is responsible to free the original
+ * container and
+ * he becomes responsible to free the new one. */
+container_t *convert_run_to_efficient_container(
+    run_container_t *c,
+    uint8_t *typecode_after
+){
+    int32_t size_as_run_container =
+        run_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(c->n_runs);
+
+    int32_t size_as_bitset_container =
+        bitset_container_serialized_size_in_bytes();
+    int32_t card = run_container_cardinality(c);
+    int32_t size_as_array_container =
+        array_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(card);
+
+    int32_t min_size_non_run =
+        size_as_bitset_container < size_as_array_container
+            ? size_as_bitset_container
+            : size_as_array_container;
+    if (size_as_run_container <= min_size_non_run) {  // no conversion
+        *typecode_after = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        return c;
+    }
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        // to array
+        array_container_t *answer = array_container_create_given_capacity(card);
+        answer->cardinality = 0;
+        for (int rlepos = 0; rlepos < c->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+            int run_start = c->runs[rlepos].value;
+            int run_end = run_start + c->runs[rlepos].length;
+
+            for (int run_value = run_start; run_value <= run_end; ++run_value) {
+                answer->array[answer->cardinality++] = (uint16_t)run_value;
+            }
+        }
+        *typecode_after = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        return answer;
+    }
+
+    // else to bitset
+    bitset_container_t *answer = bitset_container_create();
+
+    for (int rlepos = 0; rlepos < c->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        int start = c->runs[rlepos].value;
+        int end = start + c->runs[rlepos].length;
+        bitset_set_range(answer->words, start, end + 1);
+    }
+    answer->cardinality = card;
+    *typecode_after = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+    return answer;
+}
+
+// like convert_run_to_efficient_container but frees the old result if needed
+container_t *convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(
+    run_container_t *c,
+    uint8_t *typecode_after
+){
+    container_t *answer = convert_run_to_efficient_container(c, typecode_after);
+    if (answer != c) run_container_free(c);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+/* once converted, the original container is disposed here, rather than
+   in roaring_array
+*/
+
+// TODO: split into run-  array-  and bitset-  subfunctions for sanity;
+// a few function calls won't really matter.
+
+container_t *convert_run_optimize(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t typecode_original,
+    uint8_t *typecode_after
+){
+    if (typecode_original == RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+        container_t *newc = convert_run_to_efficient_container(
+                                    CAST_run(c), typecode_after);
+        if (newc != c) {
+            container_free(c, typecode_original);
+        }
+        return newc;
+    } else if (typecode_original == ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+        // it might need to be converted to a run container.
+        array_container_t *c_qua_array = CAST_array(c);
+        int32_t n_runs = array_container_number_of_runs(c_qua_array);
+        int32_t size_as_run_container =
+            run_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(n_runs);
+        int32_t card = array_container_cardinality(c_qua_array);
+        int32_t size_as_array_container =
+            array_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(card);
+
+        if (size_as_run_container >= size_as_array_container) {
+            *typecode_after = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c;
+        }
+        // else convert array to run container
+        run_container_t *answer = run_container_create_given_capacity(n_runs);
+        int prev = -2;
+        int run_start = -1;
+
+        assert(card > 0);
+        for (int i = 0; i < card; ++i) {
+            uint16_t cur_val = c_qua_array->array[i];
+            if (cur_val != prev + 1) {
+                // new run starts; flush old one, if any
+                if (run_start != -1) add_run(answer, run_start, prev);
+                run_start = cur_val;
+            }
+            prev = c_qua_array->array[i];
+        }
+        assert(run_start >= 0);
+        // now prev is the last seen value
+        add_run(answer, run_start, prev);
+        *typecode_after = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        array_container_free(c_qua_array);
+        return answer;
+    } else if (typecode_original ==
+               BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE) {  // run conversions on bitset
+        // does bitset need conversion to run?
+        bitset_container_t *c_qua_bitset = CAST_bitset(c);
+        int32_t n_runs = bitset_container_number_of_runs(c_qua_bitset);
+        int32_t size_as_run_container =
+            run_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(n_runs);
+        int32_t size_as_bitset_container =
+            bitset_container_serialized_size_in_bytes();
+
+        if (size_as_bitset_container <= size_as_run_container) {
+            // no conversion needed.
+            *typecode_after = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+            return c;
+        }
+        // bitset to runcontainer (ported from Java  RunContainer(
+        // BitmapContainer bc, int nbrRuns))
+        assert(n_runs > 0);  // no empty bitmaps
+        run_container_t *answer = run_container_create_given_capacity(n_runs);
+
+        int long_ctr = 0;
+        uint64_t cur_word = c_qua_bitset->words[0];
+        int run_count = 0;
+        while (true) {
+            while (cur_word == UINT64_C(0) &&
+                   long_ctr < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS - 1)
+                cur_word = c_qua_bitset->words[++long_ctr];
+
+            if (cur_word == UINT64_C(0)) {
+                bitset_container_free(c_qua_bitset);
+                *typecode_after = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return answer;
+            }
+
+            int local_run_start = __builtin_ctzll(cur_word);
+            int run_start = local_run_start + 64 * long_ctr;
+            uint64_t cur_word_with_1s = cur_word | (cur_word - 1);
+
+            int run_end = 0;
+            while (cur_word_with_1s == UINT64_C(0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF) &&
+                   long_ctr < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS - 1)
+                cur_word_with_1s = c_qua_bitset->words[++long_ctr];
+
+            if (cur_word_with_1s == UINT64_C(0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)) {
+                run_end = 64 + long_ctr * 64;  // exclusive, I guess
+                add_run(answer, run_start, run_end - 1);
+                bitset_container_free(c_qua_bitset);
+                *typecode_after = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+                return answer;
+            }
+            int local_run_end = __builtin_ctzll(~cur_word_with_1s);
+            run_end = local_run_end + long_ctr * 64;
+            add_run(answer, run_start, run_end - 1);
+            run_count++;
+            cur_word = cur_word_with_1s & (cur_word_with_1s + 1);
+        }
+        return answer;
+    } else {
+        assert(false);
+        __builtin_unreachable();
+        return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+container_t *container_from_run_range(
+    const run_container_t *run,
+    uint32_t min, uint32_t max, uint8_t *typecode_after
+){
+    // We expect most of the time to end up with a bitset container
+    bitset_container_t *bitset = bitset_container_create();
+    *typecode_after = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+    int32_t union_cardinality = 0;
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < run->n_runs; ++i) {
+        uint32_t rle_min = run->runs[i].value;
+        uint32_t rle_max = rle_min + run->runs[i].length;
+        bitset_set_lenrange(bitset->words, rle_min, rle_max - rle_min);
+        union_cardinality += run->runs[i].length + 1;
+    }
+    union_cardinality += max - min + 1;
+    union_cardinality -= bitset_lenrange_cardinality(bitset->words, min, max-min);
+    bitset_set_lenrange(bitset->words, min, max - min);
+    bitset->cardinality = union_cardinality;
+    if(bitset->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        // we need to convert to an array container
+        array_container_t * array = array_container_from_bitset(bitset);
+        *typecode_after = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        bitset_container_free(bitset);
+        return array;
+    }
+    return bitset;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/convert.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/run.c */
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+extern inline uint16_t run_container_minimum(const run_container_t *run);
+extern inline uint16_t run_container_maximum(const run_container_t *run);
+extern inline int32_t interleavedBinarySearch(const rle16_t *array,
+                                              int32_t lenarray, uint16_t ikey);
+extern inline bool run_container_contains(const run_container_t *run,
+                                          uint16_t pos);
+extern inline int run_container_index_equalorlarger(const run_container_t *arr, uint16_t x);
+extern inline bool run_container_is_full(const run_container_t *run);
+extern inline bool run_container_nonzero_cardinality(const run_container_t *rc);
+extern inline void run_container_clear(run_container_t *run);
+extern inline int32_t run_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(int32_t num_runs);
+extern inline run_container_t *run_container_create_range(uint32_t start,
+                                                   uint32_t stop);
+extern inline int run_container_cardinality(const run_container_t *run);
+
+
+bool run_container_add(run_container_t *run, uint16_t pos) {
+    int32_t index = interleavedBinarySearch(run->runs, run->n_runs, pos);
+    if (index >= 0) return false;  // already there
+    index = -index - 2;            // points to preceding value, possibly -1
+    if (index >= 0) {              // possible match
+        int32_t offset = pos - run->runs[index].value;
+        int32_t le = run->runs[index].length;
+        if (offset <= le) return false;  // already there
+        if (offset == le + 1) {
+            // we may need to fuse
+            if (index + 1 < run->n_runs) {
+                if (run->runs[index + 1].value == pos + 1) {
+                    // indeed fusion is needed
+                    run->runs[index].length = run->runs[index + 1].value +
+                                              run->runs[index + 1].length -
+                                              run->runs[index].value;
+                    recoverRoomAtIndex(run, (uint16_t)(index + 1));
+                    return true;
+                }
+            }
+            run->runs[index].length++;
+            return true;
+        }
+        if (index + 1 < run->n_runs) {
+            // we may need to fuse
+            if (run->runs[index + 1].value == pos + 1) {
+                // indeed fusion is needed
+                run->runs[index + 1].value = pos;
+                run->runs[index + 1].length = run->runs[index + 1].length + 1;
+                return true;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    if (index == -1) {
+        // we may need to extend the first run
+        if (0 < run->n_runs) {
+            if (run->runs[0].value == pos + 1) {
+                run->runs[0].length++;
+                run->runs[0].value--;
+                return true;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    makeRoomAtIndex(run, (uint16_t)(index + 1));
+    run->runs[index + 1].value = pos;
+    run->runs[index + 1].length = 0;
+    return true;
+}
+
+/* Create a new run container. Return NULL in case of failure. */
+run_container_t *run_container_create_given_capacity(int32_t size) {
+    run_container_t *run;
+    /* Allocate the run container itself. */
+    if ((run = (run_container_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(run_container_t))) == NULL) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    if (size <= 0 ) { // we don't want to rely on malloc(0)
+        run->runs = NULL;
+    } else if ((run->runs = (rle16_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(rle16_t) * size)) == NULL) {
+        roaring_free(run);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    run->capacity = size;
+    run->n_runs = 0;
+    return run;
+}
+
+int run_container_shrink_to_fit(run_container_t *src) {
+    if (src->n_runs == src->capacity) return 0;  // nothing to do
+    int savings = src->capacity - src->n_runs;
+    src->capacity = src->n_runs;
+    rle16_t *oldruns = src->runs;
+    src->runs = (rle16_t *)roaring_realloc(oldruns, src->capacity * sizeof(rle16_t));
+    if (src->runs == NULL) roaring_free(oldruns);  // should never happen?
+    return savings;
+}
+/* Create a new run container. Return NULL in case of failure. */
+run_container_t *run_container_create(void) {
+    return run_container_create_given_capacity(RUN_DEFAULT_INIT_SIZE);
+}
+
+run_container_t *run_container_clone(const run_container_t *src) {
+    run_container_t *run = run_container_create_given_capacity(src->capacity);
+    if (run == NULL) return NULL;
+    run->capacity = src->capacity;
+    run->n_runs = src->n_runs;
+    memcpy(run->runs, src->runs, src->n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t));
+    return run;
+}
+
+void run_container_offset(const run_container_t *c,
+                          container_t **loc, container_t **hic,
+                          uint16_t offset) {
+    run_container_t *lo = NULL, *hi = NULL;
+
+    bool split;
+    int lo_cap, hi_cap;
+    int top, pivot;
+
+    top = (1 << 16) - offset;
+    pivot = run_container_index_equalorlarger(c, top);
+
+    if (pivot == -1) {
+        split = false;
+        lo_cap = c->n_runs;
+        hi_cap = 0;
+    } else {
+        split = c->runs[pivot].value <= top;
+        lo_cap = pivot + (split ? 1 : 0);
+        hi_cap = c->n_runs - pivot;
+    }
+
+    if (loc && lo_cap) {
+        lo = run_container_create_given_capacity(lo_cap);
+        memcpy(lo->runs, c->runs, lo_cap*sizeof(rle16_t));
+        lo->n_runs = lo_cap;
+        for (int i = 0; i < lo_cap; ++i) {
+            lo->runs[i].value += offset;
+        }
+        *loc = (container_t*)lo;
+    }
+
+    if (hic && hi_cap) {
+        hi = run_container_create_given_capacity(hi_cap);
+        memcpy(hi->runs, c->runs+pivot, hi_cap*sizeof(rle16_t));
+        hi->n_runs = hi_cap;
+        for (int i = 0; i < hi_cap; ++i) {
+            hi->runs[i].value += offset;
+        }
+        *hic = (container_t*)hi;
+    }
+
+    // Fix the split.
+    if (split) {
+        if (lo != NULL) {
+            // Add the missing run to 'lo', exhausting length.
+            lo->runs[lo->n_runs-1].length = (1 << 16) - lo->runs[lo->n_runs-1].value - 1;
+        }
+
+        if (hi != NULL) {
+            // Fix the first run in 'hi'.
+            hi->runs[0].length -= UINT16_MAX - hi->runs[0].value + 1;
+            hi->runs[0].value = 0;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+/* Free memory. */
+void run_container_free(run_container_t *run) {
+    if(run->runs != NULL) {// Jon Strabala reports that some tools complain otherwise
+      roaring_free(run->runs);
+      run->runs = NULL;  // pedantic
+    }
+    roaring_free(run);
+}
+
+void run_container_grow(run_container_t *run, int32_t min, bool copy) {
+    int32_t newCapacity =
+        (run->capacity == 0)
+            ? RUN_DEFAULT_INIT_SIZE
+            : run->capacity < 64 ? run->capacity * 2
+                                 : run->capacity < 1024 ? run->capacity * 3 / 2
+                                                        : run->capacity * 5 / 4;
+    if (newCapacity < min) newCapacity = min;
+    run->capacity = newCapacity;
+    assert(run->capacity >= min);
+    if (copy) {
+        rle16_t *oldruns = run->runs;
+        run->runs =
+            (rle16_t *)roaring_realloc(oldruns, run->capacity * sizeof(rle16_t));
+        if (run->runs == NULL) roaring_free(oldruns);
+    } else {
+        // Jon Strabala reports that some tools complain otherwise
+        if (run->runs != NULL) {
+          roaring_free(run->runs);
+        }
+        run->runs = (rle16_t *)roaring_malloc(run->capacity * sizeof(rle16_t));
+    }
+    // handle the case where realloc fails
+    if (run->runs == NULL) {
+      fprintf(stderr, "could not allocate memory\n");
+    }
+    assert(run->runs != NULL);
+}
+
+/* copy one container into another */
+void run_container_copy(const run_container_t *src, run_container_t *dst) {
+    const int32_t n_runs = src->n_runs;
+    if (src->n_runs > dst->capacity) {
+        run_container_grow(dst, n_runs, false);
+    }
+    dst->n_runs = n_runs;
+    memcpy(dst->runs, src->runs, sizeof(rle16_t) * n_runs);
+}
+
+/* Compute the union of `src_1' and `src_2' and write the result to `dst'
+ * It is assumed that `dst' is distinct from both `src_1' and `src_2'. */
+void run_container_union(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                         const run_container_t *src_2, run_container_t *dst) {
+    // TODO: this could be a lot more efficient
+
+    // we start out with inexpensive checks
+    const bool if1 = run_container_is_full(src_1);
+    const bool if2 = run_container_is_full(src_2);
+    if (if1 || if2) {
+        if (if1) {
+            run_container_copy(src_1, dst);
+            return;
+        }
+        if (if2) {
+            run_container_copy(src_2, dst);
+            return;
+        }
+    }
+    const int32_t neededcapacity = src_1->n_runs + src_2->n_runs;
+    if (dst->capacity < neededcapacity)
+        run_container_grow(dst, neededcapacity, false);
+    dst->n_runs = 0;
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t xrlepos = 0;
+
+    rle16_t previousrle;
+    if (src_1->runs[rlepos].value <= src_2->runs[xrlepos].value) {
+        previousrle = run_container_append_first(dst, src_1->runs[rlepos]);
+        rlepos++;
+    } else {
+        previousrle = run_container_append_first(dst, src_2->runs[xrlepos]);
+        xrlepos++;
+    }
+
+    while ((xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) && (rlepos < src_1->n_runs)) {
+        rle16_t newrl;
+        if (src_1->runs[rlepos].value <= src_2->runs[xrlepos].value) {
+            newrl = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+            rlepos++;
+        } else {
+            newrl = src_2->runs[xrlepos];
+            xrlepos++;
+        }
+        run_container_append(dst, newrl, &previousrle);
+    }
+    while (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+        run_container_append(dst, src_2->runs[xrlepos], &previousrle);
+        xrlepos++;
+    }
+    while (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+        run_container_append(dst, src_1->runs[rlepos], &previousrle);
+        rlepos++;
+    }
+}
+
+/* Compute the union of `src_1' and `src_2' and write the result to `src_1'
+ */
+void run_container_union_inplace(run_container_t *src_1,
+                                 const run_container_t *src_2) {
+    // TODO: this could be a lot more efficient
+
+    // we start out with inexpensive checks
+    const bool if1 = run_container_is_full(src_1);
+    const bool if2 = run_container_is_full(src_2);
+    if (if1 || if2) {
+        if (if1) {
+            return;
+        }
+        if (if2) {
+            run_container_copy(src_2, src_1);
+            return;
+        }
+    }
+    // we move the data to the end of the current array
+    const int32_t maxoutput = src_1->n_runs + src_2->n_runs;
+    const int32_t neededcapacity = maxoutput + src_1->n_runs;
+    if (src_1->capacity < neededcapacity)
+        run_container_grow(src_1, neededcapacity, true);
+    memmove(src_1->runs + maxoutput, src_1->runs,
+            src_1->n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t));
+    rle16_t *inputsrc1 = src_1->runs + maxoutput;
+    const int32_t input1nruns = src_1->n_runs;
+    src_1->n_runs = 0;
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t xrlepos = 0;
+
+    rle16_t previousrle;
+    if (inputsrc1[rlepos].value <= src_2->runs[xrlepos].value) {
+        previousrle = run_container_append_first(src_1, inputsrc1[rlepos]);
+        rlepos++;
+    } else {
+        previousrle = run_container_append_first(src_1, src_2->runs[xrlepos]);
+        xrlepos++;
+    }
+    while ((xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) && (rlepos < input1nruns)) {
+        rle16_t newrl;
+        if (inputsrc1[rlepos].value <= src_2->runs[xrlepos].value) {
+            newrl = inputsrc1[rlepos];
+            rlepos++;
+        } else {
+            newrl = src_2->runs[xrlepos];
+            xrlepos++;
+        }
+        run_container_append(src_1, newrl, &previousrle);
+    }
+    while (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+        run_container_append(src_1, src_2->runs[xrlepos], &previousrle);
+        xrlepos++;
+    }
+    while (rlepos < input1nruns) {
+        run_container_append(src_1, inputsrc1[rlepos], &previousrle);
+        rlepos++;
+    }
+}
+
+/* Compute the symmetric difference of `src_1' and `src_2' and write the result
+ * to `dst'
+ * It is assumed that `dst' is distinct from both `src_1' and `src_2'. */
+void run_container_xor(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                       const run_container_t *src_2, run_container_t *dst) {
+    // don't bother to convert xor with full range into negation
+    // since negation is implemented similarly
+
+    const int32_t neededcapacity = src_1->n_runs + src_2->n_runs;
+    if (dst->capacity < neededcapacity)
+        run_container_grow(dst, neededcapacity, false);
+
+    int32_t pos1 = 0;
+    int32_t pos2 = 0;
+    dst->n_runs = 0;
+
+    while ((pos1 < src_1->n_runs) && (pos2 < src_2->n_runs)) {
+        if (src_1->runs[pos1].value <= src_2->runs[pos2].value) {
+            run_container_smart_append_exclusive(dst, src_1->runs[pos1].value,
+                                                 src_1->runs[pos1].length);
+            pos1++;
+        } else {
+            run_container_smart_append_exclusive(dst, src_2->runs[pos2].value,
+                                                 src_2->runs[pos2].length);
+            pos2++;
+        }
+    }
+    while (pos1 < src_1->n_runs) {
+        run_container_smart_append_exclusive(dst, src_1->runs[pos1].value,
+                                             src_1->runs[pos1].length);
+        pos1++;
+    }
+
+    while (pos2 < src_2->n_runs) {
+        run_container_smart_append_exclusive(dst, src_2->runs[pos2].value,
+                                             src_2->runs[pos2].length);
+        pos2++;
+    }
+}
+
+/* Compute the intersection of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is assumed that dst is distinct from both src_1 and src_2. */
+void run_container_intersection(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                const run_container_t *src_2,
+                                run_container_t *dst) {
+    const bool if1 = run_container_is_full(src_1);
+    const bool if2 = run_container_is_full(src_2);
+    if (if1 || if2) {
+        if (if1) {
+            run_container_copy(src_2, dst);
+            return;
+        }
+        if (if2) {
+            run_container_copy(src_1, dst);
+            return;
+        }
+    }
+    // TODO: this could be a lot more efficient, could use SIMD optimizations
+    const int32_t neededcapacity = src_1->n_runs + src_2->n_runs;
+    if (dst->capacity < neededcapacity)
+        run_container_grow(dst, neededcapacity, false);
+    dst->n_runs = 0;
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t xrlepos = 0;
+    int32_t start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+    int32_t end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+    int32_t xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+    int32_t xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+    while ((rlepos < src_1->n_runs) && (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs)) {
+        if (end <= xstart) {
+            ++rlepos;
+            if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+                end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+            }
+        } else if (xend <= start) {
+            ++xrlepos;
+            if (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+                xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+                xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+            }
+        } else {  // they overlap
+            const int32_t lateststart = start > xstart ? start : xstart;
+            int32_t earliestend;
+            if (end == xend) {  // improbable
+                earliestend = end;
+                rlepos++;
+                xrlepos++;
+                if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                    start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+                    end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+                }
+                if (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+                    xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+                    xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+                }
+            } else if (end < xend) {
+                earliestend = end;
+                rlepos++;
+                if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                    start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+                    end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+                }
+
+            } else {  // end > xend
+                earliestend = xend;
+                xrlepos++;
+                if (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+                    xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+                    xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+                }
+            }
+            dst->runs[dst->n_runs].value = (uint16_t)lateststart;
+            dst->runs[dst->n_runs].length =
+                (uint16_t)(earliestend - lateststart - 1);
+            dst->n_runs++;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+/* Compute the size of the intersection of src_1 and src_2 . */
+int run_container_intersection_cardinality(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                           const run_container_t *src_2) {
+    const bool if1 = run_container_is_full(src_1);
+    const bool if2 = run_container_is_full(src_2);
+    if (if1 || if2) {
+        if (if1) {
+            return run_container_cardinality(src_2);
+        }
+        if (if2) {
+            return run_container_cardinality(src_1);
+        }
+    }
+    int answer = 0;
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t xrlepos = 0;
+    int32_t start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+    int32_t end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+    int32_t xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+    int32_t xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+    while ((rlepos < src_1->n_runs) && (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs)) {
+        if (end <= xstart) {
+            ++rlepos;
+            if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+                end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+            }
+        } else if (xend <= start) {
+            ++xrlepos;
+            if (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+                xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+                xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+            }
+        } else {  // they overlap
+            const int32_t lateststart = start > xstart ? start : xstart;
+            int32_t earliestend;
+            if (end == xend) {  // improbable
+                earliestend = end;
+                rlepos++;
+                xrlepos++;
+                if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                    start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+                    end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+                }
+                if (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+                    xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+                    xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+                }
+            } else if (end < xend) {
+                earliestend = end;
+                rlepos++;
+                if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                    start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+                    end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+                }
+
+            } else {  // end > xend
+                earliestend = xend;
+                xrlepos++;
+                if (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+                    xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+                    xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+                }
+            }
+            answer += earliestend - lateststart;
+        }
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+bool run_container_intersect(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                const run_container_t *src_2) {
+    const bool if1 = run_container_is_full(src_1);
+    const bool if2 = run_container_is_full(src_2);
+    if (if1 || if2) {
+        if (if1) {
+            return !run_container_empty(src_2);
+        }
+        if (if2) {
+        	return !run_container_empty(src_1);
+        }
+    }
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t xrlepos = 0;
+    int32_t start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+    int32_t end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+    int32_t xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+    int32_t xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+    while ((rlepos < src_1->n_runs) && (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs)) {
+        if (end <= xstart) {
+            ++rlepos;
+            if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+                end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+            }
+        } else if (xend <= start) {
+            ++xrlepos;
+            if (xrlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+                xstart = src_2->runs[xrlepos].value;
+                xend = xstart + src_2->runs[xrlepos].length + 1;
+            }
+        } else {  // they overlap
+            return true;
+        }
+    }
+    return false;
+}
+
+
+/* Compute the difference of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is assumed that dst is distinct from both src_1 and src_2. */
+void run_container_andnot(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                          const run_container_t *src_2, run_container_t *dst) {
+    // following Java implementation as of June 2016
+
+    if (dst->capacity < src_1->n_runs + src_2->n_runs)
+        run_container_grow(dst, src_1->n_runs + src_2->n_runs, false);
+
+    dst->n_runs = 0;
+
+    int rlepos1 = 0;
+    int rlepos2 = 0;
+    int32_t start = src_1->runs[rlepos1].value;
+    int32_t end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos1].length + 1;
+    int32_t start2 = src_2->runs[rlepos2].value;
+    int32_t end2 = start2 + src_2->runs[rlepos2].length + 1;
+
+    while ((rlepos1 < src_1->n_runs) && (rlepos2 < src_2->n_runs)) {
+        if (end <= start2) {
+            // output the first run
+            dst->runs[dst->n_runs++] = MAKE_RLE16(start, end - start - 1);
+            rlepos1++;
+            if (rlepos1 < src_1->n_runs) {
+                start = src_1->runs[rlepos1].value;
+                end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos1].length + 1;
+            }
+        } else if (end2 <= start) {
+            // exit the second run
+            rlepos2++;
+            if (rlepos2 < src_2->n_runs) {
+                start2 = src_2->runs[rlepos2].value;
+                end2 = start2 + src_2->runs[rlepos2].length + 1;
+            }
+        } else {
+            if (start < start2) {
+                dst->runs[dst->n_runs++] =
+                    MAKE_RLE16(start, start2 - start - 1);
+            }
+            if (end2 < end) {
+                start = end2;
+            } else {
+                rlepos1++;
+                if (rlepos1 < src_1->n_runs) {
+                    start = src_1->runs[rlepos1].value;
+                    end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos1].length + 1;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    if (rlepos1 < src_1->n_runs) {
+        dst->runs[dst->n_runs++] = MAKE_RLE16(start, end - start - 1);
+        rlepos1++;
+        if (rlepos1 < src_1->n_runs) {
+            memcpy(dst->runs + dst->n_runs, src_1->runs + rlepos1,
+                   sizeof(rle16_t) * (src_1->n_runs - rlepos1));
+            dst->n_runs += src_1->n_runs - rlepos1;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+int run_container_to_uint32_array(void *vout, const run_container_t *cont,
+                                  uint32_t base) {
+    int outpos = 0;
+    uint32_t *out = (uint32_t *)vout;
+    for (int i = 0; i < cont->n_runs; ++i) {
+        uint32_t run_start = base + cont->runs[i].value;
+        uint16_t le = cont->runs[i].length;
+        for (int j = 0; j <= le; ++j) {
+            uint32_t val = run_start + j;
+            memcpy(out + outpos, &val,
+                   sizeof(uint32_t));  // should be compiled as a MOV on x64
+            outpos++;
+        }
+    }
+    return outpos;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf (useful for debugging).
+ */
+void run_container_printf(const run_container_t *cont) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < cont->n_runs; ++i) {
+        uint16_t run_start = cont->runs[i].value;
+        uint16_t le = cont->runs[i].length;
+        printf("[%d,%d]", run_start, run_start + le);
+    }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf as a comma-separated list of 32-bit
+ * integers starting at base.
+ */
+void run_container_printf_as_uint32_array(const run_container_t *cont,
+                                          uint32_t base) {
+    if (cont->n_runs == 0) return;
+    {
+        uint32_t run_start = base + cont->runs[0].value;
+        uint16_t le = cont->runs[0].length;
+        printf("%u", run_start);
+        for (uint32_t j = 1; j <= le; ++j) printf(",%u", run_start + j);
+    }
+    for (int32_t i = 1; i < cont->n_runs; ++i) {
+        uint32_t run_start = base + cont->runs[i].value;
+        uint16_t le = cont->runs[i].length;
+        for (uint32_t j = 0; j <= le; ++j) printf(",%u", run_start + j);
+    }
+}
+
+int32_t run_container_write(const run_container_t *container, char *buf) {
+    memcpy(buf, &container->n_runs, sizeof(uint16_t));
+    memcpy(buf + sizeof(uint16_t), container->runs,
+           container->n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t));
+    return run_container_size_in_bytes(container);
+}
+
+int32_t run_container_read(int32_t cardinality, run_container_t *container,
+                           const char *buf) {
+    (void)cardinality;
+    memcpy(&container->n_runs, buf, sizeof(uint16_t));
+    if (container->n_runs > container->capacity)
+        run_container_grow(container, container->n_runs, false);
+    if(container->n_runs > 0) {
+      memcpy(container->runs, buf + sizeof(uint16_t),
+           container->n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t));
+    }
+    return run_container_size_in_bytes(container);
+}
+
+bool run_container_iterate(const run_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                           roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < cont->n_runs; ++i) {
+        uint32_t run_start = base + cont->runs[i].value;
+        uint16_t le = cont->runs[i].length;
+
+        for (int j = 0; j <= le; ++j)
+            if (!iterator(run_start + j, ptr)) return false;
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool run_container_iterate64(const run_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
+                             roaring_iterator64 iterator, uint64_t high_bits,
+                             void *ptr) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < cont->n_runs; ++i) {
+        uint32_t run_start = base + cont->runs[i].value;
+        uint16_t le = cont->runs[i].length;
+
+        for (int j = 0; j <= le; ++j)
+            if (!iterator(high_bits | (uint64_t)(run_start + j), ptr))
+                return false;
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool run_container_is_subset(const run_container_t *container1,
+                             const run_container_t *container2) {
+    int i1 = 0, i2 = 0;
+    while (i1 < container1->n_runs && i2 < container2->n_runs) {
+        int start1 = container1->runs[i1].value;
+        int stop1 = start1 + container1->runs[i1].length;
+        int start2 = container2->runs[i2].value;
+        int stop2 = start2 + container2->runs[i2].length;
+        if (start1 < start2) {
+            return false;
+        } else {  // start1 >= start2
+            if (stop1 < stop2) {
+                i1++;
+            } else if (stop1 == stop2) {
+                i1++;
+                i2++;
+            } else {  // stop1 > stop2
+                i2++;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    if (i1 == container1->n_runs) {
+        return true;
+    } else {
+        return false;
+    }
+}
+
+// TODO: write smart_append_exclusive version to match the overloaded 1 param
+// Java version (or  is it even used?)
+
+// follows the Java implementation closely
+// length is the rle-value.  Ie, run [10,12) uses a length value 1.
+void run_container_smart_append_exclusive(run_container_t *src,
+                                          const uint16_t start,
+                                          const uint16_t length) {
+    int old_end;
+    rle16_t *last_run = src->n_runs ? src->runs + (src->n_runs - 1) : NULL;
+    rle16_t *appended_last_run = src->runs + src->n_runs;
+
+    if (!src->n_runs ||
+        (start > (old_end = last_run->value + last_run->length + 1))) {
+        *appended_last_run = MAKE_RLE16(start, length);
+        src->n_runs++;
+        return;
+    }
+    if (old_end == start) {
+        // we merge
+        last_run->length += (length + 1);
+        return;
+    }
+    int new_end = start + length + 1;
+
+    if (start == last_run->value) {
+        // wipe out previous
+        if (new_end < old_end) {
+            *last_run = MAKE_RLE16(new_end, old_end - new_end - 1);
+            return;
+        } else if (new_end > old_end) {
+            *last_run = MAKE_RLE16(old_end, new_end - old_end - 1);
+            return;
+        } else {
+            src->n_runs--;
+            return;
+        }
+    }
+    last_run->length = start - last_run->value - 1;
+    if (new_end < old_end) {
+        *appended_last_run = MAKE_RLE16(new_end, old_end - new_end - 1);
+        src->n_runs++;
+    } else if (new_end > old_end) {
+        *appended_last_run = MAKE_RLE16(old_end, new_end - old_end - 1);
+        src->n_runs++;
+    }
+}
+
+bool run_container_select(const run_container_t *container,
+                          uint32_t *start_rank, uint32_t rank,
+                          uint32_t *element) {
+    for (int i = 0; i < container->n_runs; i++) {
+        uint16_t length = container->runs[i].length;
+        if (rank <= *start_rank + length) {
+            uint16_t value = container->runs[i].value;
+            *element = value + rank - (*start_rank);
+            return true;
+        } else
+            *start_rank += length + 1;
+    }
+    return false;
+}
+
+int run_container_rank(const run_container_t *container, uint16_t x) {
+    int sum = 0;
+    uint32_t x32 = x;
+    for (int i = 0; i < container->n_runs; i++) {
+        uint32_t startpoint = container->runs[i].value;
+        uint32_t length = container->runs[i].length;
+        uint32_t endpoint = length + startpoint;
+        if (x <= endpoint) {
+            if (x < startpoint) break;
+            return sum + (x32 - startpoint) + 1;
+        } else {
+            sum += length + 1;
+        }
+    }
+    return sum;
+}
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+/* Get the cardinality of `run'. Requires an actual computation. */
+static inline int _avx2_run_container_cardinality(const run_container_t *run) {
+    const int32_t n_runs = run->n_runs;
+    const rle16_t *runs = run->runs;
+
+    /* by initializing with n_runs, we omit counting the +1 for each pair. */
+    int sum = n_runs;
+    int32_t k = 0;
+    const int32_t step = sizeof(__m256i) / sizeof(rle16_t);
+    if (n_runs > step) {
+        __m256i total = _mm256_setzero_si256();
+        for (; k + step <= n_runs; k += step) {
+            __m256i ymm1 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(runs + k));
+            __m256i justlengths = _mm256_srli_epi32(ymm1, 16);
+            total = _mm256_add_epi32(total, justlengths);
+        }
+        // a store might be faster than extract?
+        uint32_t buffer[sizeof(__m256i) / sizeof(rle16_t)];
+        _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)buffer, total);
+        sum += (buffer[0] + buffer[1]) + (buffer[2] + buffer[3]) +
+               (buffer[4] + buffer[5]) + (buffer[6] + buffer[7]);
+    }
+    for (; k < n_runs; ++k) {
+        sum += runs[k].length;
+    }
+
+    return sum;
+}
+
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+/* Get the cardinality of `run'. Requires an actual computation. */
+static inline int _scalar_run_container_cardinality(const run_container_t *run) {
+    const int32_t n_runs = run->n_runs;
+    const rle16_t *runs = run->runs;
+
+    /* by initializing with n_runs, we omit counting the +1 for each pair. */
+    int sum = n_runs;
+    for (int k = 0; k < n_runs; ++k) {
+        sum += runs[k].length;
+    }
+
+    return sum;
+}
+
+int run_container_cardinality(const run_container_t *run) {
+  if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+    return _avx2_run_container_cardinality(run);
+  } else {
+    return _scalar_run_container_cardinality(run);
+  }
+}
+#else
+
+/* Get the cardinality of `run'. Requires an actual computation. */
+int run_container_cardinality(const run_container_t *run) {
+    const int32_t n_runs = run->n_runs;
+    const rle16_t *runs = run->runs;
+
+    /* by initializing with n_runs, we omit counting the +1 for each pair. */
+    int sum = n_runs;
+    for (int k = 0; k < n_runs; ++k) {
+        sum += runs[k].length;
+    }
+
+    return sum;
+}
+#endif
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/run.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/containers.c */
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+extern inline const container_t *container_unwrap_shared(
+        const container_t *candidate_shared_container, uint8_t *type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_mutable_unwrap_shared(
+        container_t *candidate_shared_container, uint8_t *type);
+
+extern inline int container_get_cardinality(
+        const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_iand(
+        container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_ior(
+        container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_ixor(
+        container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_iandnot(
+        container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+void container_free(container_t *c, uint8_t type) {
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            bitset_container_free(CAST_bitset(c));
+            break;
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            array_container_free(CAST_array(c));
+            break;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            run_container_free(CAST_run(c));
+            break;
+        case SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            shared_container_free(CAST_shared(c));
+            break;
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+}
+
+void container_printf(const container_t *c, uint8_t type) {
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &type);
+    switch (type) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            bitset_container_printf(const_CAST_bitset(c));
+            return;
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            array_container_printf(const_CAST_array(c));
+            return;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            run_container_printf(const_CAST_run(c));
+            return;
+        default:
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+}
+
+void container_printf_as_uint32_array(
+    const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode,
+    uint32_t base
+){
+    c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            bitset_container_printf_as_uint32_array(
+                const_CAST_bitset(c), base);
+            return;
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            array_container_printf_as_uint32_array(
+                const_CAST_array(c), base);
+            return;
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            run_container_printf_as_uint32_array(
+                const_CAST_run(c), base);
+            return;
+        default:
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+    }
+}
+
+extern inline bool container_nonzero_cardinality(
+        const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode);
+
+extern inline int container_to_uint32_array(
+        uint32_t *output,
+        const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode,
+        uint32_t base);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_add(
+        container_t *c,
+        uint16_t val,
+        uint8_t typecode,  // !!! 2nd arg?
+        uint8_t *new_typecode);
+
+extern inline bool container_contains(
+        const container_t *c,
+        uint16_t val,
+        uint8_t typecode);  // !!! 2nd arg?
+
+extern inline container_t *container_and(
+        const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_or(
+        const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_xor(
+        const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+container_t *get_copy_of_container(
+    container_t *c, uint8_t *typecode,
+    bool copy_on_write
+){
+    if (copy_on_write) {
+        shared_container_t *shared_container;
+        if (*typecode == SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE) {
+            shared_container = CAST_shared(c);
+            shared_container->counter += 1;
+            return shared_container;
+        }
+        assert(*typecode != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+
+        if ((shared_container = (shared_container_t *)roaring_malloc(
+                 sizeof(shared_container_t))) == NULL) {
+            return NULL;
+        }
+
+        shared_container->container = c;
+        shared_container->typecode = *typecode;
+
+        shared_container->counter = 2;
+        *typecode = SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+
+        return shared_container;
+    }  // copy_on_write
+    // otherwise, no copy on write...
+    const container_t *actual_container = container_unwrap_shared(c, typecode);
+    assert(*typecode != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+    return container_clone(actual_container, *typecode);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Copies a container, requires a typecode. This allocates new memory, caller
+ * is responsible for deallocation.
+ */
+container_t *container_clone(const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode) {
+    // We do not want to allow cloning of shared containers.
+    // c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+    switch (typecode) {
+        case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return bitset_container_clone(const_CAST_bitset(c));
+        case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return array_container_clone(const_CAST_array(c));
+        case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            return run_container_clone(const_CAST_run(c));
+        case SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+            // Shared containers are not cloneable. Are you mixing COW and non-COW bitmaps?
+            return NULL;
+        default:
+            assert(false);
+            __builtin_unreachable();
+            return NULL;
+    }
+}
+
+container_t *shared_container_extract_copy(
+    shared_container_t *sc, uint8_t *typecode
+){
+    assert(sc->counter > 0);
+    assert(sc->typecode != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+    sc->counter--;
+    *typecode = sc->typecode;
+    container_t *answer;
+    if (sc->counter == 0) {
+        answer = sc->container;
+        sc->container = NULL;  // paranoid
+        roaring_free(sc);
+    } else {
+        answer = container_clone(sc->container, *typecode);
+    }
+    assert(*typecode != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+    return answer;
+}
+
+void shared_container_free(shared_container_t *container) {
+    assert(container->counter > 0);
+    container->counter--;
+    if (container->counter == 0) {
+        assert(container->typecode != SHARED_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+        container_free(container->container, container->typecode);
+        container->container = NULL;  // paranoid
+        roaring_free(container);
+    }
+}
+
+extern inline container_t *container_not(
+        const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_not_range(
+        const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        uint32_t range_start, uint32_t range_end,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_inot(
+        container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_inot_range(
+        container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        uint32_t range_start, uint32_t range_end,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_range_of_ones(
+        uint32_t range_start, uint32_t range_end,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+// where are the correponding things for union and intersection??
+extern inline container_t *container_lazy_xor(
+        const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_lazy_ixor(
+        container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+extern inline container_t *container_andnot(
+        const container_t *c1, uint8_t type1,
+        const container_t *c2, uint8_t type2,
+        uint8_t *result_type);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/containers.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/mixed_andnot.c */
+/*
+ * mixed_andnot.c.  More methods since operation is not symmetric,
+ * except no "wide" andnot , so no lazy options motivated.
+ */
+
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst, a valid array container that could be the same as dst.*/
+void array_bitset_container_andnot(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                   const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                   array_container_t *dst) {
+    // follows Java implementation as of June 2016
+    if (dst->capacity < src_1->cardinality) {
+        array_container_grow(dst, src_1->cardinality, false);
+    }
+    int32_t newcard = 0;
+    const int32_t origcard = src_1->cardinality;
+    for (int i = 0; i < origcard; ++i) {
+        uint16_t key = src_1->array[i];
+        dst->array[newcard] = key;
+        newcard += 1 - bitset_container_contains(src_2, key);
+    }
+    dst->cardinality = newcard;
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * src_1 */
+
+void array_bitset_container_iandnot(array_container_t *src_1,
+                                    const bitset_container_t *src_2) {
+    array_bitset_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, src_1);
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst, which does not initially have a valid container.
+ * Return true for a bitset result; false for array
+ */
+
+bool bitset_array_container_andnot(
+    const bitset_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    // Java did this directly, but we have option of asm or avx
+    bitset_container_t *result = bitset_container_create();
+    bitset_container_copy(src_1, result);
+    result->cardinality =
+        (int32_t)bitset_clear_list(result->words, (uint64_t)result->cardinality,
+                                   src_2->array, (uint64_t)src_2->cardinality);
+
+    // do required type conversions.
+    if (result->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(result);
+        bitset_container_free(result);
+        return false;
+    }
+    *dst = result;
+    return true;
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+bool bitset_array_container_iandnot(
+    bitset_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    *dst = src_1;
+    src_1->cardinality =
+        (int32_t)bitset_clear_list(src_1->words, (uint64_t)src_1->cardinality,
+                                   src_2->array, (uint64_t)src_2->cardinality);
+
+    if (src_1->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(src_1);
+        bitset_container_free(src_1);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    } else
+        return true;
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset"). dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool run_bitset_container_andnot(
+    const run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    // follows the Java implementation as of June 2016
+    int card = run_container_cardinality(src_1);
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        // must be an array
+        array_container_t *answer = array_container_create_given_capacity(card);
+        answer->cardinality = 0;
+        for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+            rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+            for (int run_value = rle.value; run_value <= rle.value + rle.length;
+                 ++run_value) {
+                if (!bitset_container_get(src_2, (uint16_t)run_value)) {
+                    answer->array[answer->cardinality++] = (uint16_t)run_value;
+                }
+            }
+        }
+        *dst = answer;
+        return false;
+    } else {  // we guess it will be a bitset, though have to check guess when
+              // done
+        bitset_container_t *answer = bitset_container_clone(src_2);
+
+        uint32_t last_pos = 0;
+        for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+            rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+
+            uint32_t start = rle.value;
+            uint32_t end = start + rle.length + 1;
+            bitset_reset_range(answer->words, last_pos, start);
+            bitset_flip_range(answer->words, start, end);
+            last_pos = end;
+        }
+        bitset_reset_range(answer->words, last_pos, (uint32_t)(1 << 16));
+
+        answer->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(answer);
+
+        if (answer->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+            *dst = array_container_from_bitset(answer);
+            bitset_container_free(answer);
+            return false;  // not bitset
+        }
+        *dst = answer;
+        return true;  // bitset
+    }
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset"). dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool run_bitset_container_iandnot(
+    run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    // dummy implementation
+    bool ans = run_bitset_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, dst);
+    run_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset").  dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool bitset_run_container_andnot(
+    const bitset_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    // follows Java implementation
+    bitset_container_t *result = bitset_container_create();
+
+    bitset_container_copy(src_1, result);
+    for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_2->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        rle16_t rle = src_2->runs[rlepos];
+        bitset_reset_range(result->words, rle.value,
+                           rle.value + rle.length + UINT32_C(1));
+    }
+    result->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(result);
+
+    if (result->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(result);
+        bitset_container_free(result);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    }
+    *dst = result;
+    return true;  // bitset
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+bool bitset_run_container_iandnot(
+    bitset_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    *dst = src_1;
+
+    for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_2->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        rle16_t rle = src_2->runs[rlepos];
+        bitset_reset_range(src_1->words, rle.value,
+                           rle.value + rle.length + UINT32_C(1));
+    }
+    src_1->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(src_1);
+
+    if (src_1->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(src_1);
+        bitset_container_free(src_1);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    } else
+        return true;
+}
+
+/* helper. a_out must be a valid array container with adequate capacity.
+ * Returns the cardinality of the output container. Partly Based on Java
+ * implementation Util.unsignedDifference.
+ *
+ * TODO: Util.unsignedDifference does not use advanceUntil.  Is it cheaper
+ * to avoid advanceUntil?
+ */
+
+static int run_array_array_subtract(const run_container_t *rc,
+                                    const array_container_t *a_in,
+                                    array_container_t *a_out) {
+    int out_card = 0;
+    int32_t in_array_pos =
+        -1;  // since advanceUntil always assumes we start the search AFTER this
+
+    for (int rlepos = 0; rlepos < rc->n_runs; rlepos++) {
+        int32_t start = rc->runs[rlepos].value;
+        int32_t end = start + rc->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+
+        in_array_pos = advanceUntil(a_in->array, in_array_pos,
+                                    a_in->cardinality, (uint16_t)start);
+
+        if (in_array_pos >= a_in->cardinality) {  // run has no items subtracted
+            for (int32_t i = start; i < end; ++i)
+                a_out->array[out_card++] = (uint16_t)i;
+        } else {
+            uint16_t next_nonincluded = a_in->array[in_array_pos];
+            if (next_nonincluded >= end) {
+                // another case when run goes unaltered
+                for (int32_t i = start; i < end; ++i)
+                    a_out->array[out_card++] = (uint16_t)i;
+                in_array_pos--;  // ensure we see this item again if necessary
+            } else {
+                for (int32_t i = start; i < end; ++i)
+                    if (i != next_nonincluded)
+                        a_out->array[out_card++] = (uint16_t)i;
+                    else  // 0 should ensure  we don't match
+                        next_nonincluded =
+                            (in_array_pos + 1 >= a_in->cardinality)
+                                ? 0
+                                : a_in->array[++in_array_pos];
+                in_array_pos--;  // see again
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    return out_card;
+}
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any type of container.
+ */
+
+int run_array_container_andnot(
+    const run_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    // follows the Java impl as of June 2016
+
+    int card = run_container_cardinality(src_1);
+    const int arbitrary_threshold = 32;
+
+    if (card <= arbitrary_threshold) {
+        if (src_2->cardinality == 0) {
+            *dst = run_container_clone(src_1);
+            return RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+        }
+        // Java's "lazyandNot.toEfficientContainer" thing
+        run_container_t *answer = run_container_create_given_capacity(
+            card + array_container_cardinality(src_2));
+
+        int rlepos = 0;
+        int xrlepos = 0;  // "x" is src_2
+        rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+        int32_t start = rle.value;
+        int32_t end = start + rle.length + 1;
+        int32_t xstart = src_2->array[xrlepos];
+
+        while ((rlepos < src_1->n_runs) && (xrlepos < src_2->cardinality)) {
+            if (end <= xstart) {
+                // output the first run
+                answer->runs[answer->n_runs++] =
+                    MAKE_RLE16(start, end - start - 1);
+                rlepos++;
+                if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                    start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+                    end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+                }
+            } else if (xstart + 1 <= start) {
+                // exit the second run
+                xrlepos++;
+                if (xrlepos < src_2->cardinality) {
+                    xstart = src_2->array[xrlepos];
+                }
+            } else {
+                if (start < xstart) {
+                    answer->runs[answer->n_runs++] =
+                        MAKE_RLE16(start, xstart - start - 1);
+                }
+                if (xstart + 1 < end) {
+                    start = xstart + 1;
+                } else {
+                    rlepos++;
+                    if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                        start = src_1->runs[rlepos].value;
+                        end = start + src_1->runs[rlepos].length + 1;
+                    }
+                }
+            }
+        }
+        if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+            answer->runs[answer->n_runs++] = MAKE_RLE16(start, end - start - 1);
+            rlepos++;
+            if (rlepos < src_1->n_runs) {
+                memcpy(answer->runs + answer->n_runs, src_1->runs + rlepos,
+                       (src_1->n_runs - rlepos) * sizeof(rle16_t));
+                answer->n_runs += (src_1->n_runs - rlepos);
+            }
+        }
+        uint8_t return_type;
+        *dst = convert_run_to_efficient_container(answer, &return_type);
+        if (answer != *dst) run_container_free(answer);
+        return return_type;
+    }
+    // else it's a bitmap or array
+
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        array_container_t *ac = array_container_create_given_capacity(card);
+        // nb Java code used a generic iterator-based merge to compute
+        // difference
+        ac->cardinality = run_array_array_subtract(src_1, src_2, ac);
+        *dst = ac;
+        return ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+    }
+    bitset_container_t *ans = bitset_container_from_run(src_1);
+    bool result_is_bitset = bitset_array_container_iandnot(ans, src_2, dst);
+    return (result_is_bitset ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                             : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+int run_array_container_iandnot(
+    run_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    // dummy implementation same as June 2016 Java
+    int ans = run_array_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, dst);
+    run_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+/* dst must be a valid array container, allowed to be src_1 */
+
+void array_run_container_andnot(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                const run_container_t *src_2,
+                                array_container_t *dst) {
+    // basically following Java impl as of June 2016
+    if (src_1->cardinality > dst->capacity) {
+        array_container_grow(dst, src_1->cardinality, false);
+    }
+
+    if (src_2->n_runs == 0) {
+        memmove(dst->array, src_1->array,
+                sizeof(uint16_t) * src_1->cardinality);
+        dst->cardinality = src_1->cardinality;
+        return;
+    }
+    int32_t run_start = src_2->runs[0].value;
+    int32_t run_end = run_start + src_2->runs[0].length;
+    int which_run = 0;
+
+    uint16_t val = 0;
+    int dest_card = 0;
+    for (int i = 0; i < src_1->cardinality; ++i) {
+        val = src_1->array[i];
+        if (val < run_start)
+            dst->array[dest_card++] = val;
+        else if (val <= run_end) {
+            ;  // omitted item
+        } else {
+            do {
+                if (which_run + 1 < src_2->n_runs) {
+                    ++which_run;
+                    run_start = src_2->runs[which_run].value;
+                    run_end = run_start + src_2->runs[which_run].length;
+
+                } else
+                    run_start = run_end = (1 << 16) + 1;
+            } while (val > run_end);
+            --i;
+        }
+    }
+    dst->cardinality = dest_card;
+}
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+void array_run_container_iandnot(array_container_t *src_1,
+                                 const run_container_t *src_2) {
+    array_run_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, src_1);
+}
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+int run_run_container_andnot(
+    const run_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    run_container_t *ans = run_container_create();
+    run_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, ans);
+    uint8_t typecode_after;
+    *dst = convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(ans, &typecode_after);
+    return typecode_after;
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+int run_run_container_iandnot(
+    run_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    // following Java impl as of June 2016 (dummy)
+    int ans = run_run_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, dst);
+    run_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+/*
+ * dst is a valid array container and may be the same as src_1
+ */
+
+void array_array_container_andnot(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const array_container_t *src_2,
+                                  array_container_t *dst) {
+    array_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, dst);
+}
+
+/* inplace array-array andnot will always be able to reuse the space of
+ * src_1 */
+void array_array_container_iandnot(array_container_t *src_1,
+                                   const array_container_t *src_2) {
+    array_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, src_1);
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially). Return value is
+ * "dst is a bitset"
+ */
+
+bool bitset_bitset_container_andnot(
+    const bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bitset_container_t *ans = bitset_container_create();
+    int card = bitset_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, ans);
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(ans);
+        bitset_container_free(ans);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    } else {
+        *dst = ans;
+        return true;
+    }
+}
+
+/* Compute the andnot of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+bool bitset_bitset_container_iandnot(
+    bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int card = bitset_container_andnot(src_1, src_2, src_1);
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(src_1);
+        bitset_container_free(src_1);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    } else {
+        *dst = src_1;
+        return true;
+    }
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/mixed_andnot.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/mixed_negation.c */
+/*
+ * mixed_negation.c
+ *
+ */
+
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+// TODO: make simplified and optimized negation code across
+// the full range.
+
+/* Negation across the entire range of the container.
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst. The complement of a
+ * sufficiently sparse set will always be dense and a hence a bitmap
+' * We assume that dst is pre-allocated and a valid bitset container
+ * There can be no in-place version.
+ */
+void array_container_negation(const array_container_t *src,
+                              bitset_container_t *dst) {
+    uint64_t card = UINT64_C(1 << 16);
+    bitset_container_set_all(dst);
+
+    if (src->cardinality == 0) {
+        return;
+    }
+
+    dst->cardinality = (int32_t)bitset_clear_list(dst->words, card, src->array,
+                                                  (uint64_t)src->cardinality);
+}
+
+/* Negation across the entire range of the container
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst.  A true return value indicates a bitset result,
+ * otherwise the result is an array container.
+ *  We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_negation(
+    const bitset_container_t *src, container_t **dst
+){
+    return bitset_container_negation_range(src, 0, (1 << 16), dst);
+}
+
+/* inplace version */
+/*
+ * Same as bitset_container_negation except that if the output is to
+ * be a
+ * bitset_container_t, then src is modified and no allocation is made.
+ * If the output is to be an array_container_t, then caller is responsible
+ * to free the container.
+ * In all cases, the result is in *dst.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_negation_inplace(
+    bitset_container_t *src, container_t **dst
+){
+    return bitset_container_negation_range_inplace(src, 0, (1 << 16), dst);
+}
+
+/* Negation across the entire range of container
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst.  Return values are the *_TYPECODES as defined * in containers.h
+ *  We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+int run_container_negation(const run_container_t *src, container_t **dst) {
+    return run_container_negation_range(src, 0, (1 << 16), dst);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Same as run_container_negation except that if the output is to
+ * be a
+ * run_container_t, and has the capacity to hold the result,
+ * then src is modified and no allocation is made.
+ * In all cases, the result is in *dst.
+ */
+int run_container_negation_inplace(run_container_t *src, container_t **dst) {
+    return run_container_negation_range_inplace(src, 0, (1 << 16), dst);
+}
+
+/* Negation across a range of the container.
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst. Returns true if the result is a bitset container
+ * and false for an array container.  *dst is not preallocated.
+ */
+bool array_container_negation_range(
+    const array_container_t *src,
+    const int range_start, const int range_end,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    /* close port of the Java implementation */
+    if (range_start >= range_end) {
+        *dst = array_container_clone(src);
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    int32_t start_index =
+        binarySearch(src->array, src->cardinality, (uint16_t)range_start);
+    if (start_index < 0) start_index = -start_index - 1;
+
+    int32_t last_index =
+        binarySearch(src->array, src->cardinality, (uint16_t)(range_end - 1));
+    if (last_index < 0) last_index = -last_index - 2;
+
+    const int32_t current_values_in_range = last_index - start_index + 1;
+    const int32_t span_to_be_flipped = range_end - range_start;
+    const int32_t new_values_in_range =
+        span_to_be_flipped - current_values_in_range;
+    const int32_t cardinality_change =
+        new_values_in_range - current_values_in_range;
+    const int32_t new_cardinality = src->cardinality + cardinality_change;
+
+    if (new_cardinality > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        bitset_container_t *temp = bitset_container_from_array(src);
+        bitset_flip_range(temp->words, (uint32_t)range_start,
+                          (uint32_t)range_end);
+        temp->cardinality = new_cardinality;
+        *dst = temp;
+        return true;
+    }
+
+    array_container_t *arr =
+        array_container_create_given_capacity(new_cardinality);
+    *dst = (container_t *)arr;
+    if(new_cardinality == 0) {
+      arr->cardinality = new_cardinality;
+      return false; // we are done.
+    }
+    // copy stuff before the active area
+    memcpy(arr->array, src->array, start_index * sizeof(uint16_t));
+
+    // work on the range
+    int32_t out_pos = start_index, in_pos = start_index;
+    int32_t val_in_range = range_start;
+    for (; val_in_range < range_end && in_pos <= last_index; ++val_in_range) {
+        if ((uint16_t)val_in_range != src->array[in_pos]) {
+            arr->array[out_pos++] = (uint16_t)val_in_range;
+        } else {
+            ++in_pos;
+        }
+    }
+    for (; val_in_range < range_end; ++val_in_range)
+        arr->array[out_pos++] = (uint16_t)val_in_range;
+
+    // content after the active range
+    memcpy(arr->array + out_pos, src->array + (last_index + 1),
+           (src->cardinality - (last_index + 1)) * sizeof(uint16_t));
+    arr->cardinality = new_cardinality;
+    return false;
+}
+
+/* Even when the result would fit, it is unclear how to make an
+ * inplace version without inefficient copying.
+ */
+
+bool array_container_negation_range_inplace(
+    array_container_t *src,
+    const int range_start, const int range_end,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bool ans = array_container_negation_range(src, range_start, range_end, dst);
+    // TODO : try a real inplace version
+    array_container_free(src);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+/* Negation across a range of the container
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst.  A true return value indicates a bitset result,
+ * otherwise the result is an array container.
+ *  We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_negation_range(
+    const bitset_container_t *src,
+    const int range_start, const int range_end,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    // TODO maybe consider density-based estimate
+    // and sometimes build result directly as array, with
+    // conversion back to bitset if wrong.  Or determine
+    // actual result cardinality, then go directly for the known final cont.
+
+    // keep computation using bitsets as long as possible.
+    bitset_container_t *t = bitset_container_clone(src);
+    bitset_flip_range(t->words, (uint32_t)range_start, (uint32_t)range_end);
+    t->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(t);
+
+    if (t->cardinality > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = t;
+        return true;
+    } else {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(t);
+        bitset_container_free(t);
+        return false;
+    }
+}
+
+/* inplace version */
+/*
+ * Same as bitset_container_negation except that if the output is to
+ * be a
+ * bitset_container_t, then src is modified and no allocation is made.
+ * If the output is to be an array_container_t, then caller is responsible
+ * to free the container.
+ * In all cases, the result is in *dst.
+ */
+bool bitset_container_negation_range_inplace(
+    bitset_container_t *src,
+    const int range_start, const int range_end,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bitset_flip_range(src->words, (uint32_t)range_start, (uint32_t)range_end);
+    src->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(src);
+    if (src->cardinality > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = src;
+        return true;
+    }
+    *dst = array_container_from_bitset(src);
+    bitset_container_free(src);
+    return false;
+}
+
+/* Negation across a range of container
+ * Compute the  negation of src  and write the result
+ * to *dst. Return values are the *_TYPECODES as defined * in containers.h
+ *  We assume that dst is not pre-allocated. In
+ * case of failure, *dst will be NULL.
+ */
+int run_container_negation_range(
+    const run_container_t *src,
+    const int range_start, const int range_end,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    uint8_t return_typecode;
+
+    // follows the Java implementation
+    if (range_end <= range_start) {
+        *dst = run_container_clone(src);
+        return RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+    }
+
+    run_container_t *ans = run_container_create_given_capacity(
+        src->n_runs + 1);  // src->n_runs + 1);
+    int k = 0;
+    for (; k < src->n_runs && src->runs[k].value < range_start; ++k) {
+        ans->runs[k] = src->runs[k];
+        ans->n_runs++;
+    }
+
+    run_container_smart_append_exclusive(
+        ans, (uint16_t)range_start, (uint16_t)(range_end - range_start - 1));
+
+    for (; k < src->n_runs; ++k) {
+        run_container_smart_append_exclusive(ans, src->runs[k].value,
+                                             src->runs[k].length);
+    }
+
+    *dst = convert_run_to_efficient_container(ans, &return_typecode);
+    if (return_typecode != RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE) run_container_free(ans);
+
+    return return_typecode;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Same as run_container_negation except that if the output is to
+ * be a
+ * run_container_t, and has the capacity to hold the result,
+ * then src is modified and no allocation is made.
+ * In all cases, the result is in *dst.
+ */
+int run_container_negation_range_inplace(
+    run_container_t *src,
+    const int range_start, const int range_end,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    uint8_t return_typecode;
+
+    if (range_end <= range_start) {
+        *dst = src;
+        return RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+    }
+
+    // TODO: efficient special case when range is 0 to 65535 inclusive
+
+    if (src->capacity == src->n_runs) {
+        // no excess room.  More checking to see if result can fit
+        bool last_val_before_range = false;
+        bool first_val_in_range = false;
+        bool last_val_in_range = false;
+        bool first_val_past_range = false;
+
+        if (range_start > 0)
+            last_val_before_range =
+                run_container_contains(src, (uint16_t)(range_start - 1));
+        first_val_in_range = run_container_contains(src, (uint16_t)range_start);
+
+        if (last_val_before_range == first_val_in_range) {
+            last_val_in_range =
+                run_container_contains(src, (uint16_t)(range_end - 1));
+            if (range_end != 0x10000)
+                first_val_past_range =
+                    run_container_contains(src, (uint16_t)range_end);
+
+            if (last_val_in_range ==
+                first_val_past_range) {  // no space for inplace
+                int ans = run_container_negation_range(src, range_start,
+                                                       range_end, dst);
+                run_container_free(src);
+                return ans;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    // all other cases: result will fit
+
+    run_container_t *ans = src;
+    int my_nbr_runs = src->n_runs;
+
+    ans->n_runs = 0;
+    int k = 0;
+    for (; (k < my_nbr_runs) && (src->runs[k].value < range_start); ++k) {
+        // ans->runs[k] = src->runs[k]; (would be self-copy)
+        ans->n_runs++;
+    }
+
+    // as with Java implementation, use locals to give self a buffer of depth 1
+    rle16_t buffered = MAKE_RLE16(0, 0);
+    rle16_t next = buffered;
+    if (k < my_nbr_runs) buffered = src->runs[k];
+
+    run_container_smart_append_exclusive(
+        ans, (uint16_t)range_start, (uint16_t)(range_end - range_start - 1));
+
+    for (; k < my_nbr_runs; ++k) {
+        if (k + 1 < my_nbr_runs) next = src->runs[k + 1];
+
+        run_container_smart_append_exclusive(ans, buffered.value,
+                                             buffered.length);
+        buffered = next;
+    }
+
+    *dst = convert_run_to_efficient_container(ans, &return_typecode);
+    if (return_typecode != RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE) run_container_free(ans);
+
+    return return_typecode;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/mixed_negation.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/mixed_equal.c */
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+bool array_container_equal_bitset(const array_container_t* container1,
+                                  const bitset_container_t* container2) {
+    if (container2->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) {
+        if (container2->cardinality != container1->cardinality) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    int32_t pos = 0;
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; ++i) {
+        uint64_t w = container2->words[i];
+        while (w != 0) {
+            uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+            uint16_t r = i * 64 + __builtin_ctzll(w);
+            if (pos >= container1->cardinality) {
+                return false;
+            }
+            if (container1->array[pos] != r) {
+                return false;
+            }
+            ++pos;
+            w ^= t;
+        }
+    }
+    return (pos == container1->cardinality);
+}
+
+bool run_container_equals_array(const run_container_t* container1,
+                                const array_container_t* container2) {
+    if (run_container_cardinality(container1) != container2->cardinality)
+        return false;
+    int32_t pos = 0;
+    for (int i = 0; i < container1->n_runs; ++i) {
+        const uint32_t run_start = container1->runs[i].value;
+        const uint32_t le = container1->runs[i].length;
+
+        if (container2->array[pos] != run_start) {
+            return false;
+        }
+
+        if (container2->array[pos + le] != run_start + le) {
+            return false;
+        }
+
+        pos += le + 1;
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool run_container_equals_bitset(const run_container_t* container1,
+                                 const bitset_container_t* container2) {
+
+    int run_card = run_container_cardinality(container1);
+    int bitset_card = (container2->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) ?
+                      container2->cardinality :
+                      bitset_container_compute_cardinality(container2);
+    if (bitset_card != run_card) {
+        return false;
+    }
+
+    for (int32_t i = 0; i < container1->n_runs; i++) {
+        uint32_t begin = container1->runs[i].value;
+        if (container1->runs[i].length) {
+            uint32_t end = begin + container1->runs[i].length + 1;
+            if (!bitset_container_contains_range(container2, begin, end)) {
+                return false;
+            }
+        } else {
+            if (!bitset_container_contains(container2, begin)) {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+
+    return true;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/mixed_equal.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/bitset.c */
+/*
+ * bitset.c
+ *
+ */
+#ifndef _POSIX_C_SOURCE
+#define _POSIX_C_SOURCE 200809L
+#endif
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+extern inline int bitset_container_cardinality(const bitset_container_t *bitset);
+extern inline bool bitset_container_nonzero_cardinality(bitset_container_t *bitset);
+extern inline void bitset_container_set(bitset_container_t *bitset, uint16_t pos);
+extern inline void bitset_container_unset(bitset_container_t *bitset, uint16_t pos);
+extern inline bool bitset_container_get(const bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                        uint16_t pos);
+extern inline int32_t bitset_container_serialized_size_in_bytes(void);
+extern inline bool bitset_container_add(bitset_container_t *bitset, uint16_t pos);
+extern inline bool bitset_container_remove(bitset_container_t *bitset, uint16_t pos);
+extern inline bool bitset_container_contains(const bitset_container_t *bitset,
+                                             uint16_t pos);
+
+void bitset_container_clear(bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+    memset(bitset->words, 0, sizeof(uint64_t) * BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS);
+    bitset->cardinality = 0;
+}
+
+void bitset_container_set_all(bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+    memset(bitset->words, INT64_C(-1),
+           sizeof(uint64_t) * BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS);
+    bitset->cardinality = (1 << 16);
+}
+
+
+
+/* Create a new bitset. Return NULL in case of failure. */
+bitset_container_t *bitset_container_create(void) {
+    bitset_container_t *bitset =
+        (bitset_container_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(bitset_container_t));
+
+    if (!bitset) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    // sizeof(__m256i) == 32
+    bitset->words = (uint64_t *)roaring_aligned_malloc(
+        32, sizeof(uint64_t) * BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS);
+    if (!bitset->words) {
+        roaring_free(bitset);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    bitset_container_clear(bitset);
+    return bitset;
+}
+
+/* Copy one container into another. We assume that they are distinct. */
+void bitset_container_copy(const bitset_container_t *source,
+                           bitset_container_t *dest) {
+    dest->cardinality = source->cardinality;
+    memcpy(dest->words, source->words,
+           sizeof(uint64_t) * BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS);
+}
+
+void bitset_container_add_from_range(bitset_container_t *bitset, uint32_t min,
+                                     uint32_t max, uint16_t step) {
+    if (step == 0) return;   // refuse to crash
+    if ((64 % step) == 0) {  // step divides 64
+        uint64_t mask = 0;   // construct the repeated mask
+        for (uint32_t value = (min % step); value < 64; value += step) {
+            mask |= ((uint64_t)1 << value);
+        }
+        uint32_t firstword = min / 64;
+        uint32_t endword = (max - 1) / 64;
+        bitset->cardinality = (max - min + step - 1) / step;
+        if (firstword == endword) {
+            bitset->words[firstword] |=
+                mask & (((~UINT64_C(0)) << (min % 64)) &
+                        ((~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((~max + 1) % 64)));
+            return;
+        }
+        bitset->words[firstword] = mask & ((~UINT64_C(0)) << (min % 64));
+        for (uint32_t i = firstword + 1; i < endword; i++)
+            bitset->words[i] = mask;
+        bitset->words[endword] = mask & ((~UINT64_C(0)) >> ((~max + 1) % 64));
+    } else {
+        for (uint32_t value = min; value < max; value += step) {
+            bitset_container_add(bitset, value);
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+/* Free memory. */
+void bitset_container_free(bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+    if(bitset->words != NULL) {// Jon Strabala reports that some tools complain otherwise
+      roaring_aligned_free(bitset->words);
+      bitset->words = NULL; // pedantic
+    }
+    roaring_free(bitset);
+}
+
+/* duplicate container. */
+bitset_container_t *bitset_container_clone(const bitset_container_t *src) {
+    bitset_container_t *bitset =
+        (bitset_container_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(bitset_container_t));
+
+    if (!bitset) {
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    // sizeof(__m256i) == 32
+    bitset->words = (uint64_t *)roaring_aligned_malloc(
+        32, sizeof(uint64_t) * BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS);
+    if (!bitset->words) {
+        roaring_free(bitset);
+        return NULL;
+    }
+    bitset->cardinality = src->cardinality;
+    memcpy(bitset->words, src->words,
+           sizeof(uint64_t) * BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS);
+    return bitset;
+}
+
+void bitset_container_offset(const bitset_container_t *c,
+                             container_t **loc, container_t **hic,
+                             uint16_t offset) {
+    bitset_container_t *bc = NULL;
+    uint64_t val;
+    uint16_t b, i, end;
+
+    b = offset >> 6;
+    i = offset % 64;
+    end = 1024 - b;
+
+    if (loc != NULL) {
+        bc = bitset_container_create();
+        if (i == 0) {
+            memcpy(bc->words+b, c->words, 8*end);
+        } else {
+            bc->words[b] = c->words[0] << i;
+            for (uint32_t k = 1; k < end; ++k) {
+                val = c->words[k] << i;
+                val |= c->words[k-1] >> (64 - i);
+                bc->words[b+k] = val;
+            }
+        }
+
+        bc->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(bc);
+        if (bc->cardinality != 0) {
+            *loc = bc;
+        }
+        if (bc->cardinality == c->cardinality) {
+            return;
+        }
+    }
+
+    if (hic == NULL) {
+        // Both hic and loc can't be NULL, so bc is never NULL here
+        if (bc->cardinality == 0) {
+            bitset_container_free(bc);
+	}
+        return;
+    }
+
+    if (bc == NULL || bc->cardinality != 0) {
+        bc = bitset_container_create();
+    }
+
+    if (i == 0) {
+        memcpy(bc->words, c->words+end, 8*b);
+    } else {
+        for (uint32_t k = end; k < 1024; ++k) {
+            val = c->words[k] << i;
+	    val |= c->words[k-1] >> (64 - i);
+	    bc->words[k-end] = val;
+        }
+        bc->words[b] = c->words[1023] >> (64 - i);
+    }
+
+    bc->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(bc);
+    if (bc->cardinality == 0) {
+	    bitset_container_free(bc);
+	    return;
+    }
+    *hic = bc;
+}
+
+void bitset_container_set_range(bitset_container_t *bitset, uint32_t begin,
+                                uint32_t end) {
+    bitset_set_range(bitset->words, begin, end);
+    bitset->cardinality =
+        bitset_container_compute_cardinality(bitset);  // could be smarter
+}
+
+
+bool bitset_container_intersect(const bitset_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const bitset_container_t *src_2) {
+	// could vectorize, but this is probably already quite fast in practice
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;
+	for (int i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i ++) {
+        if((words_1[i] & words_2[i]) != 0) return true;
+    }
+    return false;
+}
+
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+#ifndef WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG
+#define WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG sizeof(__m256i) / sizeof(uint64_t)
+#endif
+/* Get the number of bits set (force computation) */
+static inline int _scalar_bitset_container_compute_cardinality(const bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+  const uint64_t *words = bitset->words;
+  int32_t sum = 0;
+  for (int i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 4) {
+          sum += hamming(words[i]);
+          sum += hamming(words[i + 1]);
+          sum += hamming(words[i + 2]);
+          sum += hamming(words[i + 3]);
+  }
+  return sum;
+}
+/* Get the number of bits set (force computation) */
+int bitset_container_compute_cardinality(const bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+    if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+      return (int) avx2_harley_seal_popcount256(
+        (const __m256i *)bitset->words,
+        BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS / (WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG));
+    } else {
+      return _scalar_bitset_container_compute_cardinality(bitset);
+
+    }
+}
+
+#elif defined(USENEON)
+int bitset_container_compute_cardinality(const bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+    uint16x8_t n0 = vdupq_n_u16(0);
+    uint16x8_t n1 = vdupq_n_u16(0);
+    uint16x8_t n2 = vdupq_n_u16(0);
+    uint16x8_t n3 = vdupq_n_u16(0);
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 8) {
+        uint64x2_t c0 = vld1q_u64(&bitset->words[i + 0]);
+        n0 = vaddq_u16(n0, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c0))));
+        uint64x2_t c1 = vld1q_u64(&bitset->words[i + 2]);
+        n1 = vaddq_u16(n1, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c1))));
+        uint64x2_t c2 = vld1q_u64(&bitset->words[i + 4]);
+        n2 = vaddq_u16(n2, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c2))));
+        uint64x2_t c3 = vld1q_u64(&bitset->words[i + 6]);
+        n3 = vaddq_u16(n3, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c3))));
+    }
+    uint64x2_t n = vdupq_n_u64(0);
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n0)));
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n1)));
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n2)));
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n3)));
+    return vgetq_lane_u64(n, 0) + vgetq_lane_u64(n, 1);
+}
+
+#else // CROARING_IS_X64
+
+/* Get the number of bits set (force computation) */
+int bitset_container_compute_cardinality(const bitset_container_t *bitset) {
+    const uint64_t *words = bitset->words;
+    int32_t sum = 0;
+    for (int i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 4) {
+        sum += hamming(words[i]);
+        sum += hamming(words[i + 1]);
+        sum += hamming(words[i + 2]);
+        sum += hamming(words[i + 3]);
+    }
+    return sum;
+}
+
+#endif // CROARING_IS_X64
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+
+#define BITSET_CONTAINER_FN_REPEAT 8
+#ifndef WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG
+#define WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG sizeof(__m256i) / sizeof(uint64_t)
+#endif // WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG
+#define LOOP_SIZE                    \
+    BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS / \
+        ((WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG)*BITSET_CONTAINER_FN_REPEAT)
+
+/* Computes a binary operation (eg union) on bitset1 and bitset2 and write the
+   result to bitsetout */
+// clang-format off
+#define AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN1(before, opname, opsymbol, avx_intrinsic,               \
+                                neon_intrinsic, after)                                \
+  static inline int _avx2_bitset_container_##opname##_nocard(                                \
+      const bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,        \
+      bitset_container_t *dst) {                                               \
+    const uint8_t *__restrict__ words_1 = (const uint8_t *)src_1->words;       \
+    const uint8_t *__restrict__ words_2 = (const uint8_t *)src_2->words;       \
+    /* not using the blocking optimization for some reason*/                   \
+    uint8_t *out = (uint8_t *)dst->words;                                      \
+    const int innerloop = 8;                                                   \
+    for (size_t i = 0;                                                         \
+         i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS / (WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG);             \
+         i += innerloop) {                                                     \
+      __m256i A1, A2, AO;                                                      \
+      A1 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_1));                     \
+      A2 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_2));                     \
+      AO = avx_intrinsic(A2, A1);                                              \
+      _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)out, AO);                                 \
+      A1 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_1 + 32));                \
+      A2 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_2 + 32));                \
+      AO = avx_intrinsic(A2, A1);                                              \
+      _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)(out + 32), AO);                          \
+      A1 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_1 + 64));                \
+      A2 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_2 + 64));                \
+      AO = avx_intrinsic(A2, A1);                                              \
+      _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)(out + 64), AO);                          \
+      A1 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_1 + 96));                \
+      A2 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_2 + 96));                \
+      AO = avx_intrinsic(A2, A1);                                              \
+      _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)(out + 96), AO);                          \
+      A1 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_1 + 128));               \
+      A2 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_2 + 128));               \
+      AO = avx_intrinsic(A2, A1);                                              \
+      _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)(out + 128), AO);                         \
+      A1 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_1 + 160));               \
+      A2 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_2 + 160));               \
+      AO = avx_intrinsic(A2, A1);                                              \
+      _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)(out + 160), AO);                         \
+      A1 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_1 + 192));               \
+      A2 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_2 + 192));               \
+      AO = avx_intrinsic(A2, A1);                                              \
+      _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)(out + 192), AO);                         \
+      A1 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_1 + 224));               \
+      A2 = _mm256_lddqu_si256((const __m256i *)(words_2 + 224));               \
+      AO = avx_intrinsic(A2, A1);                                              \
+      _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)(out + 224), AO);                         \
+      out += 256;                                                              \
+      words_1 += 256;                                                          \
+      words_2 += 256;                                                          \
+    }                                                                          \
+    dst->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;                             \
+    return dst->cardinality;                                                   \
+  }
+
+#define AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN2(before, opname, opsymbol, avx_intrinsic,               \
+                                neon_intrinsic, after)                                \
+  /* next, a version that updates cardinality*/                                \
+  static inline int _avx2_bitset_container_##opname(const bitset_container_t *src_1,         \
+                                      const bitset_container_t *src_2,         \
+                                      bitset_container_t *dst) {               \
+    const __m256i *__restrict__ words_1 = (const __m256i *)src_1->words;       \
+    const __m256i *__restrict__ words_2 = (const __m256i *)src_2->words;       \
+    __m256i *out = (__m256i *)dst->words;                                      \
+    dst->cardinality = (int32_t)avx2_harley_seal_popcount256andstore_##opname( \
+        words_2, words_1, out,                                                 \
+        BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS / (WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG));                 \
+    return dst->cardinality;                                                   \
+  }                                                                            \
+
+#define AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN3(before, opname, opsymbol, avx_intrinsic,               \
+                                neon_intrinsic, after)                                \
+  /* next, a version that just computes the cardinality*/                      \
+  static inline int _avx2_bitset_container_##opname##_justcard(                              \
+      const bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2) {      \
+    const __m256i *__restrict__ data1 = (const __m256i *)src_1->words;         \
+    const __m256i *__restrict__ data2 = (const __m256i *)src_2->words;         \
+    return (int)avx2_harley_seal_popcount256_##opname(                         \
+        data2, data1, BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS / (WORDS_IN_AVX2_REG));   \
+  }
+
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "or" term, makes API more consistent
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN1(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, or,    |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN1(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, union, |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "intersection" term, makes API more consistent
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN1(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, and,          &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN1(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, intersection, &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN1(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, xor,    ^,  _mm256_xor_si256,    veorq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN1(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, andnot, &~, _mm256_andnot_si256, vbicq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "or" term, makes API more consistent
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN2(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, or,    |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN2(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, union, |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "intersection" term, makes API more consistent
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN2(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, and,          &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN2(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, intersection, &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN2(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, xor,    ^,  _mm256_xor_si256,    veorq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN2(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, andnot, &~, _mm256_andnot_si256, vbicq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "or" term, makes API more consistent
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN3(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, or,    |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN3(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, union, |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "intersection" term, makes API more consistent
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN3(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, and,          &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN3(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, intersection, &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN3(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, xor,    ^,  _mm256_xor_si256,    veorq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+AVX_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN3(CROARING_TARGET_AVX2, andnot, &~, _mm256_andnot_si256, vbicq_u64, CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION)
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+
+
+#define SCALAR_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(opname, opsymbol, avx_intrinsic,            \
+                                   neon_intrinsic)                             \
+  static inline int _scalar_bitset_container_##opname(const bitset_container_t *src_1,       \
+                                        const bitset_container_t *src_2,       \
+                                        bitset_container_t *dst) {             \
+    const uint64_t *__restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;                       \
+    const uint64_t *__restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;                       \
+    uint64_t *out = dst->words;                                                \
+    int32_t sum = 0;                                                           \
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 2) {           \
+      const uint64_t word_1 = (words_1[i])opsymbol(words_2[i]),                \
+                     word_2 = (words_1[i + 1]) opsymbol(words_2[i + 1]);       \
+      out[i] = word_1;                                                         \
+      out[i + 1] = word_2;                                                     \
+      sum += hamming(word_1);                                                  \
+      sum += hamming(word_2);                                                  \
+    }                                                                          \
+    dst->cardinality = sum;                                                    \
+    return dst->cardinality;                                                   \
+  }                                                                            \
+  static inline int _scalar_bitset_container_##opname##_nocard(                              \
+      const bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,        \
+      bitset_container_t *dst) {                                               \
+    const uint64_t *__restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;                       \
+    const uint64_t *__restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;                       \
+    uint64_t *out = dst->words;                                                \
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i++) {              \
+      out[i] = (words_1[i])opsymbol(words_2[i]);                               \
+    }                                                                          \
+    dst->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;                             \
+    return dst->cardinality;                                                   \
+  }                                                                            \
+  static inline int _scalar_bitset_container_##opname##_justcard(                            \
+      const bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2) {      \
+    const uint64_t *__restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;                       \
+    const uint64_t *__restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;                       \
+    int32_t sum = 0;                                                           \
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 2) {           \
+      const uint64_t word_1 = (words_1[i])opsymbol(words_2[i]),                \
+                     word_2 = (words_1[i + 1]) opsymbol(words_2[i + 1]);       \
+      sum += hamming(word_1);                                                  \
+      sum += hamming(word_2);                                                  \
+    }                                                                          \
+    return sum;                                                                \
+  }
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "or" term, makes API more consistent
+SCALAR_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(or,    |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64)
+SCALAR_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(union, |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64)
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "intersection" term, makes API more consistent
+SCALAR_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(and,          &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64)
+SCALAR_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(intersection, &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64)
+
+SCALAR_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(xor,    ^,  _mm256_xor_si256,    veorq_u64)
+SCALAR_BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(andnot, &~, _mm256_andnot_si256, vbicq_u64)
+
+
+#define BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(opname, opsymbol, avx_intrinsic, neon_intrinsic)   \
+  int bitset_container_##opname(const bitset_container_t *src_1,               \
+                                const bitset_container_t *src_2,               \
+                                bitset_container_t *dst) {                     \
+    if ( croaring_avx2() ) {                                                       \
+      return _avx2_bitset_container_##opname(src_1, src_2, dst);               \
+    } else {                                                                   \
+      return _scalar_bitset_container_##opname(src_1, src_2, dst);             \
+    }                                                                          \
+  }                                                                            \
+  int bitset_container_##opname##_nocard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,      \
+                                         const bitset_container_t *src_2,      \
+                                         bitset_container_t *dst) {            \
+    if ( croaring_avx2() ) {                                                       \
+      return _avx2_bitset_container_##opname##_nocard(src_1, src_2, dst);      \
+    } else {                                                                   \
+      return _scalar_bitset_container_##opname##_nocard(src_1, src_2, dst);    \
+    }                                                                          \
+  }                                                                            \
+  int bitset_container_##opname##_justcard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,    \
+                                           const bitset_container_t *src_2) {  \
+    if ((croaring_detect_supported_architectures() & CROARING_AVX2) ==         \
+        CROARING_AVX2) {                                                       \
+      return _avx2_bitset_container_##opname##_justcard(src_1, src_2);         \
+    } else {                                                                   \
+      return _scalar_bitset_container_##opname##_justcard(src_1, src_2);       \
+    }                                                                          \
+  }
+
+
+
+#elif defined(USENEON)
+
+#define BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(opname, opsymbol, avx_intrinsic, neon_intrinsic)  \
+int bitset_container_##opname(const bitset_container_t *src_1,                \
+                              const bitset_container_t *src_2,                \
+                              bitset_container_t *dst) {                      \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;                     \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;                     \
+    uint64_t *out = dst->words;                                               \
+    uint16x8_t n0 = vdupq_n_u16(0);                                           \
+    uint16x8_t n1 = vdupq_n_u16(0);                                           \
+    uint16x8_t n2 = vdupq_n_u16(0);                                           \
+    uint16x8_t n3 = vdupq_n_u16(0);                                           \
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 8) {          \
+        uint64x2_t c0 = neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 0]),            \
+                                       vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 0]));           \
+        n0 = vaddq_u16(n0, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c0))));   \
+        vst1q_u64(&out[i + 0], c0);                                           \
+        uint64x2_t c1 = neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 2]),            \
+                                       vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 2]));           \
+        n1 = vaddq_u16(n1, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c1))));   \
+        vst1q_u64(&out[i + 2], c1);                                           \
+        uint64x2_t c2 = neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 4]),            \
+                                       vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 4]));           \
+        n2 = vaddq_u16(n2, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c2))));   \
+        vst1q_u64(&out[i + 4], c2);                                           \
+        uint64x2_t c3 = neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 6]),            \
+                                       vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 6]));           \
+        n3 = vaddq_u16(n3, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c3))));   \
+        vst1q_u64(&out[i + 6], c3);                                           \
+    }                                                                         \
+    uint64x2_t n = vdupq_n_u64(0);                                            \
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n0)));                           \
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n1)));                           \
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n2)));                           \
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n3)));                           \
+    dst->cardinality = vgetq_lane_u64(n, 0) + vgetq_lane_u64(n, 1);           \
+    return dst->cardinality;                                                  \
+}                                                                             \
+int bitset_container_##opname##_nocard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,       \
+                                       const bitset_container_t *src_2,       \
+                                             bitset_container_t *dst) {       \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;                     \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;                     \
+    uint64_t *out = dst->words;                                               \
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 8) {          \
+        vst1q_u64(&out[i + 0], neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 0]),     \
+                                              vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 0])));   \
+        vst1q_u64(&out[i + 2], neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 2]),     \
+                                              vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 2])));   \
+        vst1q_u64(&out[i + 4], neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 4]),     \
+                                              vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 4])));   \
+        vst1q_u64(&out[i + 6], neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 6]),     \
+                                              vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 6])));   \
+    }                                                                         \
+    dst->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;                            \
+    return dst->cardinality;                                                  \
+}                                                                             \
+int bitset_container_##opname##_justcard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,     \
+                                         const bitset_container_t *src_2) {   \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;                     \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;                     \
+    uint16x8_t n0 = vdupq_n_u16(0);                                           \
+    uint16x8_t n1 = vdupq_n_u16(0);                                           \
+    uint16x8_t n2 = vdupq_n_u16(0);                                           \
+    uint16x8_t n3 = vdupq_n_u16(0);                                           \
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 8) {          \
+        uint64x2_t c0 = neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 0]),            \
+                                       vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 0]));           \
+        n0 = vaddq_u16(n0, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c0))));   \
+        uint64x2_t c1 = neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 2]),            \
+                                       vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 2]));           \
+        n1 = vaddq_u16(n1, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c1))));   \
+        uint64x2_t c2 = neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 4]),            \
+                                       vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 4]));           \
+        n2 = vaddq_u16(n2, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c2))));   \
+        uint64x2_t c3 = neon_intrinsic(vld1q_u64(&words_1[i + 6]),            \
+                                       vld1q_u64(&words_2[i + 6]));           \
+        n3 = vaddq_u16(n3, vpaddlq_u8(vcntq_u8(vreinterpretq_u8_u64(c3))));   \
+    }                                                                         \
+    uint64x2_t n = vdupq_n_u64(0);                                            \
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n0)));                           \
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n1)));                           \
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n2)));                           \
+    n = vaddq_u64(n, vpaddlq_u32(vpaddlq_u16(n3)));                           \
+    return vgetq_lane_u64(n, 0) + vgetq_lane_u64(n, 1);                       \
+}
+
+#else
+
+#define BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(opname, opsymbol, avx_intrinsic, neon_intrinsic)  \
+int bitset_container_##opname(const bitset_container_t *src_1,            \
+                              const bitset_container_t *src_2,            \
+                              bitset_container_t *dst) {                  \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;                 \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;                 \
+    uint64_t *out = dst->words;                                           \
+    int32_t sum = 0;                                                      \
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 2) {      \
+        const uint64_t word_1 = (words_1[i])opsymbol(words_2[i]),         \
+                       word_2 = (words_1[i + 1])opsymbol(words_2[i + 1]); \
+        out[i] = word_1;                                                  \
+        out[i + 1] = word_2;                                              \
+        sum += hamming(word_1);                                    \
+        sum += hamming(word_2);                                    \
+    }                                                                     \
+    dst->cardinality = sum;                                               \
+    return dst->cardinality;                                              \
+}                                                                         \
+int bitset_container_##opname##_nocard(const bitset_container_t *src_1,   \
+                                       const bitset_container_t *src_2,   \
+                                       bitset_container_t *dst) {         \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;                 \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;                 \
+    uint64_t *out = dst->words;                                           \
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i++) {         \
+        out[i] = (words_1[i])opsymbol(words_2[i]);                        \
+    }                                                                     \
+    dst->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;                        \
+    return dst->cardinality;                                              \
+}                                                                         \
+int bitset_container_##opname##_justcard(const bitset_container_t *src_1, \
+                              const bitset_container_t *src_2) {          \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_1 = src_1->words;                 \
+    const uint64_t * __restrict__ words_2 = src_2->words;                 \
+    int32_t sum = 0;                                                      \
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 2) {      \
+        const uint64_t word_1 = (words_1[i])opsymbol(words_2[i]),         \
+                       word_2 = (words_1[i + 1])opsymbol(words_2[i + 1]); \
+        sum += hamming(word_1);                                    \
+        sum += hamming(word_2);                                    \
+    }                                                                     \
+    return sum;                                                           \
+}
+
+#endif // CROARING_IS_X64
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "or" term, makes API more consistent
+BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(or,    |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64)
+BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(union, |, _mm256_or_si256, vorrq_u64)
+
+// we duplicate the function because other containers use the "intersection" term, makes API more consistent
+BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(and,          &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64)
+BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(intersection, &, _mm256_and_si256, vandq_u64)
+
+BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(xor,    ^,  _mm256_xor_si256,    veorq_u64)
+BITSET_CONTAINER_FN(andnot, &~, _mm256_andnot_si256, vbicq_u64)
+// clang-format On
+
+
+int bitset_container_to_uint32_array(
+    uint32_t *out,
+    const bitset_container_t *bc,
+    uint32_t base
+){
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+    if(( croaring_avx2() ) &&  (bc->cardinality >= 8192))  // heuristic
+		return (int) bitset_extract_setbits_avx2(bc->words,
+                BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS, out, bc->cardinality, base);
+	else
+		return (int) bitset_extract_setbits(bc->words,
+                BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS, out, base);
+#else
+	return (int) bitset_extract_setbits(bc->words,
+                BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS, out, base);
+#endif
+}
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf (useful for debugging).
+ */
+void bitset_container_printf(const bitset_container_t * v) {
+	printf("{");
+	uint32_t base = 0;
+	bool iamfirst = true;// TODO: rework so that this is not necessary yet still readable
+	for (int i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; ++i) {
+		uint64_t w = v->words[i];
+		while (w != 0) {
+			uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+			int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
+			if(iamfirst) {// predicted to be false
+				printf("%u",base + r);
+				iamfirst = false;
+			} else {
+				printf(",%u",base + r);
+			}
+			w ^= t;
+		}
+		base += 64;
+	}
+	printf("}");
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Print this container using printf as a comma-separated list of 32-bit integers starting at base.
+ */
+void bitset_container_printf_as_uint32_array(const bitset_container_t * v, uint32_t base) {
+	bool iamfirst = true;// TODO: rework so that this is not necessary yet still readable
+	for (int i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; ++i) {
+		uint64_t w = v->words[i];
+		while (w != 0) {
+			uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+			int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
+			if(iamfirst) {// predicted to be false
+				printf("%u", r + base);
+				iamfirst = false;
+			} else {
+				printf(",%u",r + base);
+			}
+			w ^= t;
+		}
+		base += 64;
+	}
+}
+
+
+// TODO: use the fast lower bound, also
+int bitset_container_number_of_runs(bitset_container_t *bc) {
+  int num_runs = 0;
+  uint64_t next_word = bc->words[0];
+
+  for (int i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS-1; ++i) {
+    uint64_t word = next_word;
+    next_word = bc->words[i+1];
+    num_runs += hamming((~word) & (word << 1)) + ( (word >> 63) & ~next_word);
+  }
+
+  uint64_t word = next_word;
+  num_runs += hamming((~word) & (word << 1));
+  if((word & 0x8000000000000000ULL) != 0)
+    num_runs++;
+  return num_runs;
+}
+
+
+int32_t bitset_container_write(const bitset_container_t *container,
+                                  char *buf) {
+	memcpy(buf, container->words, BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t));
+	return bitset_container_size_in_bytes(container);
+}
+
+
+int32_t bitset_container_read(int32_t cardinality, bitset_container_t *container,
+		const char *buf)  {
+	container->cardinality = cardinality;
+	memcpy(container->words, buf, BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t));
+	return bitset_container_size_in_bytes(container);
+}
+
+bool bitset_container_iterate(const bitset_container_t *cont, uint32_t base, roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr) {
+  for (int32_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; ++i ) {
+    uint64_t w = cont->words[i];
+    while (w != 0) {
+      uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+      int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
+      if(!iterator(r + base, ptr)) return false;
+      w ^= t;
+    }
+    base += 64;
+  }
+  return true;
+}
+
+bool bitset_container_iterate64(const bitset_container_t *cont, uint32_t base, roaring_iterator64 iterator, uint64_t high_bits, void *ptr) {
+  for (int32_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; ++i ) {
+    uint64_t w = cont->words[i];
+    while (w != 0) {
+      uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+      int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
+      if(!iterator(high_bits | (uint64_t)(r + base), ptr)) return false;
+      w ^= t;
+    }
+    base += 64;
+  }
+  return true;
+}
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+static inline bool _avx2_bitset_container_equals(const bitset_container_t *container1, const bitset_container_t *container2) {
+    const __m256i *ptr1 = (const __m256i*)container1->words;
+    const __m256i *ptr2 = (const __m256i*)container2->words;
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS*sizeof(uint64_t)/32; i++) {
+      __m256i r1 = _mm256_load_si256(ptr1+i);
+      __m256i r2 = _mm256_load_si256(ptr2+i);
+      int mask = _mm256_movemask_epi8(_mm256_cmpeq_epi8(r1, r2));
+      if ((uint32_t)mask != UINT32_MAX) {
+          return false;
+      }
+  }
+	return true;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+#endif // CROARING_IS_X64
+
+bool bitset_container_equals(const bitset_container_t *container1, const bitset_container_t *container2) {
+  if((container1->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) && (container2->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY)) {
+    if(container1->cardinality != container2->cardinality) {
+      return false;
+    }
+    if (container1->cardinality == INT32_C(0x10000)) {
+      return true;
+    }
+  }
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+  if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+    return _avx2_bitset_container_equals(container1, container2);
+  }
+#endif
+  return memcmp(container1->words,
+                container2->words,
+                BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS*sizeof(uint64_t)) == 0;
+}
+
+bool bitset_container_is_subset(const bitset_container_t *container1,
+                          const bitset_container_t *container2) {
+    if((container1->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) && (container2->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY)) {
+        if(container1->cardinality > container2->cardinality) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    for(int32_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; ++i ) {
+		if((container1->words[i] & container2->words[i]) != container1->words[i]) {
+			return false;
+		}
+	}
+	return true;
+}
+
+bool bitset_container_select(const bitset_container_t *container, uint32_t *start_rank, uint32_t rank, uint32_t *element) {
+    int card = bitset_container_cardinality(container);
+    if(rank >= *start_rank + card) {
+        *start_rank += card;
+        return false;
+    }
+    const uint64_t *words = container->words;
+    int32_t size;
+    for (int i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i += 1) {
+        size = hamming(words[i]);
+        if(rank <= *start_rank + size) {
+            uint64_t w = container->words[i];
+            uint16_t base = i*64;
+            while (w != 0) {
+                uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+                int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
+                if(*start_rank == rank) {
+                    *element = r+base;
+                    return true;
+                }
+                w ^= t;
+                *start_rank += 1;
+            }
+        }
+        else
+            *start_rank += size;
+    }
+    assert(false);
+    __builtin_unreachable();
+}
+
+
+/* Returns the smallest value (assumes not empty) */
+uint16_t bitset_container_minimum(const bitset_container_t *container) {
+  for (int32_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; ++i ) {
+    uint64_t w = container->words[i];
+    if (w != 0) {
+      int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
+      return r + i * 64;
+    }
+  }
+  return UINT16_MAX;
+}
+
+/* Returns the largest value (assumes not empty) */
+uint16_t bitset_container_maximum(const bitset_container_t *container) {
+  for (int32_t i = BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS - 1; i > 0; --i ) {
+    uint64_t w = container->words[i];
+    if (w != 0) {
+      int r = __builtin_clzll(w);
+      return i * 64 + 63  - r;
+    }
+  }
+  return 0;
+}
+
+/* Returns the number of values equal or smaller than x */
+int bitset_container_rank(const bitset_container_t *container, uint16_t x) {
+  // credit: aqrit
+  int sum = 0;
+  int i = 0;
+  for (int end = x / 64; i < end; i++){
+    sum += hamming(container->words[i]);
+  }
+  uint64_t lastword = container->words[i];
+  uint64_t lastpos = UINT64_C(1) << (x % 64);
+  uint64_t mask = lastpos + lastpos - 1; // smear right
+  sum += hamming(lastword & mask);
+  return sum;
+}
+
+/* Returns the index of the first value equal or larger than x, or -1 */
+int bitset_container_index_equalorlarger(const bitset_container_t *container, uint16_t x) {
+  uint32_t x32 = x;
+  uint32_t k = x32 / 64;
+  uint64_t word = container->words[k];
+  const int diff = x32 - k * 64; // in [0,64)
+  word = (word >> diff) << diff; // a mask is faster, but we don't care
+  while(word == 0) {
+    k++;
+    if(k == BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS) return -1;
+    word = container->words[k];
+  }
+  return k * 64 + __builtin_ctzll(word);
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/bitset.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/mixed_intersection.c */
+/*
+ * mixed_intersection.c
+ *
+ */
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Compute the intersection of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst.  */
+void array_bitset_container_intersection(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                         const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                         array_container_t *dst) {
+    if (dst->capacity < src_1->cardinality) {
+        array_container_grow(dst, src_1->cardinality, false);
+    }
+    int32_t newcard = 0;  // dst could be src_1
+    const int32_t origcard = src_1->cardinality;
+    for (int i = 0; i < origcard; ++i) {
+        uint16_t key = src_1->array[i];
+        // this branchless approach is much faster...
+        dst->array[newcard] = key;
+        newcard += bitset_container_contains(src_2, key);
+        /**
+         * we could do it this way instead...
+         * if (bitset_container_contains(src_2, key)) {
+         * dst->array[newcard++] = key;
+         * }
+         * but if the result is unpredictible, the processor generates
+         * many mispredicted branches.
+         * Difference can be huge (from 3 cycles when predictible all the way
+         * to 16 cycles when unpredictible.
+         * See
+         * https://github.com/lemire/Code-used-on-Daniel-Lemire-s-blog/blob/master/extra/bitset/c/arraybitsetintersection.c
+         */
+    }
+    dst->cardinality = newcard;
+}
+
+/* Compute the size of the intersection of src_1 and src_2. */
+int array_bitset_container_intersection_cardinality(
+    const array_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2) {
+    int32_t newcard = 0;
+    const int32_t origcard = src_1->cardinality;
+    for (int i = 0; i < origcard; ++i) {
+        uint16_t key = src_1->array[i];
+        newcard += bitset_container_contains(src_2, key);
+    }
+    return newcard;
+}
+
+
+bool array_bitset_container_intersect(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                         const bitset_container_t *src_2) {
+	const int32_t origcard = src_1->cardinality;
+	for (int i = 0; i < origcard; ++i) {
+	        uint16_t key = src_1->array[i];
+	        if(bitset_container_contains(src_2, key)) return true;
+	}
+	return false;
+}
+
+/* Compute the intersection of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for dst to be equal to src_1. We assume that dst is a
+ * valid container. */
+void array_run_container_intersection(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                      const run_container_t *src_2,
+                                      array_container_t *dst) {
+    if (run_container_is_full(src_2)) {
+        if (dst != src_1) array_container_copy(src_1, dst);
+        return;
+    }
+    if (dst->capacity < src_1->cardinality) {
+        array_container_grow(dst, src_1->cardinality, false);
+    }
+    if (src_2->n_runs == 0) {
+        return;
+    }
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t arraypos = 0;
+    rle16_t rle = src_2->runs[rlepos];
+    int32_t newcard = 0;
+    while (arraypos < src_1->cardinality) {
+        const uint16_t arrayval = src_1->array[arraypos];
+        while (rle.value + rle.length <
+               arrayval) {  // this will frequently be false
+            ++rlepos;
+            if (rlepos == src_2->n_runs) {
+                dst->cardinality = newcard;
+                return;  // we are done
+            }
+            rle = src_2->runs[rlepos];
+        }
+        if (rle.value > arrayval) {
+            arraypos = advanceUntil(src_1->array, arraypos, src_1->cardinality,
+                                    rle.value);
+        } else {
+            dst->array[newcard] = arrayval;
+            newcard++;
+            arraypos++;
+        }
+    }
+    dst->cardinality = newcard;
+}
+
+/* Compute the intersection of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * *dst. If the result is true then the result is a bitset_container_t
+ * otherwise is a array_container_t. If *dst ==  src_2, an in-place processing
+ * is attempted.*/
+bool run_bitset_container_intersection(
+    const run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    if (run_container_is_full(src_1)) {
+        if (*dst != src_2) *dst = bitset_container_clone(src_2);
+        return true;
+    }
+    int32_t card = run_container_cardinality(src_1);
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        // result can only be an array (assuming that we never make a
+        // RunContainer)
+        if (card > src_2->cardinality) {
+            card = src_2->cardinality;
+        }
+        array_container_t *answer = array_container_create_given_capacity(card);
+        *dst = answer;
+        if (*dst == NULL) {
+            return false;
+        }
+        for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+            rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+            uint32_t endofrun = (uint32_t)rle.value + rle.length;
+            for (uint32_t runValue = rle.value; runValue <= endofrun;
+                 ++runValue) {
+                answer->array[answer->cardinality] = (uint16_t)runValue;
+                answer->cardinality +=
+                    bitset_container_contains(src_2, runValue);
+            }
+        }
+        return false;
+    }
+    if (*dst == src_2) {  // we attempt in-place
+        bitset_container_t *answer = CAST_bitset(*dst);
+        uint32_t start = 0;
+        for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+            const rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+            uint32_t end = rle.value;
+            bitset_reset_range(src_2->words, start, end);
+
+            start = end + rle.length + 1;
+        }
+        bitset_reset_range(src_2->words, start, UINT32_C(1) << 16);
+        answer->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(answer);
+        if (src_2->cardinality > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+            return true;
+        } else {
+            array_container_t *newanswer = array_container_from_bitset(src_2);
+            if (newanswer == NULL) {
+                *dst = NULL;
+                return false;
+            }
+            *dst = newanswer;
+            return false;
+        }
+    } else {  // no inplace
+        // we expect the answer to be a bitmap (if we are lucky)
+        bitset_container_t *answer = bitset_container_clone(src_2);
+
+        *dst = answer;
+        if (answer == NULL) {
+            return true;
+        }
+        uint32_t start = 0;
+        for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+            const rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+            uint32_t end = rle.value;
+            bitset_reset_range(answer->words, start, end);
+            start = end + rle.length + 1;
+        }
+        bitset_reset_range(answer->words, start, UINT32_C(1) << 16);
+        answer->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(answer);
+
+        if (answer->cardinality > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+            return true;
+        } else {
+            array_container_t *newanswer = array_container_from_bitset(answer);
+            bitset_container_free(CAST_bitset(*dst));
+            if (newanswer == NULL) {
+                *dst = NULL;
+                return false;
+            }
+            *dst = newanswer;
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+}
+
+/* Compute the size of the intersection between src_1 and src_2 . */
+int array_run_container_intersection_cardinality(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                                 const run_container_t *src_2) {
+    if (run_container_is_full(src_2)) {
+        return src_1->cardinality;
+    }
+    if (src_2->n_runs == 0) {
+        return 0;
+    }
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t arraypos = 0;
+    rle16_t rle = src_2->runs[rlepos];
+    int32_t newcard = 0;
+    while (arraypos < src_1->cardinality) {
+        const uint16_t arrayval = src_1->array[arraypos];
+        while (rle.value + rle.length <
+               arrayval) {  // this will frequently be false
+            ++rlepos;
+            if (rlepos == src_2->n_runs) {
+                return newcard;  // we are done
+            }
+            rle = src_2->runs[rlepos];
+        }
+        if (rle.value > arrayval) {
+            arraypos = advanceUntil(src_1->array, arraypos, src_1->cardinality,
+                                    rle.value);
+        } else {
+            newcard++;
+            arraypos++;
+        }
+    }
+    return newcard;
+}
+
+/* Compute the intersection  between src_1 and src_2
+ **/
+int run_bitset_container_intersection_cardinality(
+    const run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2) {
+    if (run_container_is_full(src_1)) {
+        return bitset_container_cardinality(src_2);
+    }
+    int answer = 0;
+    for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+        answer +=
+            bitset_lenrange_cardinality(src_2->words, rle.value, rle.length);
+    }
+    return answer;
+}
+
+
+bool array_run_container_intersect(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                      const run_container_t *src_2) {
+	if( run_container_is_full(src_2) ) {
+	    return !array_container_empty(src_1);
+	}
+	if (src_2->n_runs == 0) {
+        return false;
+    }
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t arraypos = 0;
+    rle16_t rle = src_2->runs[rlepos];
+    while (arraypos < src_1->cardinality) {
+        const uint16_t arrayval = src_1->array[arraypos];
+        while (rle.value + rle.length <
+               arrayval) {  // this will frequently be false
+            ++rlepos;
+            if (rlepos == src_2->n_runs) {
+                return false;  // we are done
+            }
+            rle = src_2->runs[rlepos];
+        }
+        if (rle.value > arrayval) {
+            arraypos = advanceUntil(src_1->array, arraypos, src_1->cardinality,
+                                    rle.value);
+        } else {
+            return true;
+        }
+    }
+    return false;
+}
+
+/* Compute the intersection  between src_1 and src_2
+ **/
+bool run_bitset_container_intersect(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                       const bitset_container_t *src_2) {
+	   if( run_container_is_full(src_1) ) {
+		   return !bitset_container_empty(src_2);
+	   }
+       for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+           rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+           if(!bitset_lenrange_empty(src_2->words, rle.value,rle.length)) return true;
+       }
+       return false;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Compute the intersection between src_1 and src_2 and write the result
+ * to *dst. If the return function is true, the result is a bitset_container_t
+ * otherwise is a array_container_t.
+ */
+bool bitset_bitset_container_intersection(
+    const bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    const int newCardinality = bitset_container_and_justcard(src_1, src_2);
+    if (newCardinality > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = bitset_container_create();
+        if (*dst != NULL) {
+            bitset_container_and_nocard(src_1, src_2, CAST_bitset(*dst));
+            CAST_bitset(*dst)->cardinality = newCardinality;
+        }
+        return true;  // it is a bitset
+    }
+    *dst = array_container_create_given_capacity(newCardinality);
+    if (*dst != NULL) {
+        CAST_array(*dst)->cardinality = newCardinality;
+        bitset_extract_intersection_setbits_uint16(
+            src_1->words, src_2->words, BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS,
+            CAST_array(*dst)->array, 0);
+    }
+    return false;  // not a bitset
+}
+
+bool bitset_bitset_container_intersection_inplace(
+    bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    const int newCardinality = bitset_container_and_justcard(src_1, src_2);
+    if (newCardinality > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = src_1;
+        bitset_container_and_nocard(src_1, src_2, src_1);
+        CAST_bitset(*dst)->cardinality = newCardinality;
+        return true;  // it is a bitset
+    }
+    *dst = array_container_create_given_capacity(newCardinality);
+    if (*dst != NULL) {
+        CAST_array(*dst)->cardinality = newCardinality;
+        bitset_extract_intersection_setbits_uint16(
+            src_1->words, src_2->words, BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS,
+            CAST_array(*dst)->array, 0);
+    }
+    return false;  // not a bitset
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/mixed_intersection.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/mixed_subset.c */
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+bool array_container_is_subset_bitset(const array_container_t* container1,
+                                      const bitset_container_t* container2) {
+    if (container2->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) {
+        if (container2->cardinality < container1->cardinality) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    for (int i = 0; i < container1->cardinality; ++i) {
+        if (!bitset_container_contains(container2, container1->array[i])) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool run_container_is_subset_array(const run_container_t* container1,
+                                   const array_container_t* container2) {
+    if (run_container_cardinality(container1) > container2->cardinality)
+        return false;
+    int32_t start_pos = -1, stop_pos = -1;
+    for (int i = 0; i < container1->n_runs; ++i) {
+        int32_t start = container1->runs[i].value;
+        int32_t stop = start + container1->runs[i].length;
+        start_pos = advanceUntil(container2->array, stop_pos,
+                                 container2->cardinality, start);
+        stop_pos = advanceUntil(container2->array, stop_pos,
+                                container2->cardinality, stop);
+        if (start_pos == container2->cardinality) {
+            return false;
+        } else if (stop_pos - start_pos != stop - start ||
+                   container2->array[start_pos] != start ||
+                   container2->array[stop_pos] != stop) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool array_container_is_subset_run(const array_container_t* container1,
+                                   const run_container_t* container2) {
+    if (container1->cardinality > run_container_cardinality(container2))
+        return false;
+    int i_array = 0, i_run = 0;
+    while (i_array < container1->cardinality && i_run < container2->n_runs) {
+        uint32_t start = container2->runs[i_run].value;
+        uint32_t stop = start + container2->runs[i_run].length;
+        if (container1->array[i_array] < start) {
+            return false;
+        } else if (container1->array[i_array] > stop) {
+            i_run++;
+        } else {  // the value of the array is in the run
+            i_array++;
+        }
+    }
+    if (i_array == container1->cardinality) {
+        return true;
+    } else {
+        return false;
+    }
+}
+
+bool run_container_is_subset_bitset(const run_container_t* container1,
+                                    const bitset_container_t* container2) {
+    // todo: this code could be much faster
+    if (container2->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) {
+        if (container2->cardinality < run_container_cardinality(container1)) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    } else {
+        int32_t card = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(
+            container2);  // modify container2?
+        if (card < run_container_cardinality(container1)) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    for (int i = 0; i < container1->n_runs; ++i) {
+        uint32_t run_start = container1->runs[i].value;
+        uint32_t le = container1->runs[i].length;
+        for (uint32_t j = run_start; j <= run_start + le; ++j) {
+            if (!bitset_container_contains(container2, j)) {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+bool bitset_container_is_subset_run(const bitset_container_t* container1,
+                                    const run_container_t* container2) {
+    // todo: this code could be much faster
+    if (container1->cardinality != BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY) {
+        if (container1->cardinality > run_container_cardinality(container2)) {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    int32_t i_bitset = 0, i_run = 0;
+    while (i_bitset < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS &&
+           i_run < container2->n_runs) {
+        uint64_t w = container1->words[i_bitset];
+        while (w != 0 && i_run < container2->n_runs) {
+            uint32_t start = container2->runs[i_run].value;
+            uint32_t stop = start + container2->runs[i_run].length;
+            uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+            uint16_t r = i_bitset * 64 + __builtin_ctzll(w);
+            if (r < start) {
+                return false;
+            } else if (r > stop) {
+                i_run++;
+                continue;
+            } else {
+                w ^= t;
+            }
+        }
+        if (w == 0) {
+            i_bitset++;
+        } else {
+            return false;
+        }
+    }
+    if (i_bitset < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS) {
+        // terminated iterating on the run containers, check that rest of bitset
+        // is empty
+        for (; i_bitset < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i_bitset++) {
+            if (container1->words[i_bitset] != 0) {
+                return false;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    return true;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/mixed_subset.c */
+/* begin file src/containers/mixed_xor.c */
+/*
+ * mixed_xor.c
+ */
+
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).
+ * Result is true iff dst is a bitset  */
+bool array_bitset_container_xor(
+    const array_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bitset_container_t *result = bitset_container_create();
+    bitset_container_copy(src_2, result);
+    result->cardinality = (int32_t)bitset_flip_list_withcard(
+        result->words, result->cardinality, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality);
+
+    // do required type conversions.
+    if (result->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(result);
+        bitset_container_free(result);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    }
+    *dst = result;
+    return true;  // bitset
+}
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. It is allowed for src_2 to be dst.  This version does not
+ * update the cardinality of dst (it is set to BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY).
+ */
+
+void array_bitset_container_lazy_xor(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                     const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                     bitset_container_t *dst) {
+    if (src_2 != dst) bitset_container_copy(src_2, dst);
+    bitset_flip_list(dst->words, src_1->array, src_1->cardinality);
+    dst->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;
+}
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset"). dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool run_bitset_container_xor(
+    const run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bitset_container_t *result = bitset_container_create();
+
+    bitset_container_copy(src_2, result);
+    for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+        bitset_flip_range(result->words, rle.value,
+                          rle.value + rle.length + UINT32_C(1));
+    }
+    result->cardinality = bitset_container_compute_cardinality(result);
+
+    if (result->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(result);
+        bitset_container_free(result);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    }
+    *dst = result;
+    return true;  // bitset
+}
+
+/* lazy xor.  Dst is initialized and may be equal to src_2.
+ *  Result is left as a bitset container, even if actual
+ *  cardinality would dictate an array container.
+ */
+
+void run_bitset_container_lazy_xor(const run_container_t *src_1,
+                                   const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+                                   bitset_container_t *dst) {
+    if (src_2 != dst) bitset_container_copy(src_2, dst);
+    for (int32_t rlepos = 0; rlepos < src_1->n_runs; ++rlepos) {
+        rle16_t rle = src_1->runs[rlepos];
+        bitset_flip_range(dst->words, rle.value,
+                          rle.value + rle.length + UINT32_C(1));
+    }
+    dst->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;
+}
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+int array_run_container_xor(
+    const array_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    // semi following Java XOR implementation as of May 2016
+    // the C OR implementation works quite differently and can return a run
+    // container
+    // TODO could optimize for full run containers.
+
+    // use of lazy following Java impl.
+    const int arbitrary_threshold = 32;
+    if (src_1->cardinality < arbitrary_threshold) {
+        run_container_t *ans = run_container_create();
+        array_run_container_lazy_xor(src_1, src_2, ans);  // keeps runs.
+        uint8_t typecode_after;
+        *dst =
+            convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(ans, &typecode_after);
+        return typecode_after;
+    }
+
+    int card = run_container_cardinality(src_2);
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        // Java implementation works with the array, xoring the run elements via
+        // iterator
+        array_container_t *temp = array_container_from_run(src_2);
+        bool ret_is_bitset = array_array_container_xor(temp, src_1, dst);
+        array_container_free(temp);
+        return ret_is_bitset ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                             : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+
+    } else {  // guess that it will end up as a bitset
+        bitset_container_t *result = bitset_container_from_run(src_2);
+        bool is_bitset = bitset_array_container_ixor(result, src_1, dst);
+        // any necessary type conversion has been done by the ixor
+        int retval = (is_bitset ? BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE
+                                : ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE);
+        return retval;
+    }
+}
+
+/* Dst is a valid run container. (Can it be src_2? Let's say not.)
+ * Leaves result as run container, even if other options are
+ * smaller.
+ */
+
+void array_run_container_lazy_xor(const array_container_t *src_1,
+                                  const run_container_t *src_2,
+                                  run_container_t *dst) {
+    run_container_grow(dst, src_1->cardinality + src_2->n_runs, false);
+    int32_t rlepos = 0;
+    int32_t arraypos = 0;
+    dst->n_runs = 0;
+
+    while ((rlepos < src_2->n_runs) && (arraypos < src_1->cardinality)) {
+        if (src_2->runs[rlepos].value <= src_1->array[arraypos]) {
+            run_container_smart_append_exclusive(dst, src_2->runs[rlepos].value,
+                                                 src_2->runs[rlepos].length);
+            rlepos++;
+        } else {
+            run_container_smart_append_exclusive(dst, src_1->array[arraypos],
+                                                 0);
+            arraypos++;
+        }
+    }
+    while (arraypos < src_1->cardinality) {
+        run_container_smart_append_exclusive(dst, src_1->array[arraypos], 0);
+        arraypos++;
+    }
+    while (rlepos < src_2->n_runs) {
+        run_container_smart_append_exclusive(dst, src_2->runs[rlepos].value,
+                                             src_2->runs[rlepos].length);
+        rlepos++;
+    }
+}
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+int run_run_container_xor(
+    const run_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    run_container_t *ans = run_container_create();
+    run_container_xor(src_1, src_2, ans);
+    uint8_t typecode_after;
+    *dst = convert_run_to_efficient_container_and_free(ans, &typecode_after);
+    return typecode_after;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Java implementation (as of May 2016) for array_run, run_run
+ * and  bitset_run don't do anything different for inplace.
+ * Could adopt the mixed_union.c approach instead (ie, using
+ * smart_append_exclusive)
+ *
+ */
+
+bool array_array_container_xor(
+    const array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int totalCardinality =
+        src_1->cardinality + src_2->cardinality;  // upper bound
+    if (totalCardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_create_given_capacity(totalCardinality);
+        array_container_xor(src_1, src_2, CAST_array(*dst));
+        return false;  // not a bitset
+    }
+    *dst = bitset_container_from_array(src_1);
+    bool returnval = true;  // expect a bitset
+    bitset_container_t *ourbitset = CAST_bitset(*dst);
+    ourbitset->cardinality = (uint32_t)bitset_flip_list_withcard(
+        ourbitset->words, src_1->cardinality, src_2->array, src_2->cardinality);
+    if (ourbitset->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        // need to convert!
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(ourbitset);
+        bitset_container_free(ourbitset);
+        returnval = false;  // not going to be a bitset
+    }
+
+    return returnval;
+}
+
+bool array_array_container_lazy_xor(
+    const array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int totalCardinality = src_1->cardinality + src_2->cardinality;
+    // upper bound, but probably poor estimate for xor
+    if (totalCardinality <= ARRAY_LAZY_LOWERBOUND) {
+        *dst = array_container_create_given_capacity(totalCardinality);
+        if (*dst != NULL)
+            array_container_xor(src_1, src_2, CAST_array(*dst));
+        return false;  // not a bitset
+    }
+    *dst = bitset_container_from_array(src_1);
+    bool returnval = true;  // expect a bitset (maybe, for XOR??)
+    if (*dst != NULL) {
+        bitset_container_t *ourbitset = CAST_bitset(*dst);
+        bitset_flip_list(ourbitset->words, src_2->array, src_2->cardinality);
+        ourbitset->cardinality = BITSET_UNKNOWN_CARDINALITY;
+    }
+    return returnval;
+}
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially). Return value is
+ * "dst is a bitset"
+ */
+
+bool bitset_bitset_container_xor(
+    const bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bitset_container_t *ans = bitset_container_create();
+    int card = bitset_container_xor(src_1, src_2, ans);
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(ans);
+        bitset_container_free(ans);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    } else {
+        *dst = ans;
+        return true;
+    }
+}
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst (which has no container initially).  It will modify src_1
+ * to be dst if the result is a bitset.  Otherwise, it will
+ * free src_1 and dst will be a new array container.  In both
+ * cases, the caller is responsible for deallocating dst.
+ * Returns true iff dst is a bitset  */
+
+bool bitset_array_container_ixor(
+    bitset_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    *dst = src_1;
+    src_1->cardinality = (uint32_t)bitset_flip_list_withcard(
+        src_1->words, src_1->cardinality, src_2->array, src_2->cardinality);
+
+    if (src_1->cardinality <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(src_1);
+        bitset_container_free(src_1);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    } else
+        return true;
+}
+
+/* a bunch of in-place, some of which may not *really* be inplace.
+ * TODO: write actual inplace routine if efficiency warrants it
+ * Anything inplace with a bitset is a good candidate
+ */
+
+bool bitset_bitset_container_ixor(
+    bitset_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int card = bitset_container_xor(src_1, src_2, src_1);
+    if (card <= DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE) {
+        *dst = array_container_from_bitset(src_1);
+        bitset_container_free(src_1);
+        return false;  // not bitset
+    } else {
+        *dst = src_1;
+        return true;
+    }
+}
+
+bool array_bitset_container_ixor(
+    array_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bool ans = array_bitset_container_xor(src_1, src_2, dst);
+    array_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+/* Compute the xor of src_1 and src_2 and write the result to
+ * dst. Result may be either a bitset or an array container
+ * (returns "result is bitset"). dst does not initially have
+ * any container, but becomes either a bitset container (return
+ * result true) or an array container.
+ */
+
+bool run_bitset_container_ixor(
+    run_container_t *src_1, const bitset_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bool ans = run_bitset_container_xor(src_1, src_2, dst);
+    run_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+bool bitset_run_container_ixor(
+    bitset_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bool ans = run_bitset_container_xor(src_2, src_1, dst);
+    bitset_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+/* dst does not indicate a valid container initially.  Eventually it
+ * can become any kind of container.
+ */
+
+int array_run_container_ixor(
+    array_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int ans = array_run_container_xor(src_1, src_2, dst);
+    array_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+int run_array_container_ixor(
+    run_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int ans = array_run_container_xor(src_2, src_1, dst);
+    run_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+bool array_array_container_ixor(
+    array_container_t *src_1, const array_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    bool ans = array_array_container_xor(src_1, src_2, dst);
+    array_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+int run_run_container_ixor(
+    run_container_t *src_1, const run_container_t *src_2,
+    container_t **dst
+){
+    int ans = run_run_container_xor(src_1, src_2, dst);
+    run_container_free(src_1);
+    return ans;
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/containers/mixed_xor.c */
+/* begin file src/bitset_util.c */
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+static uint8_t lengthTable[256] = {
+    0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 3, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4,
+    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4, 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5,
+    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4,
+    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6,
+    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6,
+    4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7, 1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 4, 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5,
+    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5,
+    3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7,
+    2, 3, 3, 4, 3, 4, 4, 5, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6,
+    4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7, 3, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 5, 6, 4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7,
+    4, 5, 5, 6, 5, 6, 6, 7, 5, 6, 6, 7, 6, 7, 7, 8};
+#endif
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+ALIGNED(32)
+static uint32_t vecDecodeTable[256][8] = {
+    {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x00 (00000000) */
+    {1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x01 (00000001) */
+    {2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x02 (00000010) */
+    {1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x03 (00000011) */
+    {3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x04 (00000100) */
+    {1, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x05 (00000101) */
+    {2, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x06 (00000110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x07 (00000111) */
+    {4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x08 (00001000) */
+    {1, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x09 (00001001) */
+    {2, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0A (00001010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0B (00001011) */
+    {3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0C (00001100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0D (00001101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0E (00001110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0F (00001111) */
+    {5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x10 (00010000) */
+    {1, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x11 (00010001) */
+    {2, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x12 (00010010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x13 (00010011) */
+    {3, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x14 (00010100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x15 (00010101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x16 (00010110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x17 (00010111) */
+    {4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x18 (00011000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x19 (00011001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1A (00011010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1B (00011011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1C (00011100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1D (00011101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1E (00011110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1F (00011111) */
+    {6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x20 (00100000) */
+    {1, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x21 (00100001) */
+    {2, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x22 (00100010) */
+    {1, 2, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x23 (00100011) */
+    {3, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x24 (00100100) */
+    {1, 3, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x25 (00100101) */
+    {2, 3, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x26 (00100110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x27 (00100111) */
+    {4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x28 (00101000) */
+    {1, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x29 (00101001) */
+    {2, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2A (00101010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2B (00101011) */
+    {3, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2C (00101100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2D (00101101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2E (00101110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2F (00101111) */
+    {5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x30 (00110000) */
+    {1, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x31 (00110001) */
+    {2, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x32 (00110010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x33 (00110011) */
+    {3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x34 (00110100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x35 (00110101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x36 (00110110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x37 (00110111) */
+    {4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x38 (00111000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x39 (00111001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3A (00111010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3B (00111011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3C (00111100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3D (00111101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3E (00111110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0}, /* 0x3F (00111111) */
+    {7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x40 (01000000) */
+    {1, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x41 (01000001) */
+    {2, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x42 (01000010) */
+    {1, 2, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x43 (01000011) */
+    {3, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x44 (01000100) */
+    {1, 3, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x45 (01000101) */
+    {2, 3, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x46 (01000110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x47 (01000111) */
+    {4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x48 (01001000) */
+    {1, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x49 (01001001) */
+    {2, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4A (01001010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4B (01001011) */
+    {3, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4C (01001100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4D (01001101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4E (01001110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4F (01001111) */
+    {5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x50 (01010000) */
+    {1, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x51 (01010001) */
+    {2, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x52 (01010010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x53 (01010011) */
+    {3, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x54 (01010100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x55 (01010101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x56 (01010110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x57 (01010111) */
+    {4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x58 (01011000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x59 (01011001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5A (01011010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5B (01011011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5C (01011100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5D (01011101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5E (01011110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x5F (01011111) */
+    {6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x60 (01100000) */
+    {1, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x61 (01100001) */
+    {2, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x62 (01100010) */
+    {1, 2, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x63 (01100011) */
+    {3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x64 (01100100) */
+    {1, 3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x65 (01100101) */
+    {2, 3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x66 (01100110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x67 (01100111) */
+    {4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x68 (01101000) */
+    {1, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x69 (01101001) */
+    {2, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6A (01101010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6B (01101011) */
+    {3, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6C (01101100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6D (01101101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6E (01101110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x6F (01101111) */
+    {5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x70 (01110000) */
+    {1, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x71 (01110001) */
+    {2, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x72 (01110010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x73 (01110011) */
+    {3, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x74 (01110100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x75 (01110101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x76 (01110110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x77 (01110111) */
+    {4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x78 (01111000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x79 (01111001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x7A (01111010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x7B (01111011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x7C (01111100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x7D (01111101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x7E (01111110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0}, /* 0x7F (01111111) */
+    {8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x80 (10000000) */
+    {1, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x81 (10000001) */
+    {2, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x82 (10000010) */
+    {1, 2, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x83 (10000011) */
+    {3, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x84 (10000100) */
+    {1, 3, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x85 (10000101) */
+    {2, 3, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x86 (10000110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x87 (10000111) */
+    {4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x88 (10001000) */
+    {1, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x89 (10001001) */
+    {2, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8A (10001010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8B (10001011) */
+    {3, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8C (10001100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8D (10001101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8E (10001110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8F (10001111) */
+    {5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x90 (10010000) */
+    {1, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x91 (10010001) */
+    {2, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x92 (10010010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x93 (10010011) */
+    {3, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x94 (10010100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x95 (10010101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x96 (10010110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x97 (10010111) */
+    {4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x98 (10011000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x99 (10011001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9A (10011010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9B (10011011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9C (10011100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9D (10011101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9E (10011110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0x9F (10011111) */
+    {6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA0 (10100000) */
+    {1, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA1 (10100001) */
+    {2, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA2 (10100010) */
+    {1, 2, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA3 (10100011) */
+    {3, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA4 (10100100) */
+    {1, 3, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA5 (10100101) */
+    {2, 3, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA6 (10100110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA7 (10100111) */
+    {4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA8 (10101000) */
+    {1, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA9 (10101001) */
+    {2, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAA (10101010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAB (10101011) */
+    {3, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAC (10101100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAD (10101101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAE (10101110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xAF (10101111) */
+    {5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB0 (10110000) */
+    {1, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB1 (10110001) */
+    {2, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB2 (10110010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB3 (10110011) */
+    {3, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB4 (10110100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB5 (10110101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB6 (10110110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xB7 (10110111) */
+    {4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB8 (10111000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB9 (10111001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xBA (10111010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xBB (10111011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xBC (10111100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xBD (10111101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xBE (10111110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0}, /* 0xBF (10111111) */
+    {7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC0 (11000000) */
+    {1, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC1 (11000001) */
+    {2, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC2 (11000010) */
+    {1, 2, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC3 (11000011) */
+    {3, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC4 (11000100) */
+    {1, 3, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC5 (11000101) */
+    {2, 3, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC6 (11000110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC7 (11000111) */
+    {4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC8 (11001000) */
+    {1, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC9 (11001001) */
+    {2, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCA (11001010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCB (11001011) */
+    {3, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCC (11001100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCD (11001101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCE (11001110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xCF (11001111) */
+    {5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD0 (11010000) */
+    {1, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD1 (11010001) */
+    {2, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD2 (11010010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD3 (11010011) */
+    {3, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD4 (11010100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD5 (11010101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD6 (11010110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xD7 (11010111) */
+    {4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD8 (11011000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD9 (11011001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xDA (11011010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xDB (11011011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xDC (11011100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xDD (11011101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xDE (11011110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xDF (11011111) */
+    {6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE0 (11100000) */
+    {1, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE1 (11100001) */
+    {2, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE2 (11100010) */
+    {1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE3 (11100011) */
+    {3, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE4 (11100100) */
+    {1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE5 (11100101) */
+    {2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE6 (11100110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xE7 (11100111) */
+    {4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE8 (11101000) */
+    {1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE9 (11101001) */
+    {2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xEA (11101010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xEB (11101011) */
+    {3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xEC (11101100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xED (11101101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xEE (11101110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xEF (11101111) */
+    {5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF0 (11110000) */
+    {1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF1 (11110001) */
+    {2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF2 (11110010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xF3 (11110011) */
+    {3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF4 (11110100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xF5 (11110101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xF6 (11110110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xF7 (11110111) */
+    {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF8 (11111000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xF9 (11111001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xFA (11111010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xFB (11111011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xFC (11111100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xFD (11111101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xFE (11111110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}  /* 0xFF (11111111) */
+};
+
+#endif  // #ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+// same as vecDecodeTable but in 16 bits
+ALIGNED(32)
+static uint16_t vecDecodeTable_uint16[256][8] = {
+    {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x00 (00000000) */
+    {1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x01 (00000001) */
+    {2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x02 (00000010) */
+    {1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x03 (00000011) */
+    {3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x04 (00000100) */
+    {1, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x05 (00000101) */
+    {2, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x06 (00000110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x07 (00000111) */
+    {4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x08 (00001000) */
+    {1, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x09 (00001001) */
+    {2, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0A (00001010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0B (00001011) */
+    {3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0C (00001100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0D (00001101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0E (00001110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x0F (00001111) */
+    {5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x10 (00010000) */
+    {1, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x11 (00010001) */
+    {2, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x12 (00010010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x13 (00010011) */
+    {3, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x14 (00010100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x15 (00010101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x16 (00010110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x17 (00010111) */
+    {4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x18 (00011000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x19 (00011001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1A (00011010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1B (00011011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1C (00011100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1D (00011101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1E (00011110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x1F (00011111) */
+    {6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x20 (00100000) */
+    {1, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x21 (00100001) */
+    {2, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x22 (00100010) */
+    {1, 2, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x23 (00100011) */
+    {3, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x24 (00100100) */
+    {1, 3, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x25 (00100101) */
+    {2, 3, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x26 (00100110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x27 (00100111) */
+    {4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x28 (00101000) */
+    {1, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x29 (00101001) */
+    {2, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2A (00101010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2B (00101011) */
+    {3, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2C (00101100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2D (00101101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2E (00101110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x2F (00101111) */
+    {5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x30 (00110000) */
+    {1, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x31 (00110001) */
+    {2, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x32 (00110010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x33 (00110011) */
+    {3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x34 (00110100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x35 (00110101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x36 (00110110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x37 (00110111) */
+    {4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x38 (00111000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x39 (00111001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3A (00111010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3B (00111011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3C (00111100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3D (00111101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x3E (00111110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 0, 0}, /* 0x3F (00111111) */
+    {7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x40 (01000000) */
+    {1, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x41 (01000001) */
+    {2, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x42 (01000010) */
+    {1, 2, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x43 (01000011) */
+    {3, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x44 (01000100) */
+    {1, 3, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x45 (01000101) */
+    {2, 3, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x46 (01000110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x47 (01000111) */
+    {4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x48 (01001000) */
+    {1, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x49 (01001001) */
+    {2, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4A (01001010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4B (01001011) */
+    {3, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4C (01001100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4D (01001101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4E (01001110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x4F (01001111) */
+    {5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x50 (01010000) */
+    {1, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x51 (01010001) */
+    {2, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x52 (01010010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x53 (01010011) */
+    {3, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x54 (01010100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x55 (01010101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x56 (01010110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x57 (01010111) */
+    {4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x58 (01011000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x59 (01011001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5A (01011010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5B (01011011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5C (01011100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5D (01011101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x5E (01011110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x5F (01011111) */
+    {6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x60 (01100000) */
+    {1, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x61 (01100001) */
+    {2, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x62 (01100010) */
+    {1, 2, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x63 (01100011) */
+    {3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x64 (01100100) */
+    {1, 3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x65 (01100101) */
+    {2, 3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x66 (01100110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x67 (01100111) */
+    {4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x68 (01101000) */
+    {1, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x69 (01101001) */
+    {2, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6A (01101010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6B (01101011) */
+    {3, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6C (01101100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6D (01101101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x6E (01101110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x6F (01101111) */
+    {5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x70 (01110000) */
+    {1, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x71 (01110001) */
+    {2, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x72 (01110010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x73 (01110011) */
+    {3, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x74 (01110100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x75 (01110101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x76 (01110110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x77 (01110111) */
+    {4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x78 (01111000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x79 (01111001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x7A (01111010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x7B (01111011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x7C (01111100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x7D (01111101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 0}, /* 0x7E (01111110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0}, /* 0x7F (01111111) */
+    {8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x80 (10000000) */
+    {1, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x81 (10000001) */
+    {2, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x82 (10000010) */
+    {1, 2, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x83 (10000011) */
+    {3, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x84 (10000100) */
+    {1, 3, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x85 (10000101) */
+    {2, 3, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x86 (10000110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x87 (10000111) */
+    {4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x88 (10001000) */
+    {1, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x89 (10001001) */
+    {2, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8A (10001010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8B (10001011) */
+    {3, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8C (10001100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8D (10001101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8E (10001110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x8F (10001111) */
+    {5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x90 (10010000) */
+    {1, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x91 (10010001) */
+    {2, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x92 (10010010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x93 (10010011) */
+    {3, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x94 (10010100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x95 (10010101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x96 (10010110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x97 (10010111) */
+    {4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x98 (10011000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x99 (10011001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9A (10011010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9B (10011011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9C (10011100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9D (10011101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0x9E (10011110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0x9F (10011111) */
+    {6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA0 (10100000) */
+    {1, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA1 (10100001) */
+    {2, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA2 (10100010) */
+    {1, 2, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA3 (10100011) */
+    {3, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA4 (10100100) */
+    {1, 3, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA5 (10100101) */
+    {2, 3, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA6 (10100110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA7 (10100111) */
+    {4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA8 (10101000) */
+    {1, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xA9 (10101001) */
+    {2, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAA (10101010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAB (10101011) */
+    {3, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAC (10101100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAD (10101101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xAE (10101110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xAF (10101111) */
+    {5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB0 (10110000) */
+    {1, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB1 (10110001) */
+    {2, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB2 (10110010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB3 (10110011) */
+    {3, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB4 (10110100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB5 (10110101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB6 (10110110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xB7 (10110111) */
+    {4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB8 (10111000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xB9 (10111001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xBA (10111010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xBB (10111011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xBC (10111100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xBD (10111101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xBE (10111110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 0}, /* 0xBF (10111111) */
+    {7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC0 (11000000) */
+    {1, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC1 (11000001) */
+    {2, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC2 (11000010) */
+    {1, 2, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC3 (11000011) */
+    {3, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC4 (11000100) */
+    {1, 3, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC5 (11000101) */
+    {2, 3, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC6 (11000110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC7 (11000111) */
+    {4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC8 (11001000) */
+    {1, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xC9 (11001001) */
+    {2, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCA (11001010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCB (11001011) */
+    {3, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCC (11001100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCD (11001101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xCE (11001110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xCF (11001111) */
+    {5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD0 (11010000) */
+    {1, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD1 (11010001) */
+    {2, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD2 (11010010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD3 (11010011) */
+    {3, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD4 (11010100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD5 (11010101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD6 (11010110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xD7 (11010111) */
+    {4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD8 (11011000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xD9 (11011001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xDA (11011010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xDB (11011011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xDC (11011100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xDD (11011101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xDE (11011110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xDF (11011111) */
+    {6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE0 (11100000) */
+    {1, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE1 (11100001) */
+    {2, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE2 (11100010) */
+    {1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE3 (11100011) */
+    {3, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE4 (11100100) */
+    {1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE5 (11100101) */
+    {2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE6 (11100110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xE7 (11100111) */
+    {4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE8 (11101000) */
+    {1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xE9 (11101001) */
+    {2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xEA (11101010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xEB (11101011) */
+    {3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xEC (11101100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xED (11101101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xEE (11101110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xEF (11101111) */
+    {5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF0 (11110000) */
+    {1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF1 (11110001) */
+    {2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF2 (11110010) */
+    {1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xF3 (11110011) */
+    {3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF4 (11110100) */
+    {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xF5 (11110101) */
+    {2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xF6 (11110110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xF7 (11110111) */
+    {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0, 0}, /* 0xF8 (11111000) */
+    {1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xF9 (11111001) */
+    {2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xFA (11111010) */
+    {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xFB (11111011) */
+    {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0, 0}, /* 0xFC (11111100) */
+    {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xFD (11111101) */
+    {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 0}, /* 0xFE (11111110) */
+    {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}  /* 0xFF (11111111) */
+};
+
+#endif
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+size_t bitset_extract_setbits_avx2(const uint64_t *words, size_t length,
+                                   uint32_t *out, size_t outcapacity,
+                                   uint32_t base) {
+    uint32_t *initout = out;
+    __m256i baseVec = _mm256_set1_epi32(base - 1);
+    __m256i incVec = _mm256_set1_epi32(64);
+    __m256i add8 = _mm256_set1_epi32(8);
+    uint32_t *safeout = out + outcapacity;
+    size_t i = 0;
+    for (; (i < length) && (out + 64 <= safeout); ++i) {
+        uint64_t w = words[i];
+        if (w == 0) {
+            baseVec = _mm256_add_epi32(baseVec, incVec);
+        } else {
+            for (int k = 0; k < 4; ++k) {
+                uint8_t byteA = (uint8_t)w;
+                uint8_t byteB = (uint8_t)(w >> 8);
+                w >>= 16;
+                __m256i vecA =
+                    _mm256_load_si256((const __m256i *)vecDecodeTable[byteA]);
+                __m256i vecB =
+                    _mm256_load_si256((const __m256i *)vecDecodeTable[byteB]);
+                uint8_t advanceA = lengthTable[byteA];
+                uint8_t advanceB = lengthTable[byteB];
+                vecA = _mm256_add_epi32(baseVec, vecA);
+                baseVec = _mm256_add_epi32(baseVec, add8);
+                vecB = _mm256_add_epi32(baseVec, vecB);
+                baseVec = _mm256_add_epi32(baseVec, add8);
+                _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)out, vecA);
+                out += advanceA;
+                _mm256_storeu_si256((__m256i *)out, vecB);
+                out += advanceB;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    base += i * 64;
+    for (; (i < length) && (out < safeout); ++i) {
+        uint64_t w = words[i];
+        while ((w != 0) && (out < safeout)) {
+            uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1); // on x64, should compile to BLSI (careful: the Intel compiler seems to fail)
+            int r = __builtin_ctzll(w); // on x64, should compile to TZCNT
+            uint32_t val = r + base;
+            memcpy(out, &val,
+                   sizeof(uint32_t));  // should be compiled as a MOV on x64
+            out++;
+            w ^= t;
+        }
+        base += 64;
+    }
+    return out - initout;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+#endif  // CROARING_IS_X64
+
+size_t bitset_extract_setbits(const uint64_t *words, size_t length,
+                              uint32_t *out, uint32_t base) {
+    int outpos = 0;
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+        uint64_t w = words[i];
+        while (w != 0) {
+            uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1); // on x64, should compile to BLSI (careful: the Intel compiler seems to fail)
+            int r = __builtin_ctzll(w); // on x64, should compile to TZCNT
+            uint32_t val = r + base;
+            memcpy(out + outpos, &val,
+                   sizeof(uint32_t));  // should be compiled as a MOV on x64
+            outpos++;
+            w ^= t;
+        }
+        base += 64;
+    }
+    return outpos;
+}
+
+size_t bitset_extract_intersection_setbits_uint16(const uint64_t * __restrict__ words1,
+                                                  const uint64_t * __restrict__ words2,
+                                                  size_t length, uint16_t *out,
+                                                  uint16_t base) {
+    int outpos = 0;
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+        uint64_t w = words1[i] & words2[i];
+        while (w != 0) {
+            uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+            int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
+            out[outpos++] = r + base;
+            w ^= t;
+        }
+        base += 64;
+    }
+    return outpos;
+}
+
+#ifdef CROARING_IS_X64
+/*
+ * Given a bitset containing "length" 64-bit words, write out the position
+ * of all the set bits to "out" as 16-bit integers, values start at "base" (can
+ *be set to zero).
+ *
+ * The "out" pointer should be sufficient to store the actual number of bits
+ *set.
+ *
+ * Returns how many values were actually decoded.
+ *
+ * This function uses SSE decoding.
+ */
+CROARING_TARGET_AVX2
+size_t bitset_extract_setbits_sse_uint16(const uint64_t *words, size_t length,
+                                         uint16_t *out, size_t outcapacity,
+                                         uint16_t base) {
+    uint16_t *initout = out;
+    __m128i baseVec = _mm_set1_epi16(base - 1);
+    __m128i incVec = _mm_set1_epi16(64);
+    __m128i add8 = _mm_set1_epi16(8);
+    uint16_t *safeout = out + outcapacity;
+    const int numberofbytes = 2;  // process two bytes at a time
+    size_t i = 0;
+    for (; (i < length) && (out + numberofbytes * 8 <= safeout); ++i) {
+        uint64_t w = words[i];
+        if (w == 0) {
+            baseVec = _mm_add_epi16(baseVec, incVec);
+        } else {
+            for (int k = 0; k < 4; ++k) {
+                uint8_t byteA = (uint8_t)w;
+                uint8_t byteB = (uint8_t)(w >> 8);
+                w >>= 16;
+                __m128i vecA = _mm_load_si128(
+                    (const __m128i *)vecDecodeTable_uint16[byteA]);
+                __m128i vecB = _mm_load_si128(
+                    (const __m128i *)vecDecodeTable_uint16[byteB]);
+                uint8_t advanceA = lengthTable[byteA];
+                uint8_t advanceB = lengthTable[byteB];
+                vecA = _mm_add_epi16(baseVec, vecA);
+                baseVec = _mm_add_epi16(baseVec, add8);
+                vecB = _mm_add_epi16(baseVec, vecB);
+                baseVec = _mm_add_epi16(baseVec, add8);
+                _mm_storeu_si128((__m128i *)out, vecA);
+                out += advanceA;
+                _mm_storeu_si128((__m128i *)out, vecB);
+                out += advanceB;
+            }
+        }
+    }
+    base += (uint16_t)(i * 64);
+    for (; (i < length) && (out < safeout); ++i) {
+        uint64_t w = words[i];
+        while ((w != 0) && (out < safeout)) {
+            uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+            int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
+            *out = r + base;
+            out++;
+            w ^= t;
+        }
+        base += 64;
+    }
+    return out - initout;
+}
+CROARING_UNTARGET_REGION
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * Given a bitset containing "length" 64-bit words, write out the position
+ * of all the set bits to "out", values start at "base" (can be set to zero).
+ *
+ * The "out" pointer should be sufficient to store the actual number of bits
+ *set.
+ *
+ * Returns how many values were actually decoded.
+ */
+size_t bitset_extract_setbits_uint16(const uint64_t *words, size_t length,
+                                     uint16_t *out, uint16_t base) {
+    int outpos = 0;
+    for (size_t i = 0; i < length; ++i) {
+        uint64_t w = words[i];
+        while (w != 0) {
+            uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
+            int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
+            out[outpos++] = r + base;
+            w ^= t;
+        }
+        base += 64;
+    }
+    return outpos;
+}
+
+#if defined(CROARING_ASMBITMANIPOPTIMIZATION) && defined(CROARING_IS_X64)
+
+static inline uint64_t _asm_bitset_set_list_withcard(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card,
+                                  const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, pos;
+    uint64_t shift = 6;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    if (!length) return card;
+    // TODO: could unroll for performance, see bitset_set_list
+    // bts is not available as an intrinsic in GCC
+    __asm volatile(
+        "1:\n"
+        "movzwq (%[list]), %[pos]\n"
+        "shrx %[shift], %[pos], %[offset]\n"
+        "mov (%[words],%[offset],8), %[load]\n"
+        "bts %[pos], %[load]\n"
+        "mov %[load], (%[words],%[offset],8)\n"
+        "sbb $-1, %[card]\n"
+        "add $2, %[list]\n"
+        "cmp %[list], %[end]\n"
+        "jnz 1b"
+        : [card] "+&r"(card), [list] "+&r"(list), [load] "=&r"(load),
+          [pos] "=&r"(pos), [offset] "=&r"(offset)
+        : [end] "r"(end), [words] "r"(words), [shift] "r"(shift));
+    return card;
+}
+
+static inline void _asm_bitset_set_list(uint64_t *words, const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t pos;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+
+    uint64_t shift = 6;
+    uint64_t offset;
+    uint64_t load;
+    for (; list + 3 < end; list += 4) {
+        pos = list[0];
+        __asm volatile(
+            "shrx %[shift], %[pos], %[offset]\n"
+            "mov (%[words],%[offset],8), %[load]\n"
+            "bts %[pos], %[load]\n"
+            "mov %[load], (%[words],%[offset],8)"
+            : [load] "=&r"(load), [offset] "=&r"(offset)
+            : [words] "r"(words), [shift] "r"(shift), [pos] "r"(pos));
+        pos = list[1];
+        __asm volatile(
+            "shrx %[shift], %[pos], %[offset]\n"
+            "mov (%[words],%[offset],8), %[load]\n"
+            "bts %[pos], %[load]\n"
+            "mov %[load], (%[words],%[offset],8)"
+            : [load] "=&r"(load), [offset] "=&r"(offset)
+            : [words] "r"(words), [shift] "r"(shift), [pos] "r"(pos));
+        pos = list[2];
+        __asm volatile(
+            "shrx %[shift], %[pos], %[offset]\n"
+            "mov (%[words],%[offset],8), %[load]\n"
+            "bts %[pos], %[load]\n"
+            "mov %[load], (%[words],%[offset],8)"
+            : [load] "=&r"(load), [offset] "=&r"(offset)
+            : [words] "r"(words), [shift] "r"(shift), [pos] "r"(pos));
+        pos = list[3];
+        __asm volatile(
+            "shrx %[shift], %[pos], %[offset]\n"
+            "mov (%[words],%[offset],8), %[load]\n"
+            "bts %[pos], %[load]\n"
+            "mov %[load], (%[words],%[offset],8)"
+            : [load] "=&r"(load), [offset] "=&r"(offset)
+            : [words] "r"(words), [shift] "r"(shift), [pos] "r"(pos));
+    }
+
+    while (list != end) {
+        pos = list[0];
+        __asm volatile(
+            "shrx %[shift], %[pos], %[offset]\n"
+            "mov (%[words],%[offset],8), %[load]\n"
+            "bts %[pos], %[load]\n"
+            "mov %[load], (%[words],%[offset],8)"
+            : [load] "=&r"(load), [offset] "=&r"(offset)
+            : [words] "r"(words), [shift] "r"(shift), [pos] "r"(pos));
+        list++;
+    }
+}
+
+static inline uint64_t _asm_bitset_clear_list(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card, const uint16_t *list,
+                           uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, pos;
+    uint64_t shift = 6;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    if (!length) return card;
+    // btr is not available as an intrinsic in GCC
+    __asm volatile(
+        "1:\n"
+        "movzwq (%[list]), %[pos]\n"
+        "shrx %[shift], %[pos], %[offset]\n"
+        "mov (%[words],%[offset],8), %[load]\n"
+        "btr %[pos], %[load]\n"
+        "mov %[load], (%[words],%[offset],8)\n"
+        "sbb $0, %[card]\n"
+        "add $2, %[list]\n"
+        "cmp %[list], %[end]\n"
+        "jnz 1b"
+        : [card] "+&r"(card), [list] "+&r"(list), [load] "=&r"(load),
+          [pos] "=&r"(pos), [offset] "=&r"(offset)
+        : [end] "r"(end), [words] "r"(words), [shift] "r"(shift)
+        :
+        /* clobbers */ "memory");
+    return card;
+}
+
+static inline uint64_t _scalar_bitset_clear_list(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card, const uint16_t *list,
+                           uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, newload, pos, index;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    while (list != end) {
+        pos = *(const uint16_t *)list;
+        offset = pos >> 6;
+        index = pos % 64;
+        load = words[offset];
+        newload = load & ~(UINT64_C(1) << index);
+        card -= (load ^ newload) >> index;
+        words[offset] = newload;
+        list++;
+    }
+    return card;
+}
+
+static inline uint64_t _scalar_bitset_set_list_withcard(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card,
+                                  const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, newload, pos, index;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    while (list != end) {
+        pos = *list;
+        offset = pos >> 6;
+        index = pos % 64;
+        load = words[offset];
+        newload = load | (UINT64_C(1) << index);
+        card += (load ^ newload) >> index;
+        words[offset] = newload;
+        list++;
+    }
+    return card;
+}
+
+static inline void _scalar_bitset_set_list(uint64_t *words, const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, newload, pos, index;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    while (list != end) {
+        pos = *list;
+        offset = pos >> 6;
+        index = pos % 64;
+        load = words[offset];
+        newload = load | (UINT64_C(1) << index);
+        words[offset] = newload;
+        list++;
+    }
+}
+
+uint64_t bitset_clear_list(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card, const uint16_t *list,
+                           uint64_t length) {
+    if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+        return _asm_bitset_clear_list(words, card, list, length);
+    } else {
+        return _scalar_bitset_clear_list(words, card, list, length);
+    }
+}
+
+uint64_t bitset_set_list_withcard(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card,
+                                  const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+        return _asm_bitset_set_list_withcard(words, card, list, length);
+    } else {
+        return _scalar_bitset_set_list_withcard(words, card, list, length);
+    }
+}
+
+void bitset_set_list(uint64_t *words, const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    if( croaring_avx2() ) {
+        _asm_bitset_set_list(words, list, length);
+    } else {
+        _scalar_bitset_set_list(words, list, length);
+    }
+}
+#else
+uint64_t bitset_clear_list(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card, const uint16_t *list,
+                           uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, newload, pos, index;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    while (list != end) {
+        pos = *(const uint16_t *)list;
+        offset = pos >> 6;
+        index = pos % 64;
+        load = words[offset];
+        newload = load & ~(UINT64_C(1) << index);
+        card -= (load ^ newload) >> index;
+        words[offset] = newload;
+        list++;
+    }
+    return card;
+}
+
+uint64_t bitset_set_list_withcard(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card,
+                                  const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, newload, pos, index;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    while (list != end) {
+        pos = *list;
+        offset = pos >> 6;
+        index = pos % 64;
+        load = words[offset];
+        newload = load | (UINT64_C(1) << index);
+        card += (load ^ newload) >> index;
+        words[offset] = newload;
+        list++;
+    }
+    return card;
+}
+
+void bitset_set_list(uint64_t *words, const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, newload, pos, index;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    while (list != end) {
+        pos = *list;
+        offset = pos >> 6;
+        index = pos % 64;
+        load = words[offset];
+        newload = load | (UINT64_C(1) << index);
+        words[offset] = newload;
+        list++;
+    }
+}
+
+#endif
+
+/* flip specified bits */
+/* TODO: consider whether worthwhile to make an asm version */
+
+uint64_t bitset_flip_list_withcard(uint64_t *words, uint64_t card,
+                                   const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, newload, pos, index;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    while (list != end) {
+        pos = *list;
+        offset = pos >> 6;
+        index = pos % 64;
+        load = words[offset];
+        newload = load ^ (UINT64_C(1) << index);
+        // todo: is a branch here all that bad?
+        card +=
+            (1 - 2 * (((UINT64_C(1) << index) & load) >> index));  // +1 or -1
+        words[offset] = newload;
+        list++;
+    }
+    return card;
+}
+
+void bitset_flip_list(uint64_t *words, const uint16_t *list, uint64_t length) {
+    uint64_t offset, load, newload, pos, index;
+    const uint16_t *end = list + length;
+    while (list != end) {
+        pos = *list;
+        offset = pos >> 6;
+        index = pos % 64;
+        load = words[offset];
+        newload = load ^ (UINT64_C(1) << index);
+        words[offset] = newload;
+        list++;
+    }
+}
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
+#endif
+/* end file src/bitset_util.c */
diff --git a/roaring/roaring.h b/roaring/roaring.h
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..bd5e0a0fe1c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/roaring/roaring.h
@@ -0,0 +1,1011 @@
+/*
+ * The CRoaring project is under a dual license (Apache/MIT).
+ * Users of the library may choose one or the other license.
+ */
+/*
+ * MIT License
+ *
+ * Copyright 2016-2022 The CRoaring authors
+ *
+ * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any
+ * person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
+ * documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the
+ * Software without restriction, including without
+ * limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge,
+ * publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of
+ * the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software
+ * is furnished to do so, subject to the following
+ * conditions:
+ *
+ * The above copyright notice and this permission notice
+ * shall be included in all copies or substantial portions
+ * of the Software.
+ *
+ * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
+ * ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
+ * TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
+ * PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT
+ * SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
+ * CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
+ * OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR
+ * IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
+ * DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE
+ *
+ * SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
+ */
+
+/* begin file include/roaring/roaring_version.h */
+// /include/roaring/roaring_version.h automatically generated by release.py, do not change by hand
+#ifndef ROARING_INCLUDE_ROARING_VERSION
+#define ROARING_INCLUDE_ROARING_VERSION
+#define ROARING_VERSION "0.6.0"
+enum {
+    ROARING_VERSION_MAJOR = 0,
+    ROARING_VERSION_MINOR = 6,
+    ROARING_VERSION_REVISION = 0
+};
+#endif // ROARING_INCLUDE_ROARING_VERSION
+/* end file include/roaring/roaring_version.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/roaring_types.h */
+/*
+  Typedefs used by various components
+*/
+
+#ifndef ROARING_TYPES_H
+#define ROARING_TYPES_H
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+
+/**
+ * When building .c files as C++, there's added compile-time checking if the
+ * container types are derived from a `container_t` base class.  So long as
+ * such a base class is empty, the struct will behave compatibly with C structs
+ * despite the derivation.  This is due to the Empty Base Class Optimization:
+ *
+ * https://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/language/ebo
+ *
+ * But since C isn't namespaced, taking `container_t` globally might collide
+ * with other projects.  So roaring.h uses ROARING_CONTAINER_T, while internal
+ * code #undefs that after declaring `typedef ROARING_CONTAINER_T container_t;`
+ */
+#if defined(__cplusplus)
+    extern "C++" {
+      struct container_s {};
+    }
+    #define ROARING_CONTAINER_T ::roaring::api::container_s
+#else
+    #define ROARING_CONTAINER_T void  // no compile-time checking
+#endif
+
+#define ROARING_FLAG_COW UINT8_C(0x1)
+#define ROARING_FLAG_FROZEN UINT8_C(0x2)
+
+/**
+ * Roaring arrays are array-based key-value pairs having containers as values
+ * and 16-bit integer keys. A roaring bitmap  might be implemented as such.
+ */
+
+// parallel arrays.  Element sizes quite different.
+// Alternative is array
+// of structs.  Which would have better
+// cache performance through binary searches?
+
+typedef struct roaring_array_s {
+    int32_t size;
+    int32_t allocation_size;
+    ROARING_CONTAINER_T **containers;  // Use container_t in non-API files!
+    uint16_t *keys;
+    uint8_t *typecodes;
+    uint8_t flags;
+} roaring_array_t;
+
+
+typedef bool (*roaring_iterator)(uint32_t value, void *param);
+typedef bool (*roaring_iterator64)(uint64_t value, void *param);
+
+/**
+*  (For advanced users.)
+* The roaring_statistics_t can be used to collect detailed statistics about
+* the composition of a roaring bitmap.
+*/
+typedef struct roaring_statistics_s {
+    uint32_t n_containers; /* number of containers */
+
+    uint32_t n_array_containers;  /* number of array containers */
+    uint32_t n_run_containers;    /* number of run containers */
+    uint32_t n_bitset_containers; /* number of bitmap containers */
+
+    uint32_t
+        n_values_array_containers;    /* number of values in array containers */
+    uint32_t n_values_run_containers; /* number of values in run containers */
+    uint32_t
+        n_values_bitset_containers; /* number of values in  bitmap containers */
+
+    uint32_t n_bytes_array_containers;  /* number of allocated bytes in array
+                                           containers */
+    uint32_t n_bytes_run_containers;    /* number of allocated bytes in run
+                                           containers */
+    uint32_t n_bytes_bitset_containers; /* number of allocated bytes in  bitmap
+                                           containers */
+
+    uint32_t
+        max_value; /* the maximal value, undefined if cardinality is zero */
+    uint32_t
+        min_value; /* the minimal value, undefined if cardinality is zero */
+    uint64_t sum_value; /* the sum of all values (could be used to compute
+                           average) */
+
+    uint64_t cardinality; /* total number of values stored in the bitmap */
+
+    // and n_values_arrays, n_values_rle, n_values_bitmap
+} roaring_statistics_t;
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* ROARING_TYPES_H */
+/* end file include/roaring/roaring_types.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/roaring.h */
+/*
+ * An implementation of Roaring Bitmaps in C.
+ */
+
+#ifndef ROARING_H
+#define ROARING_H
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stddef.h>  // for `size_t`
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+typedef struct roaring_bitmap_s {
+    roaring_array_t high_low_container;
+} roaring_bitmap_t;
+
+/**
+ * Dynamically allocates a new bitmap (initially empty).
+ * Returns NULL if the allocation fails.
+ * Capacity is a performance hint for how many "containers" the data will need.
+ * Client is responsible for calling `roaring_bitmap_free()`.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(uint32_t cap);
+
+/**
+ * Dynamically allocates a new bitmap (initially empty).
+ * Returns NULL if the allocation fails.
+ * Client is responsible for calling `roaring_bitmap_free()`.
+ */
+static inline roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_create(void)
+  { return roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(0); }
+
+/**
+ * Initialize a roaring bitmap structure in memory controlled by client.
+ * Capacity is a performance hint for how many "containers" the data will need.
+ * Can return false if auxiliary allocations fail when capacity greater than 0.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_init_with_capacity(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t cap);
+
+/**
+ * Initialize a roaring bitmap structure in memory controlled by client.
+ * The bitmap will be in a "clear" state, with no auxiliary allocations.
+ * Since this performs no allocations, the function will not fail.
+ */
+static inline void roaring_bitmap_init_cleared(roaring_bitmap_t *r)
+  { roaring_bitmap_init_with_capacity(r, 0); }
+
+/**
+ * Add all the values between min (included) and max (excluded) that are at a
+ * distance k*step from min.
+*/
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_from_range(uint64_t min, uint64_t max,
+                                            uint32_t step);
+
+/**
+ * Creates a new bitmap from a pointer of uint32_t integers
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_of_ptr(size_t n_args, const uint32_t *vals);
+
+/*
+ * Whether you want to use copy-on-write.
+ * Saves memory and avoids copies, but needs more care in a threaded context.
+ * Most users should ignore this flag.
+ *
+ * Note: If you do turn this flag to 'true', enabling COW, then ensure that you
+ * do so for all of your bitmaps, since interactions between bitmaps with and
+ * without COW is unsafe.
+ */
+static inline bool roaring_bitmap_get_copy_on_write(const roaring_bitmap_t* r) {
+    return r->high_low_container.flags & ROARING_FLAG_COW;
+}
+static inline void roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(roaring_bitmap_t* r,
+                                                    bool cow) {
+    if (cow) {
+        r->high_low_container.flags |= ROARING_FLAG_COW;
+    } else {
+        r->high_low_container.flags &= ~ROARING_FLAG_COW;
+    }
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_add_offset(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm,
+                                            int64_t offset);
+/**
+ * Describe the inner structure of the bitmap.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_printf_describe(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Creates a new bitmap from a list of uint32_t integers
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_of(size_t n, ...);
+
+/**
+ * Copies a bitmap (this does memory allocation).
+ * The caller is responsible for memory management.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_copy(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Copies a bitmap from src to dest. It is assumed that the pointer dest
+ * is to an already allocated bitmap. The content of the dest bitmap is
+ * freed/deleted.
+ *
+ * It might be preferable and simpler to call roaring_bitmap_copy except
+ * that roaring_bitmap_overwrite can save on memory allocations.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_overwrite(roaring_bitmap_t *dest,
+                              const roaring_bitmap_t *src);
+
+/**
+ * Print the content of the bitmap.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_printf(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the intersection between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap. The
+ * caller is responsible for memory management.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_and(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the size of the intersection between two bitmaps.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_and_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                        const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Check whether two bitmaps intersect.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_intersect(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                              const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Check whether a bitmap and a closed range intersect.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_intersect_with_range(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm,
+                                         uint64_t x, uint64_t y);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the Jaccard index between two bitmaps. (Also known as the Tanimoto
+ * distance, or the Jaccard similarity coefficient)
+ *
+ * The Jaccard index is undefined if both bitmaps are empty.
+ */
+double roaring_bitmap_jaccard_index(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                    const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the size of the union between two bitmaps.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_or_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                       const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the size of the difference (andnot) between two bitmaps.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_andnot_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                           const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the size of the symmetric difference (xor) between two bitmaps.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_xor_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                        const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Inplace version of `roaring_bitmap_and()`, modifies r1
+ * r1 == r2 is allowed
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_and_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the union between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap. The caller is
+ * responsible for memory management.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_or(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                    const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Inplace version of `roaring_bitmap_or(), modifies r1.
+ * TODO: decide whether r1 == r2 ok
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_or_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                               const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Compute the union of 'number' bitmaps.
+ * Caller is responsible for freeing the result.
+ * See also `roaring_bitmap_or_many_heap()`
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_or_many(size_t number,
+                                         const roaring_bitmap_t **rs);
+
+/**
+ * Compute the union of 'number' bitmaps using a heap. This can sometimes be
+ * faster than `roaring_bitmap_or_many() which uses a naive algorithm.
+ * Caller is responsible for freeing the result.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_or_many_heap(uint32_t number,
+                                              const roaring_bitmap_t **rs);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the symmetric difference (xor) between two bitmaps
+ * and returns new bitmap. The caller is responsible for memory management.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_xor(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Inplace version of roaring_bitmap_xor, modifies r1, r1 != r2.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_xor_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Compute the xor of 'number' bitmaps.
+ * Caller is responsible for freeing the result.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_xor_many(size_t number,
+                                          const roaring_bitmap_t **rs);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the difference (andnot) between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap.
+ * Caller is responsible for freeing the result.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_andnot(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                        const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Inplace version of roaring_bitmap_andnot, modifies r1, r1 != r2.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_andnot_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                   const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * TODO: consider implementing:
+ *
+ * "Compute the xor of 'number' bitmaps using a heap. This can sometimes be
+ *  faster than roaring_bitmap_xor_many which uses a naive algorithm. Caller is
+ *  responsible for freeing the result.""
+ *
+ * roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_xor_many_heap(uint32_t number,
+ *                                                const roaring_bitmap_t **rs);
+ */
+
+/**
+ * Frees the memory.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_free(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Add value n_args from pointer vals, faster than repeatedly calling
+ * `roaring_bitmap_add()`
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_add_many(roaring_bitmap_t *r, size_t n_args,
+                             const uint32_t *vals);
+
+/**
+ * Add value x
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_add(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Add value x
+ * Returns true if a new value was added, false if the value already existed.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_add_checked(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Add all values in range [min, max]
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_add_range_closed(roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                     uint32_t min, uint32_t max);
+
+/**
+ * Add all values in range [min, max)
+ */
+static inline void roaring_bitmap_add_range(roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                            uint64_t min, uint64_t max) {
+    if(max == min) return;
+    roaring_bitmap_add_range_closed(r, (uint32_t)min, (uint32_t)(max - 1));
+}
+
+/**
+ * Remove value x
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_remove(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Remove all values in range [min, max]
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_remove_range_closed(roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                        uint32_t min, uint32_t max);
+
+/**
+ * Remove all values in range [min, max)
+ */
+static inline void roaring_bitmap_remove_range(roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                               uint64_t min, uint64_t max) {
+    if(max == min) return;
+    roaring_bitmap_remove_range_closed(r, (uint32_t)min, (uint32_t)(max - 1));
+}
+
+/**
+ * Remove multiple values
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_remove_many(roaring_bitmap_t *r, size_t n_args,
+                                const uint32_t *vals);
+
+/**
+ * Remove value x
+ * Returns true if a new value was removed, false if the value was not existing.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_remove_checked(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Check if value is present
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_contains(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t val);
+
+/**
+ * Check whether a range of values from range_start (included)
+ * to range_end (excluded) is present
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_contains_range(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                   uint64_t range_start,
+                                   uint64_t range_end);
+
+/**
+ * Get the cardinality of the bitmap (number of elements).
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Returns the number of elements in the range [range_start, range_end).
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_range_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                          uint64_t range_start,
+                                          uint64_t range_end);
+
+/**
+* Returns true if the bitmap is empty (cardinality is zero).
+*/
+bool roaring_bitmap_is_empty(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+
+/**
+ * Empties the bitmap.  It will have no auxiliary allocations (so if the bitmap
+ * was initialized in client memory via roaring_bitmap_init(), then a call to
+ * roaring_bitmap_clear() would be enough to "free" it)
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_clear(roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Convert the bitmap to a sorted array, output in `ans`.
+ *
+ * Caller is responsible to ensure that there is enough memory allocated, e.g.
+ *
+ *     ans = malloc(roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(bitmap) * sizeof(uint32_t));
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_to_uint32_array(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t *ans);
+
+
+/**
+ * Convert the bitmap to a sorted array from `offset` by `limit`, output in `ans`.
+ *
+ * Caller is responsible to ensure that there is enough memory allocated, e.g.
+ *
+ *     ans = malloc(roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(limit) * sizeof(uint32_t));
+ *
+ * Return false in case of failure (e.g., insufficient memory)
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_range_uint32_array(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                       size_t offset, size_t limit,
+                                       uint32_t *ans);
+
+/**
+ * Remove run-length encoding even when it is more space efficient.
+ * Return whether a change was applied.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_remove_run_compression(roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Convert array and bitmap containers to run containers when it is more
+ * efficient; also convert from run containers when more space efficient.
+ *
+ * Returns true if the result has at least one run container.
+ * Additional savings might be possible by calling `shrinkToFit()`.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_run_optimize(roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * If needed, reallocate memory to shrink the memory usage.
+ * Returns the number of bytes saved.
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_shrink_to_fit(roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Write the bitmap to an output pointer, this output buffer should refer to
+ * at least `roaring_bitmap_size_in_bytes(r)` allocated bytes.
+ *
+ * See `roaring_bitmap_portable_serialize()` if you want a format that's
+ * compatible with Java and Go implementations.  This format can sometimes be
+ * more space efficient than the portable form, e.g. when the data is sparse.
+ *
+ * Returns how many bytes written, should be `roaring_bitmap_size_in_bytes(r)`.
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Use with `roaring_bitmap_serialize()`.
+ *
+ * (See `roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize()` if you want a format that's
+ * compatible with Java and Go implementations)
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_deserialize(const void *buf);
+
+/**
+ * How many bytes are required to serialize this bitmap (NOT compatible
+ * with Java and Go versions)
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Read bitmap from a serialized buffer.
+ * In case of failure, NULL is returned.
+ *
+ * This function is unsafe in the sense that if there is no valid serialized
+ * bitmap at the pointer, then many bytes could be read, possibly causing a
+ * buffer overflow.  See also roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe().
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize(const char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Read bitmap from a serialized buffer safely (reading up to maxbytes).
+ * In case of failure, NULL is returned.
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(const char *buf,
+                                                           size_t maxbytes);
+
+/**
+ * Check how many bytes would be read (up to maxbytes) at this pointer if there
+ * is a bitmap, returns zero if there is no valid bitmap.
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf,
+                                                size_t maxbytes);
+
+/**
+ * How many bytes are required to serialize this bitmap.
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Write a bitmap to a char buffer.  The output buffer should refer to at least
+ * `roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(r)` bytes of allocated memory.
+ *
+ * Returns how many bytes were written which should match
+ * `roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(r)`.
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, char *buf);
+
+/*
+ * "Frozen" serialization format imitates memory layout of roaring_bitmap_t.
+ * Deserialized bitmap is a constant view of the underlying buffer.
+ * This significantly reduces amount of allocations and copying required during
+ * deserialization.
+ * It can be used with memory mapped files.
+ * Example can be found in benchmarks/frozen_benchmark.c
+ *
+ *         [#####] const roaring_bitmap_t *
+ *          | | |
+ *     +----+ | +-+
+ *     |      |   |
+ * [#####################################] underlying buffer
+ *
+ * Note that because frozen serialization format imitates C memory layout
+ * of roaring_bitmap_t, it is not fixed. It is different on big/little endian
+ * platforms and can be changed in future.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * Returns number of bytes required to serialize bitmap using frozen format.
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_frozen_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Serializes bitmap using frozen format.
+ * Buffer size must be at least roaring_bitmap_frozen_size_in_bytes().
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_frozen_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Creates constant bitmap that is a view of a given buffer.
+ * Buffer data should have been written by `roaring_bitmap_frozen_serialize()`
+ * Its beginning must also be aligned by 32 bytes.
+ * Length must be equal exactly to `roaring_bitmap_frozen_size_in_bytes()`.
+ * In case of failure, NULL is returned.
+ *
+ * Bitmap returned by this function can be used in all readonly contexts.
+ * Bitmap must be freed as usual, by calling roaring_bitmap_free().
+ * Underlying buffer must not be freed or modified while it backs any bitmaps.
+ */
+const roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_frozen_view(const char *buf,
+                                                   size_t length);
+
+/**
+ * Iterate over the bitmap elements. The function iterator is called once for
+ * all the values with ptr (can be NULL) as the second parameter of each call.
+ *
+ * `roaring_iterator` is simply a pointer to a function that returns bool
+ * (true means that the iteration should continue while false means that it
+ * should stop), and takes (uint32_t,void*) as inputs.
+ *
+ * Returns true if the roaring_iterator returned true throughout (so that all
+ * data points were necessarily visited).
+ *
+ * Iteration is ordered: from the smallest to the largest elements.
+ */
+bool roaring_iterate(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, roaring_iterator iterator,
+                     void *ptr);
+
+bool roaring_iterate64(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, roaring_iterator64 iterator,
+                       uint64_t high_bits, void *ptr);
+
+/**
+ * Return true if the two bitmaps contain the same elements.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_equals(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                           const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Return true if all the elements of r1 are also in r2.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_is_subset(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                              const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Return true if all the elements of r1 are also in r2, and r2 is strictly
+ * greater than r1.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_is_strict_subset(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * (For expert users who seek high performance.)
+ *
+ * Computes the union between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap. The caller is
+ * responsible for memory management.
+ *
+ * The lazy version defers some computations such as the maintenance of the
+ * cardinality counts. Thus you must call `roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy()`
+ * after executing "lazy" computations.
+ *
+ * It is safe to repeatedly call roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace on the result.
+ *
+ * `bitsetconversion` is a flag which determines whether container-container
+ * operations force a bitset conversion.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_lazy_or(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                         const roaring_bitmap_t *r2,
+                                         const bool bitsetconversion);
+
+/**
+ * (For expert users who seek high performance.)
+ *
+ * Inplace version of roaring_bitmap_lazy_or, modifies r1.
+ *
+ * `bitsetconversion` is a flag which determines whether container-container
+ * operations force a bitset conversion.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                    const roaring_bitmap_t *r2,
+                                    const bool bitsetconversion);
+
+/**
+ * (For expert users who seek high performance.)
+ *
+ * Execute maintenance on a bitmap created from `roaring_bitmap_lazy_or()`
+ * or modified with `roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace()`.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy(roaring_bitmap_t *r1);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the symmetric difference between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap.
+ * The caller is responsible for memory management.
+ *
+ * The lazy version defers some computations such as the maintenance of the
+ * cardinality counts. Thus you must call `roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy()`
+ * after executing "lazy" computations.
+ *
+ * It is safe to repeatedly call `roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor_inplace()` on
+ * the result.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                          const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * (For expert users who seek high performance.)
+ *
+ * Inplace version of roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor, modifies r1. r1 != r2
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Compute the negation of the bitmap in the interval [range_start, range_end).
+ * The number of negated values is range_end - range_start.
+ * Areas outside the range are passed through unchanged.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_flip(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                      uint64_t range_start, uint64_t range_end);
+
+/**
+ * compute (in place) the negation of the roaring bitmap within a specified
+ * interval: [range_start, range_end). The number of negated values is
+ * range_end - range_start.
+ * Areas outside the range are passed through unchanged.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_flip_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1, uint64_t range_start,
+                                 uint64_t range_end);
+
+/**
+ * Selects the element at index 'rank' where the smallest element is at index 0.
+ * If the size of the roaring bitmap is strictly greater than rank, then this
+ * function returns true and sets element to the element of given rank.
+ * Otherwise, it returns false.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_select(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t rank,
+                           uint32_t *element);
+
+/**
+ * roaring_bitmap_rank returns the number of integers that are smaller or equal
+ * to x. Thus if x is the first element, this function will return 1. If
+ * x is smaller than the smallest element, this function will return 0.
+ *
+ * The indexing convention differs between roaring_bitmap_select and
+ * roaring_bitmap_rank: roaring_bitmap_select refers to the smallest value
+ * as having index 0, whereas roaring_bitmap_rank returns 1 when ranking
+ * the smallest value.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_rank(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Returns the smallest value in the set, or UINT32_MAX if the set is empty.
+ */
+uint32_t roaring_bitmap_minimum(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Returns the greatest value in the set, or 0 if the set is empty.
+ */
+uint32_t roaring_bitmap_maximum(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * (For advanced users.)
+ *
+ * Collect statistics about the bitmap, see roaring_types.h for
+ * a description of roaring_statistics_t
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_statistics(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                               roaring_statistics_t *stat);
+
+/*********************
+* What follows is code use to iterate through values in a roaring bitmap
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *r =...
+roaring_uint32_iterator_t i;
+roaring_create_iterator(r, &i);
+while(i.has_value) {
+  printf("value = %d\n", i.current_value);
+  roaring_advance_uint32_iterator(&i);
+}
+
+Obviously, if you modify the underlying bitmap, the iterator
+becomes invalid. So don't.
+*/
+
+typedef struct roaring_uint32_iterator_s {
+    const roaring_bitmap_t *parent;  // owner
+    int32_t container_index;         // point to the current container index
+    int32_t in_container_index;  // for bitset and array container, this is out
+                                 // index
+    int32_t run_index;           // for run container, this points  at the run
+
+    uint32_t current_value;
+    bool has_value;
+
+    const ROARING_CONTAINER_T
+        *container;  // should be:
+                     // parent->high_low_container.containers[container_index];
+    uint8_t typecode;  // should be:
+                       // parent->high_low_container.typecodes[container_index];
+    uint32_t highbits;  // should be:
+                        // parent->high_low_container.keys[container_index]) <<
+                        // 16;
+
+} roaring_uint32_iterator_t;
+
+/**
+ * Initialize an iterator object that can be used to iterate through the
+ * values. If there is a  value, then this iterator points to the first value
+ * and `it->has_value` is true. The value is in `it->current_value`.
+ */
+void roaring_init_iterator(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                           roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit);
+
+/**
+ * Initialize an iterator object that can be used to iterate through the
+ * values. If there is a value, then this iterator points to the last value
+ * and `it->has_value` is true. The value is in `it->current_value`.
+ */
+void roaring_init_iterator_last(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit);
+
+/**
+ * Create an iterator object that can be used to iterate through the values.
+ * Caller is responsible for calling `roaring_free_iterator()`.
+ *
+ * The iterator is initialized (this function calls `roaring_init_iterator()`)
+ * If there is a value, then this iterator points to the first value and
+ * `it->has_value` is true.  The value is in `it->current_value`.
+ */
+roaring_uint32_iterator_t *roaring_create_iterator(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+* Advance the iterator. If there is a new value, then `it->has_value` is true.
+* The new value is in `it->current_value`. Values are traversed in increasing
+* orders. For convenience, returns `it->has_value`.
+*/
+bool roaring_advance_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it);
+
+/**
+* Decrement the iterator. If there's a new value, then `it->has_value` is true.
+* The new value is in `it->current_value`. Values are traversed in decreasing
+* order. For convenience, returns `it->has_value`.
+*/
+bool roaring_previous_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it);
+
+/**
+ * Move the iterator to the first value >= `val`. If there is a such a value,
+ * then `it->has_value` is true. The new value is in `it->current_value`.
+ * For convenience, returns `it->has_value`.
+ */
+bool roaring_move_uint32_iterator_equalorlarger(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it,
+                                                uint32_t val);
+
+/**
+ * Creates a copy of an iterator.
+ * Caller must free it.
+ */
+roaring_uint32_iterator_t *roaring_copy_uint32_iterator(
+    const roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it);
+
+/**
+ * Free memory following `roaring_create_iterator()`
+ */
+void roaring_free_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it);
+
+/*
+ * Reads next ${count} values from iterator into user-supplied ${buf}.
+ * Returns the number of read elements.
+ * This number can be smaller than ${count}, which means that iterator is drained.
+ *
+ * This function satisfies semantics of iteration and can be used together with
+ * other iterator functions.
+ *  - first value is copied from ${it}->current_value
+ *  - after function returns, iterator is positioned at the next element
+ */
+uint32_t roaring_read_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it,
+                                      uint32_t* buf, uint32_t count);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+#endif  /* ROARING_H */
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+    /**
+     * Best practices for C++ headers is to avoid polluting global scope.
+     * But for C compatibility when just `roaring.h` is included building as
+     * C++, default to global access for the C public API.
+     *
+     * BUT when `roaring.hh` is included instead, it sets this flag.  That way
+     * explicit namespacing must be used to get the C functions.
+     *
+     * This is outside the include guard so that if you include BOTH headers,
+     * the order won't matter; you still get the global definitions.
+     */
+    #if !defined(ROARING_API_NOT_IN_GLOBAL_NAMESPACE)
+        using namespace ::roaring::api;
+    #endif
+#endif
+
+/* end file include/roaring/roaring.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/memory.h */
+#ifndef INCLUDE_ROARING_MEMORY_H_
+#define INCLUDE_ROARING_MEMORY_H_
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+#endif
+
+#include <stddef.h>  // for size_t
+
+typedef void* (*roaring_malloc_p)(size_t);
+typedef void* (*roaring_realloc_p)(void*, size_t);
+typedef void* (*roaring_calloc_p)(size_t, size_t);
+typedef void (*roaring_free_p)(void*);
+typedef void* (*roaring_aligned_malloc_p)(size_t, size_t);
+typedef void (*roaring_aligned_free_p)(void*);
+
+typedef struct roaring_memory_s {
+    roaring_malloc_p malloc;
+    roaring_realloc_p realloc;
+    roaring_calloc_p calloc;
+    roaring_free_p free;
+    roaring_aligned_malloc_p aligned_malloc;
+    roaring_aligned_free_p aligned_free;
+} roaring_memory_t;
+
+void roaring_init_memory_hook(roaring_memory_t memory_hook);
+
+void* roaring_malloc(size_t);
+void* roaring_realloc(void*, size_t);
+void* roaring_calloc(size_t, size_t);
+void roaring_free(void*);
+void* roaring_aligned_malloc(size_t, size_t);
+void roaring_aligned_free(void*);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+}
+#endif
+
+#endif  // INCLUDE_ROARING_MEMORY_H_
+/* end file include/roaring/memory.h */
-- 
@@ -0,0 +1,1011 @@
+/*
+ * The CRoaring project is under a dual license (Apache/MIT).
+ * Users of the library may choose one or the other license.
+ */
+/*
+ * MIT License
+ *
+ * Copyright 2016-2022 The CRoaring authors
+ *
+ * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any
+ * person obtaining a copy of this software and associated
+ * documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the
+ * Software without restriction, including without
+ * limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge,
+ * publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of
+ * the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software
+ * is furnished to do so, subject to the following
+ * conditions:
+ *
+ * The above copyright notice and this permission notice
+ * shall be included in all copies or substantial portions
+ * of the Software.
+ *
+ * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
+ * ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
+ * TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
+ * PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT
+ * SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
+ * CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
+ * OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR
+ * IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
+ * DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE
+ *
+ * SPDX-License-Identifier: MIT
+ */
+
+/* begin file include/roaring/roaring_version.h */
+// /include/roaring/roaring_version.h automatically generated by release.py, do not change by hand
+#ifndef ROARING_INCLUDE_ROARING_VERSION
+#define ROARING_INCLUDE_ROARING_VERSION
+#define ROARING_VERSION "0.6.0"
+enum {
+    ROARING_VERSION_MAJOR = 0,
+    ROARING_VERSION_MINOR = 6,
+    ROARING_VERSION_REVISION = 0
+};
+#endif // ROARING_INCLUDE_ROARING_VERSION
+/* end file include/roaring/roaring_version.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/roaring_types.h */
+/*
+  Typedefs used by various components
+*/
+
+#ifndef ROARING_TYPES_H
+#define ROARING_TYPES_H
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+
+/**
+ * When building .c files as C++, there's added compile-time checking if the
+ * container types are derived from a `container_t` base class.  So long as
+ * such a base class is empty, the struct will behave compatibly with C structs
+ * despite the derivation.  This is due to the Empty Base Class Optimization:
+ *
+ * https://en.cppreference.com/w/cpp/language/ebo
+ *
+ * But since C isn't namespaced, taking `container_t` globally might collide
+ * with other projects.  So roaring.h uses ROARING_CONTAINER_T, while internal
+ * code #undefs that after declaring `typedef ROARING_CONTAINER_T container_t;`
+ */
+#if defined(__cplusplus)
+    extern "C++" {
+      struct container_s {};
+    }
+    #define ROARING_CONTAINER_T ::roaring::api::container_s
+#else
+    #define ROARING_CONTAINER_T void  // no compile-time checking
+#endif
+
+#define ROARING_FLAG_COW UINT8_C(0x1)
+#define ROARING_FLAG_FROZEN UINT8_C(0x2)
+
+/**
+ * Roaring arrays are array-based key-value pairs having containers as values
+ * and 16-bit integer keys. A roaring bitmap  might be implemented as such.
+ */
+
+// parallel arrays.  Element sizes quite different.
+// Alternative is array
+// of structs.  Which would have better
+// cache performance through binary searches?
+
+typedef struct roaring_array_s {
+    int32_t size;
+    int32_t allocation_size;
+    ROARING_CONTAINER_T **containers;  // Use container_t in non-API files!
+    uint16_t *keys;
+    uint8_t *typecodes;
+    uint8_t flags;
+} roaring_array_t;
+
+
+typedef bool (*roaring_iterator)(uint32_t value, void *param);
+typedef bool (*roaring_iterator64)(uint64_t value, void *param);
+
+/**
+*  (For advanced users.)
+* The roaring_statistics_t can be used to collect detailed statistics about
+* the composition of a roaring bitmap.
+*/
+typedef struct roaring_statistics_s {
+    uint32_t n_containers; /* number of containers */
+
+    uint32_t n_array_containers;  /* number of array containers */
+    uint32_t n_run_containers;    /* number of run containers */
+    uint32_t n_bitset_containers; /* number of bitmap containers */
+
+    uint32_t
+        n_values_array_containers;    /* number of values in array containers */
+    uint32_t n_values_run_containers; /* number of values in run containers */
+    uint32_t
+        n_values_bitset_containers; /* number of values in  bitmap containers */
+
+    uint32_t n_bytes_array_containers;  /* number of allocated bytes in array
+                                           containers */
+    uint32_t n_bytes_run_containers;    /* number of allocated bytes in run
+                                           containers */
+    uint32_t n_bytes_bitset_containers; /* number of allocated bytes in  bitmap
+                                           containers */
+
+    uint32_t
+        max_value; /* the maximal value, undefined if cardinality is zero */
+    uint32_t
+        min_value; /* the minimal value, undefined if cardinality is zero */
+    uint64_t sum_value; /* the sum of all values (could be used to compute
+                           average) */
+
+    uint64_t cardinality; /* total number of values stored in the bitmap */
+
+    // and n_values_arrays, n_values_rle, n_values_bitmap
+} roaring_statistics_t;
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+#endif /* ROARING_TYPES_H */
+/* end file include/roaring/roaring_types.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/roaring.h */
+/*
+ * An implementation of Roaring Bitmaps in C.
+ */
+
+#ifndef ROARING_H
+#define ROARING_H
+
+#include <stdbool.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <stddef.h>  // for `size_t`
+
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+typedef struct roaring_bitmap_s {
+    roaring_array_t high_low_container;
+} roaring_bitmap_t;
+
+/**
+ * Dynamically allocates a new bitmap (initially empty).
+ * Returns NULL if the allocation fails.
+ * Capacity is a performance hint for how many "containers" the data will need.
+ * Client is responsible for calling `roaring_bitmap_free()`.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(uint32_t cap);
+
+/**
+ * Dynamically allocates a new bitmap (initially empty).
+ * Returns NULL if the allocation fails.
+ * Client is responsible for calling `roaring_bitmap_free()`.
+ */
+static inline roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_create(void)
+  { return roaring_bitmap_create_with_capacity(0); }
+
+/**
+ * Initialize a roaring bitmap structure in memory controlled by client.
+ * Capacity is a performance hint for how many "containers" the data will need.
+ * Can return false if auxiliary allocations fail when capacity greater than 0.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_init_with_capacity(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t cap);
+
+/**
+ * Initialize a roaring bitmap structure in memory controlled by client.
+ * The bitmap will be in a "clear" state, with no auxiliary allocations.
+ * Since this performs no allocations, the function will not fail.
+ */
+static inline void roaring_bitmap_init_cleared(roaring_bitmap_t *r)
+  { roaring_bitmap_init_with_capacity(r, 0); }
+
+/**
+ * Add all the values between min (included) and max (excluded) that are at a
+ * distance k*step from min.
+*/
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_from_range(uint64_t min, uint64_t max,
+                                            uint32_t step);
+
+/**
+ * Creates a new bitmap from a pointer of uint32_t integers
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_of_ptr(size_t n_args, const uint32_t *vals);
+
+/*
+ * Whether you want to use copy-on-write.
+ * Saves memory and avoids copies, but needs more care in a threaded context.
+ * Most users should ignore this flag.
+ *
+ * Note: If you do turn this flag to 'true', enabling COW, then ensure that you
+ * do so for all of your bitmaps, since interactions between bitmaps with and
+ * without COW is unsafe.
+ */
+static inline bool roaring_bitmap_get_copy_on_write(const roaring_bitmap_t* r) {
+    return r->high_low_container.flags & ROARING_FLAG_COW;
+}
+static inline void roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(roaring_bitmap_t* r,
+                                                    bool cow) {
+    if (cow) {
+        r->high_low_container.flags |= ROARING_FLAG_COW;
+    } else {
+        r->high_low_container.flags &= ~ROARING_FLAG_COW;
+    }
+}
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_add_offset(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm,
+                                            int64_t offset);
+/**
+ * Describe the inner structure of the bitmap.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_printf_describe(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Creates a new bitmap from a list of uint32_t integers
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_of(size_t n, ...);
+
+/**
+ * Copies a bitmap (this does memory allocation).
+ * The caller is responsible for memory management.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_copy(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Copies a bitmap from src to dest. It is assumed that the pointer dest
+ * is to an already allocated bitmap. The content of the dest bitmap is
+ * freed/deleted.
+ *
+ * It might be preferable and simpler to call roaring_bitmap_copy except
+ * that roaring_bitmap_overwrite can save on memory allocations.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_overwrite(roaring_bitmap_t *dest,
+                              const roaring_bitmap_t *src);
+
+/**
+ * Print the content of the bitmap.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_printf(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the intersection between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap. The
+ * caller is responsible for memory management.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_and(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the size of the intersection between two bitmaps.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_and_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                        const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Check whether two bitmaps intersect.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_intersect(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                              const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Check whether a bitmap and a closed range intersect.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_intersect_with_range(const roaring_bitmap_t *bm,
+                                         uint64_t x, uint64_t y);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the Jaccard index between two bitmaps. (Also known as the Tanimoto
+ * distance, or the Jaccard similarity coefficient)
+ *
+ * The Jaccard index is undefined if both bitmaps are empty.
+ */
+double roaring_bitmap_jaccard_index(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                    const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the size of the union between two bitmaps.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_or_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                       const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the size of the difference (andnot) between two bitmaps.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_andnot_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                           const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the size of the symmetric difference (xor) between two bitmaps.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_xor_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                        const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Inplace version of `roaring_bitmap_and()`, modifies r1
+ * r1 == r2 is allowed
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_and_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the union between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap. The caller is
+ * responsible for memory management.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_or(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                    const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Inplace version of `roaring_bitmap_or(), modifies r1.
+ * TODO: decide whether r1 == r2 ok
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_or_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                               const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Compute the union of 'number' bitmaps.
+ * Caller is responsible for freeing the result.
+ * See also `roaring_bitmap_or_many_heap()`
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_or_many(size_t number,
+                                         const roaring_bitmap_t **rs);
+
+/**
+ * Compute the union of 'number' bitmaps using a heap. This can sometimes be
+ * faster than `roaring_bitmap_or_many() which uses a naive algorithm.
+ * Caller is responsible for freeing the result.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_or_many_heap(uint32_t number,
+                                              const roaring_bitmap_t **rs);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the symmetric difference (xor) between two bitmaps
+ * and returns new bitmap. The caller is responsible for memory management.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_xor(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Inplace version of roaring_bitmap_xor, modifies r1, r1 != r2.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_xor_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Compute the xor of 'number' bitmaps.
+ * Caller is responsible for freeing the result.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_xor_many(size_t number,
+                                          const roaring_bitmap_t **rs);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the difference (andnot) between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap.
+ * Caller is responsible for freeing the result.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_andnot(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                        const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Inplace version of roaring_bitmap_andnot, modifies r1, r1 != r2.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_andnot_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                   const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * TODO: consider implementing:
+ *
+ * "Compute the xor of 'number' bitmaps using a heap. This can sometimes be
+ *  faster than roaring_bitmap_xor_many which uses a naive algorithm. Caller is
+ *  responsible for freeing the result.""
+ *
+ * roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_xor_many_heap(uint32_t number,
+ *                                                const roaring_bitmap_t **rs);
+ */
+
+/**
+ * Frees the memory.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_free(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Add value n_args from pointer vals, faster than repeatedly calling
+ * `roaring_bitmap_add()`
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_add_many(roaring_bitmap_t *r, size_t n_args,
+                             const uint32_t *vals);
+
+/**
+ * Add value x
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_add(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Add value x
+ * Returns true if a new value was added, false if the value already existed.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_add_checked(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Add all values in range [min, max]
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_add_range_closed(roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                     uint32_t min, uint32_t max);
+
+/**
+ * Add all values in range [min, max)
+ */
+static inline void roaring_bitmap_add_range(roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                            uint64_t min, uint64_t max) {
+    if(max == min) return;
+    roaring_bitmap_add_range_closed(r, (uint32_t)min, (uint32_t)(max - 1));
+}
+
+/**
+ * Remove value x
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_remove(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Remove all values in range [min, max]
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_remove_range_closed(roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                        uint32_t min, uint32_t max);
+
+/**
+ * Remove all values in range [min, max)
+ */
+static inline void roaring_bitmap_remove_range(roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                               uint64_t min, uint64_t max) {
+    if(max == min) return;
+    roaring_bitmap_remove_range_closed(r, (uint32_t)min, (uint32_t)(max - 1));
+}
+
+/**
+ * Remove multiple values
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_remove_many(roaring_bitmap_t *r, size_t n_args,
+                                const uint32_t *vals);
+
+/**
+ * Remove value x
+ * Returns true if a new value was removed, false if the value was not existing.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_remove_checked(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Check if value is present
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_contains(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t val);
+
+/**
+ * Check whether a range of values from range_start (included)
+ * to range_end (excluded) is present
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_contains_range(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                   uint64_t range_start,
+                                   uint64_t range_end);
+
+/**
+ * Get the cardinality of the bitmap (number of elements).
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Returns the number of elements in the range [range_start, range_end).
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_range_cardinality(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                          uint64_t range_start,
+                                          uint64_t range_end);
+
+/**
+* Returns true if the bitmap is empty (cardinality is zero).
+*/
+bool roaring_bitmap_is_empty(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+
+/**
+ * Empties the bitmap.  It will have no auxiliary allocations (so if the bitmap
+ * was initialized in client memory via roaring_bitmap_init(), then a call to
+ * roaring_bitmap_clear() would be enough to "free" it)
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_clear(roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Convert the bitmap to a sorted array, output in `ans`.
+ *
+ * Caller is responsible to ensure that there is enough memory allocated, e.g.
+ *
+ *     ans = malloc(roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(bitmap) * sizeof(uint32_t));
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_to_uint32_array(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t *ans);
+
+
+/**
+ * Convert the bitmap to a sorted array from `offset` by `limit`, output in `ans`.
+ *
+ * Caller is responsible to ensure that there is enough memory allocated, e.g.
+ *
+ *     ans = malloc(roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(limit) * sizeof(uint32_t));
+ *
+ * Return false in case of failure (e.g., insufficient memory)
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_range_uint32_array(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                       size_t offset, size_t limit,
+                                       uint32_t *ans);
+
+/**
+ * Remove run-length encoding even when it is more space efficient.
+ * Return whether a change was applied.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_remove_run_compression(roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Convert array and bitmap containers to run containers when it is more
+ * efficient; also convert from run containers when more space efficient.
+ *
+ * Returns true if the result has at least one run container.
+ * Additional savings might be possible by calling `shrinkToFit()`.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_run_optimize(roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * If needed, reallocate memory to shrink the memory usage.
+ * Returns the number of bytes saved.
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_shrink_to_fit(roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Write the bitmap to an output pointer, this output buffer should refer to
+ * at least `roaring_bitmap_size_in_bytes(r)` allocated bytes.
+ *
+ * See `roaring_bitmap_portable_serialize()` if you want a format that's
+ * compatible with Java and Go implementations.  This format can sometimes be
+ * more space efficient than the portable form, e.g. when the data is sparse.
+ *
+ * Returns how many bytes written, should be `roaring_bitmap_size_in_bytes(r)`.
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Use with `roaring_bitmap_serialize()`.
+ *
+ * (See `roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize()` if you want a format that's
+ * compatible with Java and Go implementations)
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_deserialize(const void *buf);
+
+/**
+ * How many bytes are required to serialize this bitmap (NOT compatible
+ * with Java and Go versions)
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Read bitmap from a serialized buffer.
+ * In case of failure, NULL is returned.
+ *
+ * This function is unsafe in the sense that if there is no valid serialized
+ * bitmap at the pointer, then many bytes could be read, possibly causing a
+ * buffer overflow.  See also roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe().
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize(const char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Read bitmap from a serialized buffer safely (reading up to maxbytes).
+ * In case of failure, NULL is returned.
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(const char *buf,
+                                                           size_t maxbytes);
+
+/**
+ * Check how many bytes would be read (up to maxbytes) at this pointer if there
+ * is a bitmap, returns zero if there is no valid bitmap.
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf,
+                                                size_t maxbytes);
+
+/**
+ * How many bytes are required to serialize this bitmap.
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Write a bitmap to a char buffer.  The output buffer should refer to at least
+ * `roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(r)` bytes of allocated memory.
+ *
+ * Returns how many bytes were written which should match
+ * `roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(r)`.
+ *
+ * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions:
+ * https://github.com/RoaringBitmap/RoaringFormatSpec
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, char *buf);
+
+/*
+ * "Frozen" serialization format imitates memory layout of roaring_bitmap_t.
+ * Deserialized bitmap is a constant view of the underlying buffer.
+ * This significantly reduces amount of allocations and copying required during
+ * deserialization.
+ * It can be used with memory mapped files.
+ * Example can be found in benchmarks/frozen_benchmark.c
+ *
+ *         [#####] const roaring_bitmap_t *
+ *          | | |
+ *     +----+ | +-+
+ *     |      |   |
+ * [#####################################] underlying buffer
+ *
+ * Note that because frozen serialization format imitates C memory layout
+ * of roaring_bitmap_t, it is not fixed. It is different on big/little endian
+ * platforms and can be changed in future.
+ */
+
+/**
+ * Returns number of bytes required to serialize bitmap using frozen format.
+ */
+size_t roaring_bitmap_frozen_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Serializes bitmap using frozen format.
+ * Buffer size must be at least roaring_bitmap_frozen_size_in_bytes().
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_frozen_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, char *buf);
+
+/**
+ * Creates constant bitmap that is a view of a given buffer.
+ * Buffer data should have been written by `roaring_bitmap_frozen_serialize()`
+ * Its beginning must also be aligned by 32 bytes.
+ * Length must be equal exactly to `roaring_bitmap_frozen_size_in_bytes()`.
+ * In case of failure, NULL is returned.
+ *
+ * Bitmap returned by this function can be used in all readonly contexts.
+ * Bitmap must be freed as usual, by calling roaring_bitmap_free().
+ * Underlying buffer must not be freed or modified while it backs any bitmaps.
+ */
+const roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_frozen_view(const char *buf,
+                                                   size_t length);
+
+/**
+ * Iterate over the bitmap elements. The function iterator is called once for
+ * all the values with ptr (can be NULL) as the second parameter of each call.
+ *
+ * `roaring_iterator` is simply a pointer to a function that returns bool
+ * (true means that the iteration should continue while false means that it
+ * should stop), and takes (uint32_t,void*) as inputs.
+ *
+ * Returns true if the roaring_iterator returned true throughout (so that all
+ * data points were necessarily visited).
+ *
+ * Iteration is ordered: from the smallest to the largest elements.
+ */
+bool roaring_iterate(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, roaring_iterator iterator,
+                     void *ptr);
+
+bool roaring_iterate64(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, roaring_iterator64 iterator,
+                       uint64_t high_bits, void *ptr);
+
+/**
+ * Return true if the two bitmaps contain the same elements.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_equals(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                           const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Return true if all the elements of r1 are also in r2.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_is_subset(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                              const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Return true if all the elements of r1 are also in r2, and r2 is strictly
+ * greater than r1.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_is_strict_subset(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * (For expert users who seek high performance.)
+ *
+ * Computes the union between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap. The caller is
+ * responsible for memory management.
+ *
+ * The lazy version defers some computations such as the maintenance of the
+ * cardinality counts. Thus you must call `roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy()`
+ * after executing "lazy" computations.
+ *
+ * It is safe to repeatedly call roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace on the result.
+ *
+ * `bitsetconversion` is a flag which determines whether container-container
+ * operations force a bitset conversion.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_lazy_or(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                         const roaring_bitmap_t *r2,
+                                         const bool bitsetconversion);
+
+/**
+ * (For expert users who seek high performance.)
+ *
+ * Inplace version of roaring_bitmap_lazy_or, modifies r1.
+ *
+ * `bitsetconversion` is a flag which determines whether container-container
+ * operations force a bitset conversion.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                    const roaring_bitmap_t *r2,
+                                    const bool bitsetconversion);
+
+/**
+ * (For expert users who seek high performance.)
+ *
+ * Execute maintenance on a bitmap created from `roaring_bitmap_lazy_or()`
+ * or modified with `roaring_bitmap_lazy_or_inplace()`.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy(roaring_bitmap_t *r1);
+
+/**
+ * Computes the symmetric difference between two bitmaps and returns new bitmap.
+ * The caller is responsible for memory management.
+ *
+ * The lazy version defers some computations such as the maintenance of the
+ * cardinality counts. Thus you must call `roaring_bitmap_repair_after_lazy()`
+ * after executing "lazy" computations.
+ *
+ * It is safe to repeatedly call `roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor_inplace()` on
+ * the result.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                          const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * (For expert users who seek high performance.)
+ *
+ * Inplace version of roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor, modifies r1. r1 != r2
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_lazy_xor_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                     const roaring_bitmap_t *r2);
+
+/**
+ * Compute the negation of the bitmap in the interval [range_start, range_end).
+ * The number of negated values is range_end - range_start.
+ * Areas outside the range are passed through unchanged.
+ */
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_flip(const roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
+                                      uint64_t range_start, uint64_t range_end);
+
+/**
+ * compute (in place) the negation of the roaring bitmap within a specified
+ * interval: [range_start, range_end). The number of negated values is
+ * range_end - range_start.
+ * Areas outside the range are passed through unchanged.
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_flip_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1, uint64_t range_start,
+                                 uint64_t range_end);
+
+/**
+ * Selects the element at index 'rank' where the smallest element is at index 0.
+ * If the size of the roaring bitmap is strictly greater than rank, then this
+ * function returns true and sets element to the element of given rank.
+ * Otherwise, it returns false.
+ */
+bool roaring_bitmap_select(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t rank,
+                           uint32_t *element);
+
+/**
+ * roaring_bitmap_rank returns the number of integers that are smaller or equal
+ * to x. Thus if x is the first element, this function will return 1. If
+ * x is smaller than the smallest element, this function will return 0.
+ *
+ * The indexing convention differs between roaring_bitmap_select and
+ * roaring_bitmap_rank: roaring_bitmap_select refers to the smallest value
+ * as having index 0, whereas roaring_bitmap_rank returns 1 when ranking
+ * the smallest value.
+ */
+uint64_t roaring_bitmap_rank(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint32_t x);
+
+/**
+ * Returns the smallest value in the set, or UINT32_MAX if the set is empty.
+ */
+uint32_t roaring_bitmap_minimum(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * Returns the greatest value in the set, or 0 if the set is empty.
+ */
+uint32_t roaring_bitmap_maximum(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+ * (For advanced users.)
+ *
+ * Collect statistics about the bitmap, see roaring_types.h for
+ * a description of roaring_statistics_t
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_statistics(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                               roaring_statistics_t *stat);
+
+/*********************
+* What follows is code use to iterate through values in a roaring bitmap
+
+roaring_bitmap_t *r =...
+roaring_uint32_iterator_t i;
+roaring_create_iterator(r, &i);
+while(i.has_value) {
+  printf("value = %d\n", i.current_value);
+  roaring_advance_uint32_iterator(&i);
+}
+
+Obviously, if you modify the underlying bitmap, the iterator
+becomes invalid. So don't.
+*/
+
+typedef struct roaring_uint32_iterator_s {
+    const roaring_bitmap_t *parent;  // owner
+    int32_t container_index;         // point to the current container index
+    int32_t in_container_index;  // for bitset and array container, this is out
+                                 // index
+    int32_t run_index;           // for run container, this points  at the run
+
+    uint32_t current_value;
+    bool has_value;
+
+    const ROARING_CONTAINER_T
+        *container;  // should be:
+                     // parent->high_low_container.containers[container_index];
+    uint8_t typecode;  // should be:
+                       // parent->high_low_container.typecodes[container_index];
+    uint32_t highbits;  // should be:
+                        // parent->high_low_container.keys[container_index]) <<
+                        // 16;
+
+} roaring_uint32_iterator_t;
+
+/**
+ * Initialize an iterator object that can be used to iterate through the
+ * values. If there is a  value, then this iterator points to the first value
+ * and `it->has_value` is true. The value is in `it->current_value`.
+ */
+void roaring_init_iterator(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                           roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit);
+
+/**
+ * Initialize an iterator object that can be used to iterate through the
+ * values. If there is a value, then this iterator points to the last value
+ * and `it->has_value` is true. The value is in `it->current_value`.
+ */
+void roaring_init_iterator_last(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
+                                roaring_uint32_iterator_t *newit);
+
+/**
+ * Create an iterator object that can be used to iterate through the values.
+ * Caller is responsible for calling `roaring_free_iterator()`.
+ *
+ * The iterator is initialized (this function calls `roaring_init_iterator()`)
+ * If there is a value, then this iterator points to the first value and
+ * `it->has_value` is true.  The value is in `it->current_value`.
+ */
+roaring_uint32_iterator_t *roaring_create_iterator(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
+/**
+* Advance the iterator. If there is a new value, then `it->has_value` is true.
+* The new value is in `it->current_value`. Values are traversed in increasing
+* orders. For convenience, returns `it->has_value`.
+*/
+bool roaring_advance_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it);
+
+/**
+* Decrement the iterator. If there's a new value, then `it->has_value` is true.
+* The new value is in `it->current_value`. Values are traversed in decreasing
+* order. For convenience, returns `it->has_value`.
+*/
+bool roaring_previous_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it);
+
+/**
+ * Move the iterator to the first value >= `val`. If there is a such a value,
+ * then `it->has_value` is true. The new value is in `it->current_value`.
+ * For convenience, returns `it->has_value`.
+ */
+bool roaring_move_uint32_iterator_equalorlarger(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it,
+                                                uint32_t val);
+
+/**
+ * Creates a copy of an iterator.
+ * Caller must free it.
+ */
+roaring_uint32_iterator_t *roaring_copy_uint32_iterator(
+    const roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it);
+
+/**
+ * Free memory following `roaring_create_iterator()`
+ */
+void roaring_free_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it);
+
+/*
+ * Reads next ${count} values from iterator into user-supplied ${buf}.
+ * Returns the number of read elements.
+ * This number can be smaller than ${count}, which means that iterator is drained.
+ *
+ * This function satisfies semantics of iteration and can be used together with
+ * other iterator functions.
+ *  - first value is copied from ${it}->current_value
+ *  - after function returns, iterator is positioned at the next element
+ */
+uint32_t roaring_read_uint32_iterator(roaring_uint32_iterator_t *it,
+                                      uint32_t* buf, uint32_t count);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+} } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace api {
+#endif
+
+#endif  /* ROARING_H */
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+    /**
+     * Best practices for C++ headers is to avoid polluting global scope.
+     * But for C compatibility when just `roaring.h` is included building as
+     * C++, default to global access for the C public API.
+     *
+     * BUT when `roaring.hh` is included instead, it sets this flag.  That way
+     * explicit namespacing must be used to get the C functions.
+     *
+     * This is outside the include guard so that if you include BOTH headers,
+     * the order won't matter; you still get the global definitions.
+     */
+    #if !defined(ROARING_API_NOT_IN_GLOBAL_NAMESPACE)
+        using namespace ::roaring::api;
+    #endif
+#endif
+
+/* end file include/roaring/roaring.h */
+/* begin file include/roaring/memory.h */
+#ifndef INCLUDE_ROARING_MEMORY_H_
+#define INCLUDE_ROARING_MEMORY_H_
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+extern "C" {
+#endif
+
+#include <stddef.h>  // for size_t
+
+typedef void* (*roaring_malloc_p)(size_t);
+typedef void* (*roaring_realloc_p)(void*, size_t);
+typedef void* (*roaring_calloc_p)(size_t, size_t);
+typedef void (*roaring_free_p)(void*);
+typedef void* (*roaring_aligned_malloc_p)(size_t, size_t);
+typedef void (*roaring_aligned_free_p)(void*);
+
+typedef struct roaring_memory_s {
+    roaring_malloc_p malloc;
+    roaring_realloc_p realloc;
+    roaring_calloc_p calloc;
+    roaring_free_p free;
+    roaring_aligned_malloc_p aligned_malloc;
+    roaring_aligned_free_p aligned_free;
+} roaring_memory_t;
+
+void roaring_init_memory_hook(roaring_memory_t memory_hook);
+
+void* roaring_malloc(size_t);
+void* roaring_realloc(void*, size_t);
+void* roaring_calloc(size_t, size_t);
+void roaring_free(void*);
+void* roaring_aligned_malloc(size_t, size_t);
+void roaring_aligned_free(void*);
+
+#ifdef __cplusplus
+}
+#endif
+
+#endif  // INCLUDE_ROARING_MEMORY_H_
+/* end file include/roaring/memory.h */
-- 
gitgitgadget


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 16+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 2/5] roaring.[ch]: apply Git specific changes to the roaring API
  2022-09-19 17:47 [PATCH 0/5] [RFC] introduce Roaring bitmaps to Git Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 1/5] reachability-bitmaps: add CRoaring library " Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
@ 2022-09-19 17:47 ` Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
  2022-09-19 18:33   ` Derrick Stolee
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 3/5] roaring: teach Git to write roaring bitmaps Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
                   ` (4 subsequent siblings)
  6 siblings, 1 reply; 16+ messages in thread
From: Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget @ 2022-09-19 17:47 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git
  Cc: Taylor Blau, Kaartic Sivaram, Junio C Hamano, Derrick Stolee,
	Abhradeep Chakraborty, Abhradeep Chakraborty

From: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>

Though the Roaring library is introduced in previous commit, the library
cannot be used as is. One reason is that the library doesn't support Big
endian machines. Besides, Git specific file related functions does use
`hashwrite()` (or similar). So there is a need to modify the library.

Implement and modify new functions so that Git can actually use the
library.

Mentored-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com>
Mentored-by: Kaartic Sivaraam <kaartic.sivaraam@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>
---
 roaring/roaring.c | 565 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
 roaring/roaring.h |  17 ++
 2 files changed, 562 insertions(+), 20 deletions(-)

diff --git a/roaring/roaring.c b/roaring/roaring.c
index df2d90544cd..ee44de20996 100644
--- a/roaring/roaring.c
+++ b/roaring/roaring.c
@@ -1791,6 +1791,10 @@ bool array_container_iterate64(const array_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
  *
  */
 int32_t array_container_write(const array_container_t *container, char *buf);
+
+int array_container_network_write(const array_container_t *container,
+				  int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				  void *data);
 /**
  * Reads the instance from buf, outputs how many bytes were read.
  * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
@@ -1801,6 +1805,9 @@ int32_t array_container_write(const array_container_t *container, char *buf);
 int32_t array_container_read(int32_t cardinality, array_container_t *container,
                              const char *buf);
 
+int32_t array_container_network_read(int32_t cardinality, array_container_t *container,
+                        	     const char *buf);
+
 /**
  * Return the serialized size in bytes of a container (see
  * bitset_container_write)
@@ -2506,6 +2513,10 @@ bool bitset_container_iterate64(const bitset_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
  */
 int32_t bitset_container_write(const bitset_container_t *container, char *buf);
 
+int bitset_container_network_write(const bitset_container_t *container,
+				   int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				   void *data);
+
 /**
  * Reads the instance from buf, outputs how many bytes were read.
  * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
@@ -2515,6 +2526,9 @@ int32_t bitset_container_write(const bitset_container_t *container, char *buf);
  */
 int32_t bitset_container_read(int32_t cardinality,
                               bitset_container_t *container, const char *buf);
+
+int32_t bitset_container_network_read(int32_t cardinality, bitset_container_t *container,
+				      const char *buf);
 /**
  * Return the serialized size in bytes of a container (see
  * bitset_container_write).
@@ -3029,6 +3043,10 @@ bool run_container_iterate64(const run_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
  */
 int32_t run_container_write(const run_container_t *container, char *buf);
 
+int run_container_network_write(const run_container_t *container,
+				int (*write_fn) (void *, const void*, size_t),
+				void *data);
+
 /**
  * Reads the instance from buf, outputs how many bytes were read.
  * This is meant to be byte-by-byte compatible with the Java and Go versions of
@@ -3041,6 +3059,9 @@ int32_t run_container_write(const run_container_t *container, char *buf);
 int32_t run_container_read(int32_t cardinality, run_container_t *container,
                            const char *buf);
 
+int32_t run_container_network_read(int32_t cardinality, run_container_t *container,
+                        	   const char *buf);
+
 /**
  * Return the serialized size in bytes of a container (see run_container_write).
  * This is meant to be compatible with the Java and Go versions of Roaring.
@@ -4513,6 +4534,24 @@ static inline int32_t container_write(
     return 0;  // unreached
 }
 
+static int container_network_write(const container_t *c, uint8_t typecode,
+				   int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				   void *data)
+{
+	c = container_unwrap_shared(c, &typecode);
+	switch (typecode) {
+		case BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+			return bitset_container_network_write(const_CAST_bitset(c), write_fn, data);
+		case ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+			return array_container_network_write(const_CAST_array(c), write_fn, data);
+		case RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE:
+			return run_container_network_write(const_CAST_run(c), write_fn, data);
+	}
+	assert(false);
+	__builtin_unreachable();
+	return 0;
+}
+
 /**
  * Get the container size in bytes under portable serialization (see
  * container_write), requires a
@@ -6609,6 +6648,7 @@ static inline container_t *container_remove_range(
 #include <assert.h>
 #include <stdbool.h>
 #include <stdint.h>
+#include <arpa/inet.h>
 
 
 #ifdef __cplusplus
@@ -6811,6 +6851,10 @@ bool ra_range_uint32_array(const roaring_array_t *ra, size_t offset, size_t limi
  */
 size_t ra_portable_serialize(const roaring_array_t *ra, char *buf);
 
+int ra_portable_network_serialize(const roaring_array_t *ra,
+				  int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				  void *data);
+
 /**
  * read a bitmap from a serialized version. This is meant to be compatible
  * with the Java and Go versions.
@@ -7421,15 +7465,6 @@ void ra_append_range(roaring_array_t *ra, roaring_array_t *sa,
     }
 }
 
-container_t *ra_get_container(
-    roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t x, uint8_t *typecode
-){
-    int i = binarySearch(ra->keys, (int32_t)ra->size, x);
-    if (i < 0) return NULL;
-    *typecode = ra->typecodes[i];
-    return ra->containers[i];
-}
-
 extern inline container_t *ra_get_container_at_index(
     const roaring_array_t *ra, uint16_t i,
     uint8_t *typecode);
@@ -7670,6 +7705,18 @@ uint32_t ra_portable_header_size(const roaring_array_t *ra) {
     }
 }
 
+static uint32_t ra_portable_network_header_size(const roaring_array_t *ra)
+{
+	if (ra_has_run_container(ra)) {
+		if (ra->size < NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD) // for small bitmaps, we omit the offsets
+			return 4 + (ra->size + 7) / 8 + 4 * ra->size;
+
+		return 4 + (ra->size + 7) / 8 + 8 * ra->size;
+	} else {
+		return 4 + 8 * ra->size;
+	}
+}
+
 size_t ra_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_array_t *ra) {
     size_t count = ra_portable_header_size(ra);
 
@@ -7679,6 +7726,15 @@ size_t ra_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_array_t *ra) {
     return count;
 }
 
+static size_t ra_portable_network_size_in_bytes(const roaring_array_t *ra)
+{
+	size_t count = ra_portable_network_header_size(ra);
+
+	for (int32_t k = 0; k < ra->size; ++k)
+		count += container_size_in_bytes(ra->containers[k], ra->typecodes[k]);
+	return count;
+}
+
 size_t ra_portable_serialize(const roaring_array_t *ra, char *buf) {
     char *initbuf = buf;
     uint32_t startOffset = 0;
@@ -7740,6 +7796,80 @@ size_t ra_portable_serialize(const roaring_array_t *ra, char *buf) {
     return buf - initbuf;
 }
 
+int ra_portable_network_serialize(const roaring_array_t *ra,
+				  int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				  void *data)
+{
+	uint32_t initial_offset;
+	uint32_t cookie;
+	bool has_run = ra_has_run_container(ra);
+
+	if (has_run) {
+		uint8_t *bitmap_of_run_containers = NULL;
+		size_t bitmap_run_container_size = (ra->size + 7) / 8;
+
+		cookie = htonl(SERIAL_COOKIE | ((ra->size - 1) << 16));
+		if (write_fn(data, &cookie, 4) != 4)
+			return -1;
+		initial_offset = sizeof(cookie);
+
+		bitmap_of_run_containers = (uint8_t *)roaring_calloc(bitmap_run_container_size, 1);
+
+		for (uint32_t i = 0; i < ra->size; i++) {
+			if (get_container_type(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]) ==
+                	    RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE)
+				bitmap_of_run_containers[i / 8] |= (1 << (i % 8));
+		}
+
+		for (size_t i = 0; i < bitmap_run_container_size; i++) {
+			if (write_fn(data, bitmap_of_run_containers + i, 1) != 1) {
+				free(bitmap_of_run_containers);
+				return -1;
+			}
+		}
+		free(bitmap_of_run_containers);
+		initial_offset += bitmap_run_container_size;
+	} else {
+		cookie = htonl(SERIAL_COOKIE_NO_RUNCONTAINER | (ra->size - 1) << 16);
+		if (write_fn(data, &cookie, 4) != 4)
+			return -1;
+
+		initial_offset = sizeof(cookie);
+	}
+
+	/* description table */
+	for (uint32_t i = 0; i < ra->size; i++) {
+		uint16_t card;
+		uint16_t nt_key = htons(ra->keys[i]);
+
+		if (write_fn(data, &nt_key, sizeof(uint16_t)) != sizeof(uint16_t))
+			return -1;
+
+		card = (uint16_t)(container_get_cardinality(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i]) - 1);
+		card = htons(card);
+		if (write_fn(data, &card, 2) != 2)
+			return -1;
+	}
+	initial_offset += 4 * ra->size;
+
+	if ((!has_run) || (ra->size >= NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD)) {
+		uint32_t nt_offset;
+		initial_offset += 4 * ra->size;
+		nt_offset = htonl(initial_offset);
+		// writing the containers offsets
+		for (int32_t k = 0; k < ra->size; k++) {
+			if (write_fn(data, &nt_offset, sizeof(int32_t)) != sizeof(int32_t))
+				return -1;
+			initial_offset += container_size_in_bytes(ra->containers[k], ra->typecodes[k]);
+		}
+	}
+	for (int32_t k = 0; k < ra->size; ++k) {
+		container_network_write(ra->containers[k], ra->typecodes[k], write_fn, data);
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
 // Quickly checks whether there is a serialized bitmap at the pointer,
 // not exceeding size "maxbytes" in bytes. This function does not allocate
 // memory dynamically.
@@ -7827,6 +7957,83 @@ size_t ra_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf, const size_t maxbytes) {
     return bytestotal;
 }
 
+size_t ra_portable_network_deserialize_size(const char *buf, const size_t maxbytes) {
+	size_t bytestotal = sizeof(int32_t);// for cookie
+	uint32_t cookie;
+	int32_t size;
+	if(bytestotal > maxbytes)
+		return 0;
+	memcpy(&cookie, buf, sizeof(int32_t));
+	cookie = ntohl(cookie);
+	buf += sizeof(uint32_t);
+	if ((cookie & 0xFFFF) != SERIAL_COOKIE &&
+		(cookie & 0xFFFF) != SERIAL_COOKIE_NO_RUNCONTAINER) {
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	size = (cookie >> 16) + 1;
+	if (size > (1<<16)) {
+		return 0; // logically impossible
+	}
+	else if (size == (1 << 16))
+		return bytestotal;
+	char *bitmapOfRunContainers = NULL;
+	bool hasrun = (cookie & 0xFFFF) == SERIAL_COOKIE;
+	if (hasrun) {
+		int32_t s = (size + 7) / 8;
+		bytestotal += s;
+		if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+		bitmapOfRunContainers = (char *)buf;
+		buf += s;
+	}
+	bytestotal += size * 2 * sizeof(uint16_t);
+	if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+	uint16_t *keyscards = (uint16_t *)buf;
+	buf += size * 2 * sizeof(uint16_t);
+	if ((!hasrun) || (size >= NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD)) {
+		// skipping the offsets
+		bytestotal += size * 4;
+		if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+		buf += size * 4;
+	}
+	// Reading the containers
+	for (int32_t k = 0; k < size; ++k) {
+		uint16_t tmp;
+		memcpy(&tmp, keyscards + 2*k+1, sizeof(tmp));
+		uint32_t thiscard = ntohs(tmp) + 1;
+		bool isbitmap = (thiscard > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE);
+		bool isrun = false;
+		if(hasrun && (bitmapOfRunContainers[k / 8] & (1 << (k % 8))) != 0) {
+			isbitmap = false;
+			isrun = true;
+		}
+		if (isbitmap) {
+			size_t containersize = BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t);
+			bytestotal += containersize;
+			if(bytestotal > maxbytes)
+				return 0;
+			buf += containersize;
+		} else if (isrun) {
+			bytestotal += sizeof(uint16_t);
+			if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+			uint16_t n_runs;
+			memcpy(&n_runs, buf, sizeof(uint16_t));
+			n_runs = ntohs(n_runs);
+			buf += sizeof(uint16_t);
+			size_t containersize = n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t);
+			bytestotal += containersize;
+			if(bytestotal > maxbytes) return 0;
+			buf += containersize;
+		} else {
+			size_t containersize = thiscard * sizeof(uint16_t);
+			bytestotal += containersize;
+			if(bytestotal > maxbytes)
+				return 0;
+			buf += containersize;
+		}
+	}
+	return bytestotal;
+}
 
 // this function populates answer from the content of buf (reading up to maxbytes bytes).
 // The function returns false if a properly serialized bitmap cannot be found.
@@ -8000,6 +8207,177 @@ bool ra_portable_deserialize(roaring_array_t *answer, const char *buf, const siz
     return true;
 }
 
+bool ra_portable_network_deserialize(roaring_array_t *answer, const char *buf, const size_t maxbytes, size_t *readbytes)
+{
+	uint32_t cookie;
+	int32_t size;
+	const char *bitmapOfRunContainers = NULL;
+	int hasrun = 0;
+	uint16_t *keyscards;
+
+	*readbytes = sizeof(int32_t);// for cookie
+	if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {
+	fprintf(stderr, "Ran out of bytes while reading first 4 bytes.\n");
+	return false;
+	}
+	memcpy(&cookie, buf, sizeof(int32_t));
+	cookie = ntohl(cookie);
+	buf += sizeof(uint32_t);
+	if ((cookie & 0xFFFF) != SERIAL_COOKIE &&
+		(cookie & 0xFFFF) != SERIAL_COOKIE_NO_RUNCONTAINER) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "I failed to find one of the right cookies. Found %" PRIu32 "\n",
+			cookie);
+		return false;
+	}
+
+	size = (cookie >> 16) + 1;
+	if (size < 0) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "You cannot have a negative number of containers, the data must be corrupted: %" PRId32 "\n",
+				size);
+		return false; // logically impossible
+	}
+	if (size > (1<<16)) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "You cannot have so many containers, the data must be corrupted: %" PRId32 "\n",
+				size);
+		return false; // logically impossible
+	}
+	else if (size == (1 << 16)) {
+		ra_init_with_capacity(answer, size);
+		return true;
+	}
+	hasrun = (cookie & 0xFFFF) == SERIAL_COOKIE;
+	if (hasrun) {
+		int32_t s = (size + 7) / 8;
+		*readbytes += s;
+		if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {// data is corrupted?
+		fprintf(stderr, "Ran out of bytes while reading run bitmap.\n");
+		return false;
+		}
+		bitmapOfRunContainers = buf;
+		buf += s;
+	}
+	keyscards = (uint16_t *)buf;
+
+	*readbytes += size * 2 * sizeof(uint16_t);
+	if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "Ran out of bytes while reading key-cardinality array.\n");
+		return false;
+	}
+	buf += size * 2 * sizeof(uint16_t);
+
+	bool is_ok = ra_init_with_capacity(answer, size);
+	if (!is_ok) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate memory for roaring array. Bailing out.\n");
+		return false;
+	}
+
+	for (int32_t k = 0; k < size; ++k) {
+		uint16_t tmp;
+		memcpy(&tmp, keyscards + 2*k, sizeof(tmp));
+		answer->keys[k] = ntohs(tmp);
+	}
+	if ((!hasrun) || (size >= NO_OFFSET_THRESHOLD)) {
+		*readbytes += size * 4;
+		if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {// data is corrupted?
+			fprintf(stderr, "Ran out of bytes while reading offsets.\n");
+			ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+			return false;
+		}
+
+		// skipping the offsets
+		buf += size * 4;
+	}
+	// Reading the containers
+	for (int32_t k = 0; k < size; ++k) {
+		uint16_t tmp;
+		uint32_t thiscard;
+		bool isbitmap;
+		bool isrun;
+
+		memcpy(&tmp, keyscards + 2*k+1, sizeof(tmp));
+		thiscard = ntohs(tmp) + 1;
+		isbitmap = (thiscard > DEFAULT_MAX_SIZE);
+		isrun = false;
+		if(hasrun && (bitmapOfRunContainers[k / 8] & (1 << (k % 8))) != 0) {
+			isbitmap = false;
+			isrun = true;
+		}
+		if (isbitmap) {
+			// we check that the read is allowed
+			size_t containersize = BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS * sizeof(uint64_t);
+			*readbytes += containersize;
+			if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {
+				fprintf(stderr, "Running out of bytes while reading a bitset container.\n");
+				ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+				return false;
+			}
+			// it is now safe to read
+			bitset_container_t *c = bitset_container_create();
+			if(c == NULL) {// memory allocation failure
+				fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate memory for a bitset container.\n");
+				ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+				return false;
+			}
+			answer->size++;
+			buf += bitset_container_network_read(thiscard, c, buf);
+			answer->containers[k] = c;
+			answer->typecodes[k] = BITSET_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+		} else if (isrun) {
+			// we check that the read is allowed
+			*readbytes += sizeof(uint16_t);
+			if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {
+				fprintf(stderr, "Running out of bytes while reading a run container (header).\n");
+				ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+				return false;
+			}
+			uint16_t n_runs;
+			memcpy(&n_runs, buf, sizeof(uint16_t));
+			n_runs = ntohs(n_runs);
+			size_t containersize = n_runs * sizeof(rle16_t);
+			*readbytes += containersize;
+			if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {// data is corrupted?
+				fprintf(stderr, "Running out of bytes while reading a run container.\n");
+				ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+				return false;
+			}
+			// it is now safe to read
+
+			run_container_t *c = run_container_create();
+			if(c == NULL) {// memory allocation failure
+				fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate memory for a run container.\n");
+				ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+				return false;
+			}
+			answer->size++;
+			buf += run_container_network_read(thiscard, c, buf);
+			answer->containers[k] = c;
+			answer->typecodes[k] = RUN_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+		} else {
+			// we check that the read is allowed
+			size_t containersize = thiscard * sizeof(uint16_t);
+			*readbytes += containersize;
+			if(*readbytes > maxbytes) {// data is corrupted?
+				fprintf(stderr, "Running out of bytes while reading an array container.\n");
+				ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+				return false;
+			}
+			// it is now safe to read
+			array_container_t *c =
+				array_container_create_given_capacity(thiscard);
+			if(c == NULL) {// memory allocation failure
+				fprintf(stderr, "Failed to allocate memory for an array container.\n");
+				ra_clear(answer);// we need to clear the containers already allocated, and the roaring array
+				return false;
+			}
+			answer->size++;
+			buf += array_container_network_read(thiscard, c, buf);
+			answer->containers[k] = c;
+			answer->typecodes[k] = ARRAY_CONTAINER_TYPE;
+		}
+	}
+	return true;
+}
+
 #ifdef __cplusplus
 } } }  // extern "C" { namespace roaring { namespace internal {
 #endif
@@ -8603,16 +8981,16 @@ extern inline void roaring_bitmap_remove_range(roaring_bitmap_t *r, uint64_t min
 void roaring_bitmap_printf(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
     const roaring_array_t *ra = &r->high_low_container;
 
-    printf("{");
+    fprintf(stderr, "{");
     for (int i = 0; i < ra->size; ++i) {
         container_printf_as_uint32_array(ra->containers[i], ra->typecodes[i],
                                          ((uint32_t)ra->keys[i]) << 16);
 
         if (i + 1 < ra->size) {
-            printf(",");
+            fprintf(stderr, ",");
         }
     }
-    printf("}");
+    fprintf(stderr, "}");
 }
 
 void roaring_bitmap_printf_describe(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
@@ -8736,6 +9114,14 @@ void roaring_bitmap_free(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
     roaring_free((roaring_bitmap_t*)r);
 }
 
+void roaring_bitmap_free_safe(roaring_bitmap_t **r)
+{
+	if (*r) {
+		roaring_bitmap_free((const roaring_bitmap_t *)*r);
+		r = NULL;
+	}
+}
+
 void roaring_bitmap_clear(roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
   ra_reset(&r->high_low_container);
 }
@@ -9700,6 +10086,11 @@ size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r) {
     return ra_portable_size_in_bytes(&r->high_low_container);
 }
 
+size_t roaring_bitmap_network_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r)
+{
+	return ra_portable_network_size_in_bytes(&r->high_low_container);
+}
+
 
 roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(const char *buf, size_t maxbytes) {
     roaring_bitmap_t *ans =
@@ -9718,21 +10109,50 @@ roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(const char *buf, size
     return ans;
 }
 
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_network_deserialize_safe(const char *buf, size_t maxbytes)
+{
+	roaring_bitmap_t *ans =
+		(roaring_bitmap_t *)roaring_malloc(sizeof(roaring_bitmap_t));
+	if (ans == NULL) {
+		return NULL;
+	}
+	size_t bytesread;
+	bool is_ok = ra_portable_network_deserialize(&ans->high_low_container, buf, maxbytes, &bytesread);
+	if(is_ok) assert(bytesread <= maxbytes);
+	roaring_bitmap_set_copy_on_write(ans, false);
+	if (!is_ok) {
+		roaring_free(ans);
+		return NULL;
+	}
+	return ans;
+}
+
 roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize(const char *buf) {
     return roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(buf, SIZE_MAX);
 }
 
-
 size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf, size_t maxbytes) {
   return ra_portable_deserialize_size(buf, maxbytes);
 }
 
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_network_deserialize_size(const char *buf, size_t maxbytes) {
+	size_t size = ra_portable_network_deserialize_size(buf, maxbytes);
+	return size;
+}
+
 
 size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r,
                                          char *buf) {
     return ra_portable_serialize(&r->high_low_container, buf);
 }
 
+int roaring_bitmap_portable_network_serialize(roaring_bitmap_t *rb,
+				     int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				     void *data)
+{
+	return ra_portable_network_serialize(&rb->high_low_container, write_fn, data);
+}
+
 roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_deserialize(const void *buf) {
     const char *bufaschar = (const char *)buf;
     if (*(const unsigned char *)buf == CROARING_SERIALIZATION_ARRAY_UINT32) {
@@ -13827,9 +14247,9 @@ void array_container_printf_as_uint32_array(const array_container_t *v,
     if (v->cardinality == 0) {
         return;
     }
-    printf("%u", v->array[0] + base);
+    fprintf(stderr, "%u", v->array[0] + base);
     for (int i = 1; i < v->cardinality; ++i) {
-        printf(",%u", v->array[i] + base);
+        fprintf(stderr, ",%u", v->array[i] + base);
     }
 }
 
@@ -13856,6 +14276,20 @@ int32_t array_container_write(const array_container_t *container, char *buf) {
     return array_container_size_in_bytes(container);
 }
 
+int array_container_network_write(const array_container_t *container,
+				  int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				  void *data)
+{
+	int32_t i;
+	size_t size = container->cardinality * sizeof(uint16_t);
+	for (i = 0; i < container->cardinality; i++) {
+		uint16_t nt_elem = htons(container->array[i]);
+		if (write_fn(data, &nt_elem, sizeof(uint16_t)) != sizeof(uint16_t))
+			return -1;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
 bool array_container_is_subset(const array_container_t *container1,
                                const array_container_t *container2) {
     if (container1->cardinality > container2->cardinality) {
@@ -13890,6 +14324,23 @@ int32_t array_container_read(int32_t cardinality, array_container_t *container,
     return array_container_size_in_bytes(container);
 }
 
+int32_t array_container_network_read(int32_t cardinality, array_container_t *container,
+                        	     const char *buf)
+{
+	uint32_t i;
+	if (container->capacity < cardinality) {
+		array_container_grow(container, cardinality, false);
+	}
+	container->cardinality = cardinality;
+	for (i = 0; i < container->cardinality; i++) {
+		uint16_t val;
+		memcpy(&val, buf + i * sizeof(uint16_t), sizeof(uint16_t));
+		val = ntohs(val);
+		container->array[i] = val;
+	}
+	return array_container_size_in_bytes(container);
+}
+
 bool array_container_iterate(const array_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
                              roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr) {
     for (int i = 0; i < cont->cardinality; i++)
@@ -15208,13 +15659,13 @@ void run_container_printf_as_uint32_array(const run_container_t *cont,
     {
         uint32_t run_start = base + cont->runs[0].value;
         uint16_t le = cont->runs[0].length;
-        printf("%u", run_start);
-        for (uint32_t j = 1; j <= le; ++j) printf(",%u", run_start + j);
+        fprintf(stderr, "%u", run_start);
+        for (uint32_t j = 1; j <= le; ++j) fprintf(stderr, ",%u", run_start + j);
     }
     for (int32_t i = 1; i < cont->n_runs; ++i) {
         uint32_t run_start = base + cont->runs[i].value;
         uint16_t le = cont->runs[i].length;
-        for (uint32_t j = 0; j <= le; ++j) printf(",%u", run_start + j);
+        for (uint32_t j = 0; j <= le; ++j) fprintf(stderr, ",%u", run_start + j);
     }
 }
 
@@ -15225,6 +15676,28 @@ int32_t run_container_write(const run_container_t *container, char *buf) {
     return run_container_size_in_bytes(container);
 }
 
+int run_container_network_write(const run_container_t *container,
+				int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				void *data)
+{
+	uint16_t i;
+	int32_t nt_nruns = htonl(container->n_runs);
+	if (write_fn(data, &nt_nruns, sizeof(uint16_t)))
+		return -1;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < container->n_runs; i++) {
+		rle16_t run = container->runs[i];
+		uint16_t nt_value = htons(run.value);
+		uint16_t nt_len = htons(run.length);
+		if (write_fn(data, &nt_value, sizeof(uint16_t)) != sizeof(uint16_t))
+			return -1;
+		if (write_fn(data, &nt_len, sizeof(uint16_t)) != sizeof(uint16_t))
+			return -1;
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
 int32_t run_container_read(int32_t cardinality, run_container_t *container,
                            const char *buf) {
     (void)cardinality;
@@ -15238,6 +15711,29 @@ int32_t run_container_read(int32_t cardinality, run_container_t *container,
     return run_container_size_in_bytes(container);
 }
 
+int32_t run_container_network_read(int32_t cardinality, run_container_t *container,
+                        	   const char *buf)
+{
+	int32_t n_runs;
+	memcpy(&n_runs, buf, sizeof(uint16_t));
+	n_runs = ntohs(n_runs);
+	container->n_runs = n_runs;
+	if (container->n_runs > container->capacity)
+        run_container_grow(container, container->n_runs, false);
+	if(container->n_runs > 0) {
+		uint32_t i;
+
+		for (i = 0; i < container->n_runs; i++) {
+			rle16_t run;
+			memcpy(&run, buf + sizeof(uint16_t) + i * sizeof(rle16_t), sizeof(rle16_t));
+			run.length = ntohs(run.length);
+			run.value = ntohs(run.value);
+			container->runs[i] = run;
+		}
+	}
+	return run_container_size_in_bytes(container);
+}
+
 bool run_container_iterate(const run_container_t *cont, uint32_t base,
                            roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr) {
     for (int i = 0; i < cont->n_runs; ++i) {
@@ -17417,10 +17913,10 @@ void bitset_container_printf_as_uint32_array(const bitset_container_t * v, uint3
 			uint64_t t = w & (~w + 1);
 			int r = __builtin_ctzll(w);
 			if(iamfirst) {// predicted to be false
-				printf("%u", r + base);
+				fprintf(stderr, "%u", r + base);
 				iamfirst = false;
 			} else {
-				printf(",%u",r + base);
+				fprintf(stderr, ",%u",r + base);
 			}
 			w ^= t;
 		}
@@ -17454,6 +17950,18 @@ int32_t bitset_container_write(const bitset_container_t *container,
 	return bitset_container_size_in_bytes(container);
 }
 
+int bitset_container_network_write(const bitset_container_t *container,
+				   int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				   void *data)
+{
+	uint32_t i = 0;
+	for (i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i++) {
+		uint64_t nt_word = htonll(container->words[i]);
+		if (write_fn(data, &nt_word, sizeof(uint64_t)) != sizeof(uint64_t))
+			return -1;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
 
 int32_t bitset_container_read(int32_t cardinality, bitset_container_t *container,
 		const char *buf)  {
@@ -17462,6 +17970,23 @@ int32_t bitset_container_read(int32_t cardinality, bitset_container_t *container
 	return bitset_container_size_in_bytes(container);
 }
 
+int32_t bitset_container_network_read(int32_t cardinality, bitset_container_t *container,
+				      const char *buf)
+{
+	uint32_t i = 0;
+	const char *mbuf = buf;
+	container->cardinality = cardinality;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; i++) {
+		uint64_t nt_word;
+		memcpy(&nt_word, mbuf, sizeof(uint64_t));
+		mbuf += sizeof(uint64_t);
+
+		container->words[i] = ntohll(nt_word);
+	}
+	return bitset_container_size_in_bytes(container);
+}
+
 bool bitset_container_iterate(const bitset_container_t *cont, uint32_t base, roaring_iterator iterator, void *ptr) {
   for (int32_t i = 0; i < BITSET_CONTAINER_SIZE_IN_WORDS; ++i ) {
     uint64_t w = cont->words[i];
diff --git a/roaring/roaring.h b/roaring/roaring.h
index bd5e0a0fe1c..84489eaa260 100644
--- a/roaring/roaring.h
+++ b/roaring/roaring.h
@@ -409,6 +409,11 @@ void roaring_bitmap_andnot_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
  */
 void roaring_bitmap_free(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
 
+/**
+ * Frees the memory if exists
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_free_safe(roaring_bitmap_t **r);
+
 /**
  * Add value n_args from pointer vals, faster than repeatedly calling
  * `roaring_bitmap_add()`
@@ -605,6 +610,9 @@ roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize(const char *buf);
 roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(const char *buf,
                                                            size_t maxbytes);
 
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_network_deserialize_safe(const char *buf,
+								   size_t maxbytes);
+
 /**
  * Check how many bytes would be read (up to maxbytes) at this pointer if there
  * is a bitmap, returns zero if there is no valid bitmap.
@@ -615,6 +623,9 @@ roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(const char *buf,
 size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf,
                                                 size_t maxbytes);
 
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_network_deserialize_size(const char *buf,
+							size_t maxbytes);
+
 /**
  * How many bytes are required to serialize this bitmap.
  *
@@ -623,6 +634,8 @@ size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf,
  */
 size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
 
+size_t roaring_bitmap_network_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
 /**
  * Write a bitmap to a char buffer.  The output buffer should refer to at least
  * `roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(r)` bytes of allocated memory.
@@ -635,6 +648,10 @@ size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
  */
 size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, char *buf);
 
+int roaring_bitmap_portable_network_serialize(roaring_bitmap_t *rb,
+				     int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				     void *data);
+
 /*
  * "Frozen" serialization format imitates memory layout of roaring_bitmap_t.
  * Deserialized bitmap is a constant view of the underlying buffer.
-- 
@@ -409,6 +409,11 @@ void roaring_bitmap_andnot_inplace(roaring_bitmap_t *r1,
  */
 void roaring_bitmap_free(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
 
+/**
+ * Frees the memory if exists
+ */
+void roaring_bitmap_free_safe(roaring_bitmap_t **r);
+
 /**
  * Add value n_args from pointer vals, faster than repeatedly calling
  * `roaring_bitmap_add()`
@@ -605,6 +610,9 @@ roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize(const char *buf);
 roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(const char *buf,
                                                            size_t maxbytes);
 
+roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_network_deserialize_safe(const char *buf,
+								   size_t maxbytes);
+
 /**
  * Check how many bytes would be read (up to maxbytes) at this pointer if there
  * is a bitmap, returns zero if there is no valid bitmap.
@@ -615,6 +623,9 @@ roaring_bitmap_t *roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_safe(const char *buf,
 size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf,
                                                 size_t maxbytes);
 
+size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_network_deserialize_size(const char *buf,
+							size_t maxbytes);
+
 /**
  * How many bytes are required to serialize this bitmap.
  *
@@ -623,6 +634,8 @@ size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_deserialize_size(const char *buf,
  */
 size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
 
+size_t roaring_bitmap_network_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
+
 /**
  * Write a bitmap to a char buffer.  The output buffer should refer to at least
  * `roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(r)` bytes of allocated memory.
@@ -635,6 +648,10 @@ size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_size_in_bytes(const roaring_bitmap_t *r);
  */
 size_t roaring_bitmap_portable_serialize(const roaring_bitmap_t *r, char *buf);
 
+int roaring_bitmap_portable_network_serialize(roaring_bitmap_t *rb,
+				     int (*write_fn) (void *, const void *, size_t),
+				     void *data);
+
 /*
  * "Frozen" serialization format imitates memory layout of roaring_bitmap_t.
  * Deserialized bitmap is a constant view of the underlying buffer.
-- 
gitgitgadget


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 16+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 3/5] roaring: teach Git to write roaring bitmaps
  2022-09-19 17:47 [PATCH 0/5] [RFC] introduce Roaring bitmaps to Git Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 1/5] reachability-bitmaps: add CRoaring library " Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 2/5] roaring.[ch]: apply Git specific changes to the roaring API Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
@ 2022-09-19 17:47 ` Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 4/5] roaring: introduce a new config option for " Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
                   ` (3 subsequent siblings)
  6 siblings, 0 replies; 16+ messages in thread
From: Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget @ 2022-09-19 17:47 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git
  Cc: Taylor Blau, Kaartic Sivaram, Junio C Hamano, Derrick Stolee,
	Abhradeep Chakraborty, Abhradeep Chakraborty

From: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>

Roaring bitmaps are said to be more efficient (most of the time) than
ewah bitmaps. So Git might gain some optimization if it support roaring
bitmaps. As Roaring library has all the changes it needed to implement
roaring bitmaps in Git, Git can learn to write roaring bitmaps. However,
all the changes are backward-compatible.

Teach Git to write roaring bitmaps.

Mentored-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com>
Mentored-by: Kaartic Sivaraam <kaartic.sivaraam@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>
---
 Makefile                |   1 +
 bitmap.c                | 225 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 bitmap.h                |  33 ++++
 builtin/diff.c          |  10 +-
 ewah/bitmap.c           |  61 +++++---
 ewah/ewok.h             |  37 ++---
 pack-bitmap-write.c     | 326 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------
 pack-bitmap.c           | 114 +++++++-------
 pack-bitmap.h           |  22 ++-
 t/t5310-pack-bitmaps.sh |  17 +++
 10 files changed, 664 insertions(+), 182 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 bitmap.c
 create mode 100644 bitmap.h

diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index e9537951105..9ca19b3ca8d 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -900,6 +900,7 @@ LIB_OBJS += archive.o
 LIB_OBJS += attr.o
 LIB_OBJS += base85.o
 LIB_OBJS += bisect.o
+LIB_OBJS += bitmap.o
 LIB_OBJS += blame.o
 LIB_OBJS += blob.o
 LIB_OBJS += bloom.o
diff --git a/bitmap.c b/bitmap.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..7d547eb9f53
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bitmap.c
@@ -0,0 +1,225 @@
+#include "bitmap.h"
+#include "cache.h"
+
+static enum bitmap_type bitmap_type = INIT_BITMAP_TYPE;
+
+void set_bitmap_type(enum bitmap_type type)
+{
+	bitmap_type = type;
+}
+
+enum bitmap_type get_bitmap_type(void)
+{
+	return bitmap_type;
+}
+
+void *roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_init(void)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		return ewah_new();
+	case ROARING:
+		return roaring_bitmap_create();
+	default:
+		error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+		return NULL;
+	}
+}
+
+void *roaring_or_raw_bitmap_new(void)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		return raw_bitmap_new();
+	case ROARING:
+		return roaring_bitmap_create();
+	default:
+		error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+			return NULL;
+	}
+}
+
+void *roaring_or_raw_bitmap_copy(void *bitmap)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		return raw_bitmap_dup(bitmap);
+	case ROARING:
+		return roaring_bitmap_copy(bitmap);
+	default:
+		error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+			return NULL;
+	}
+}
+
+int roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_set(void *bitmap, uint32_t i)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type) {
+	case EWAH:
+		ewah_set(bitmap, i);
+		break;
+	case ROARING:
+		roaring_bitmap_add(bitmap, i);
+		break;
+	default:
+		return error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_set(void *bitmap, uint32_t i)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		raw_bitmap_set(bitmap, i);
+		break;
+	case ROARING:
+		roaring_bitmap_add(bitmap, i);
+		break;
+	default:
+		error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+}
+
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_unset(void *bitmap, uint32_t i)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		raw_bitmap_unset(bitmap, i);
+		break;
+	case ROARING:
+		roaring_bitmap_remove(bitmap, i);
+	default:
+		break;
+	}
+}
+
+int roaring_or_raw_bitmap_get(void *bitmap, uint32_t pos)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		return raw_bitmap_get(bitmap, pos);
+	case ROARING:
+		return roaring_bitmap_contains(bitmap, pos);
+	default:
+		return error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+}
+
+int roaring_or_raw_bitmap_equals(void *a, void *b)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		return raw_bitmap_equals(a, b);
+		break;
+	case ROARING:
+		return roaring_bitmap_equals(a, b);
+	default:
+		return error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+}
+
+size_t roaring_or_raw_bitmap_cardinality(void *bitmap)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		return raw_bitmap_popcount(bitmap);
+	case ROARING:
+		return roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(bitmap);
+	default:
+		return error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+}
+
+int roaring_or_raw_bitmap_is_subset(void *a, void *b)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type) {
+	case EWAH:
+		return raw_bitmap_is_subset(a, b);
+	case ROARING:
+		return roaring_bitmap_andnot_cardinality(a, b) ? 1: 0;
+	default:
+		return error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+}
+
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_printf(void *a)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type) {
+	case EWAH:
+		ewah_bitmap_print(a);
+		return;
+	case ROARING:
+		roaring_bitmap_printf(a);
+		return;
+	}
+}
+
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_or(void *self, void *other)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		raw_bitmap_or(self, other);
+		break;
+	case ROARING:
+		roaring_bitmap_or_inplace(self, other);
+		break;
+	default:
+		error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+}
+
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_and_not(void *self, void *other)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		raw_bitmap_and_not(self, other);
+		break;
+	case ROARING:
+		roaring_bitmap_andnot_inplace(self, other);
+		break;
+	default:
+		error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+}
+
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_free(void *bitmap)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		raw_bitmap_free(bitmap);
+		break;
+	case ROARING:
+		roaring_bitmap_free(bitmap);
+		break;
+	default:
+		error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+}
+
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_free_safe(void **bitmap)
+{
+	switch (bitmap_type)
+	{
+	case EWAH:
+		raw_bitmap_free(*bitmap);
+		break;
+	case ROARING:
+		roaring_bitmap_free_safe((roaring_bitmap_t **)bitmap);
+		break;
+	default:
+		error(_("bitmap type not initialized\n"));
+	}
+}
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/bitmap.h b/bitmap.h
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..d75400922cc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bitmap.h
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+#ifndef __BITMAP_H__
+#define __BITMAP_H__
+
+
+#include "git-compat-util.h"
+#include "ewah/ewok.h"
+#include "roaring/roaring.h"
+
+enum bitmap_type {
+	INIT_BITMAP_TYPE = 0,
+	EWAH,
+	ROARING
+};
+
+enum bitmap_type get_bitmap_type(void);
+void set_bitmap_type(enum bitmap_type type);
+void *roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_init(void);
+void *roaring_or_raw_bitmap_new(void);
+void *roaring_or_raw_bitmap_copy(void *bitmap);
+int roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_set(void *bitmap, uint32_t i);
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_set(void *bitmap, uint32_t i);
+int roaring_or_raw_bitmap_get(void *bitmap, uint32_t pos);
+int roaring_or_raw_bitmap_is_subset(void *a, void *b);
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_or(void *self, void *other);
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_free(void *bitmap);
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_free_safe(void **bitmap);
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_unset(void *bitmap, uint32_t i);
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_printf(void *a);
+int roaring_or_raw_bitmap_equals(void *a, void *b);
+void roaring_or_raw_bitmap_and_not(void *self, void *other);
+size_t roaring_or_raw_bitmap_cardinality(void *bitmap);
+
+#endif
diff --git a/builtin/diff.c b/builtin/diff.c
index 54bb3de964c..8cf7481d325 100644
--- a/builtin/diff.c
+++ b/builtin/diff.c
@@ -353,8 +353,8 @@ static void symdiff_prepare(struct rev_info *rev, struct symdiff *sym)
 			continue;
 		}
 		if (!map)
-			map = bitmap_new();
-		bitmap_set(map, i);
+			map = raw_bitmap_new();
+		raw_bitmap_set(map, i);
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -364,7 +364,7 @@ static void symdiff_prepare(struct rev_info *rev, struct symdiff *sym)
 		usage(builtin_diff_usage);
 
 	if (!is_symdiff) {
-		bitmap_free(map);
+		raw_bitmap_free(map);
 		sym->warn = 0;
 		sym->skip = NULL;
 		return;
@@ -375,7 +375,7 @@ static void symdiff_prepare(struct rev_info *rev, struct symdiff *sym)
 	if (basecount == 0)
 		die(_("%s...%s: no merge base"), sym->left, sym->right);
 	sym->base = rev->pending.objects[basepos].name;
-	bitmap_unset(map, basepos);	/* unmark the base we want */
+	raw_bitmap_unset(map, basepos);	/* unmark the base we want */
 	sym->warn = basecount > 1;
 	sym->skip = map;
 }
@@ -539,7 +539,7 @@ int cmd_diff(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 			obj = &get_commit_tree(((struct commit *)obj))->object;
 
 		if (obj->type == OBJ_TREE) {
-			if (sdiff.skip && bitmap_get(sdiff.skip, i))
+			if (sdiff.skip && raw_bitmap_get(sdiff.skip, i))
 				continue;
 			obj->flags |= flags;
 			add_object_array(obj, name, &ent);
diff --git a/ewah/bitmap.c b/ewah/bitmap.c
index ac618641632..499bf2e03d0 100644
--- a/ewah/bitmap.c
+++ b/ewah/bitmap.c
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@
 #define EWAH_MASK(x) ((eword_t)1 << (x % BITS_IN_EWORD))
 #define EWAH_BLOCK(x) (x / BITS_IN_EWORD)
 
-struct bitmap *bitmap_word_alloc(size_t word_alloc)
+struct bitmap *raw_bitmap_word_alloc(size_t word_alloc)
 {
 	struct bitmap *bitmap = xmalloc(sizeof(struct bitmap));
 	CALLOC_ARRAY(bitmap->words, word_alloc);
@@ -30,14 +30,14 @@ struct bitmap *bitmap_word_alloc(size_t word_alloc)
 	return bitmap;
 }
 
-struct bitmap *bitmap_new(void)
+struct bitmap *raw_bitmap_new(void)
 {
-	return bitmap_word_alloc(32);
+	return raw_bitmap_word_alloc(32);
 }
 
-struct bitmap *bitmap_dup(const struct bitmap *src)
+struct bitmap *raw_bitmap_dup(const struct bitmap *src)
 {
-	struct bitmap *dst = bitmap_word_alloc(src->word_alloc);
+	struct bitmap *dst = raw_bitmap_word_alloc(src->word_alloc);
 	COPY_ARRAY(dst->words, src->words, src->word_alloc);
 	return dst;
 }
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ static void bitmap_grow(struct bitmap *self, size_t word_alloc)
 	       (self->word_alloc - old_size) * sizeof(eword_t));
 }
 
-void bitmap_set(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos)
+void raw_bitmap_set(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos)
 {
 	size_t block = EWAH_BLOCK(pos);
 
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ void bitmap_set(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos)
 	self->words[block] |= EWAH_MASK(pos);
 }
 
-void bitmap_unset(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos)
+void raw_bitmap_unset(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos)
 {
 	size_t block = EWAH_BLOCK(pos);
 
@@ -66,14 +66,14 @@ void bitmap_unset(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos)
 		self->words[block] &= ~EWAH_MASK(pos);
 }
 
-int bitmap_get(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos)
+int raw_bitmap_get(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos)
 {
 	size_t block = EWAH_BLOCK(pos);
 	return block < self->word_alloc &&
 		(self->words[block] & EWAH_MASK(pos)) != 0;
 }
 
-struct ewah_bitmap *bitmap_to_ewah(struct bitmap *bitmap)
+struct ewah_bitmap *raw_bitmap_to_ewah(struct bitmap *bitmap)
 {
 	struct ewah_bitmap *ewah = ewah_new();
 	size_t i, running_empty_words = 0;
@@ -100,9 +100,9 @@ struct ewah_bitmap *bitmap_to_ewah(struct bitmap *bitmap)
 	return ewah;
 }
 
-struct bitmap *ewah_to_bitmap(struct ewah_bitmap *ewah)
+struct bitmap *ewah_to_raw_bitmap(struct ewah_bitmap *ewah)
 {
-	struct bitmap *bitmap = bitmap_new();
+	struct bitmap *bitmap = raw_bitmap_new();
 	struct ewah_iterator it;
 	eword_t blowup;
 	size_t i = 0;
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ struct bitmap *ewah_to_bitmap(struct ewah_bitmap *ewah)
 	return bitmap;
 }
 
-void bitmap_and_not(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other)
+void raw_bitmap_and_not(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other)
 {
 	const size_t count = (self->word_alloc < other->word_alloc) ?
 		self->word_alloc : other->word_alloc;
@@ -129,7 +129,7 @@ void bitmap_and_not(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other)
 		self->words[i] &= ~other->words[i];
 }
 
-void bitmap_or(struct bitmap *self, const struct bitmap *other)
+void raw_bitmap_or(struct bitmap *self, const struct bitmap *other)
 {
 	size_t i;
 
@@ -138,7 +138,7 @@ void bitmap_or(struct bitmap *self, const struct bitmap *other)
 		self->words[i] |= other->words[i];
 }
 
-void bitmap_or_ewah(struct bitmap *self, struct ewah_bitmap *other)
+void raw_bitmap_or_ewah(struct bitmap *self, struct ewah_bitmap *other)
 {
 	size_t original_size = self->word_alloc;
 	size_t other_final = (other->bit_size / BITS_IN_EWORD) + 1;
@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@ void bitmap_or_ewah(struct bitmap *self, struct ewah_bitmap *other)
 		self->words[i++] |= word;
 }
 
-size_t bitmap_popcount(struct bitmap *self)
+size_t raw_bitmap_popcount(struct bitmap *self)
 {
 	size_t i, count = 0;
 
@@ -169,7 +169,7 @@ size_t bitmap_popcount(struct bitmap *self)
 	return count;
 }
 
-int bitmap_equals(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other)
+int raw_bitmap_equals(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other)
 {
 	struct bitmap *big, *small;
 	size_t i;
@@ -195,7 +195,32 @@ int bitmap_equals(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other)
 	return 1;
 }
 
-int bitmap_is_subset(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other)
+void ewah_bitmap_print(struct ewah_bitmap *bm)
+{
+	uint32_t i;
+	struct bitmap *raw_bm = ewah_to_raw_bitmap(bm);
+
+	fprintf(stderr, "\n[ ");
+	for (i = 0; i < raw_bm->word_alloc; i++) {
+		eword_t word = raw_bm->words[i];
+		unsigned offset;
+
+		for (offset = 0; offset < BITS_IN_EWORD; offset++) {
+			uint32_t pos;
+
+			if ((word >> offset) == 0)
+				break;
+			offset += ewah_bit_ctz64(word >> offset);
+			pos = i * BITS_IN_EWORD + offset;
+
+			fprintf(stderr, "%d, ", pos);
+		}
+	}
+	fprintf(stderr, "]\n");
+
+}
+
+int raw_bitmap_is_subset(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other)
 {
 	size_t common_size, i;
 
@@ -216,7 +241,7 @@ int bitmap_is_subset(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other)
 	return 0;
 }
 
-void bitmap_free(struct bitmap *bitmap)
+void raw_bitmap_free(struct bitmap *bitmap)
 {
 	if (!bitmap)
 		return;
diff --git a/ewah/ewok.h b/ewah/ewok.h
index 7eb8b9b6301..4fc96fd73d0 100644
--- a/ewah/ewok.h
+++ b/ewah/ewok.h
@@ -171,23 +171,24 @@ struct bitmap {
 	size_t word_alloc;
 };
 
-struct bitmap *bitmap_new(void);
-struct bitmap *bitmap_word_alloc(size_t word_alloc);
-struct bitmap *bitmap_dup(const struct bitmap *src);
-void bitmap_set(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos);
-void bitmap_unset(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos);
-int bitmap_get(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos);
-void bitmap_free(struct bitmap *self);
-int bitmap_equals(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other);
-int bitmap_is_subset(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other);
-
-struct ewah_bitmap * bitmap_to_ewah(struct bitmap *bitmap);
-struct bitmap *ewah_to_bitmap(struct ewah_bitmap *ewah);
-
-void bitmap_and_not(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other);
-void bitmap_or_ewah(struct bitmap *self, struct ewah_bitmap *other);
-void bitmap_or(struct bitmap *self, const struct bitmap *other);
-
-size_t bitmap_popcount(struct bitmap *self);
+struct bitmap *raw_bitmap_new(void);
+struct bitmap *raw_bitmap_word_alloc(size_t word_alloc);
+struct bitmap *raw_bitmap_dup(const struct bitmap *src);
+void raw_bitmap_set(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos);
+void raw_bitmap_unset(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos);
+int raw_bitmap_get(struct bitmap *self, size_t pos);
+void raw_bitmap_free(struct bitmap *self);
+int raw_bitmap_equals(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other);
+int raw_bitmap_is_subset(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other);
+
+struct ewah_bitmap * raw_bitmap_to_ewah(struct bitmap *bitmap);
+struct bitmap *ewah_to_raw_bitmap(struct ewah_bitmap *ewah);
+
+void raw_bitmap_and_not(struct bitmap *self, struct bitmap *other);
+void raw_bitmap_or_ewah(struct bitmap *self, struct ewah_bitmap *other);
+void raw_bitmap_or(struct bitmap *self, const struct bitmap *other);
+void ewah_bitmap_print(struct ewah_bitmap *bm);
+
+size_t raw_bitmap_popcount(struct bitmap *self);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/pack-bitmap-write.c b/pack-bitmap-write.c
index a213f5eddc5..7ea2f8e0065 100644
--- a/pack-bitmap-write.c
+++ b/pack-bitmap-write.c
@@ -12,22 +12,27 @@
 #include "hash-lookup.h"
 #include "pack-objects.h"
 #include "commit-reach.h"
+#include "chunk-format.h"
 #include "prio-queue.h"
 
 struct bitmapped_commit {
 	struct commit *commit;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *bitmap;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *write_as;
+	void *bitmap;
+	void *write_as;
+
+	uint32_t bitmap_type;
 	int flags;
 	int xor_offset;
 	uint32_t commit_pos;
 };
 
-struct bitmap_writer {
-	struct ewah_bitmap *commits;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *trees;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *blobs;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *tags;
+struct write_bitmap_context {
+	void *commits;
+	void *trees;
+	void *blobs;
+	void *tags;
+
+	uint32_t bitmap_type;
 
 	kh_oid_map_t *bitmaps;
 	struct packing_data *to_pack;
@@ -35,18 +40,37 @@ struct bitmap_writer {
 	struct bitmapped_commit *selected;
 	unsigned int selected_nr, selected_alloc;
 
+	struct pack_idx_entry **index;
+	uint32_t index_nr;
+	off_t *offsets;
+	uint32_t *commit_positions;
+
+	void *lookup_table;
+	void *hash_cache;
+
 	struct progress *progress;
 	int show_progress;
 	unsigned char pack_checksum[GIT_MAX_RAWSZ];
 };
 
-static struct bitmap_writer writer;
+static struct write_bitmap_context writer;
 
 void bitmap_writer_show_progress(int show)
 {
 	writer.show_progress = show;
 }
 
+void bitmap_writer_init_bm_type(unsigned version_type)
+{
+	if (version_type & BITMAP_SET_ROARING_BITMAP) {
+		writer.bitmap_type = ROARING;
+		set_bitmap_type(ROARING);
+	}
+	else if (version_type & BITMAP_SET_EWAH_BITMAP) {
+		writer.bitmap_type = EWAH;
+		set_bitmap_type(EWAH);
+	}
+}
 /**
  * Build the initial type index for the packfile or multi-pack-index
  */
@@ -56,11 +80,13 @@ void bitmap_writer_build_type_index(struct packing_data *to_pack,
 {
 	uint32_t i;
 
-	writer.commits = ewah_new();
-	writer.trees = ewah_new();
-	writer.blobs = ewah_new();
-	writer.tags = ewah_new();
+	writer.commits = roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_init();
+	writer.trees = roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_init();
+	writer.blobs = roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_init();
+	writer.tags = roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_init();
 	ALLOC_ARRAY(to_pack->in_pack_pos, to_pack->nr_objects);
+	writer.index = index;
+	writer.index_nr = index_nr;
 
 	for (i = 0; i < index_nr; ++i) {
 		struct object_entry *entry = (struct object_entry *)index[i];
@@ -84,25 +110,25 @@ void bitmap_writer_build_type_index(struct packing_data *to_pack,
 
 		switch (real_type) {
 		case OBJ_COMMIT:
-			ewah_set(writer.commits, i);
+			roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_set(writer.commits, i);
 			break;
 
 		case OBJ_TREE:
-			ewah_set(writer.trees, i);
+			roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_set(writer.trees, i);
 			break;
 
 		case OBJ_BLOB:
-			ewah_set(writer.blobs, i);
+			roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_set(writer.blobs, i);
 			break;
 
 		case OBJ_TAG:
-			ewah_set(writer.tags, i);
+			roaring_or_ewah_bitmap_set(writer.tags, i);
 			break;
 
 		default:
 			die("Missing type information for %s (%d/%d)",
-			    oid_to_hex(&entry->idx.oid), real_type,
-			    oe_type(entry));
+				oid_to_hex(&entry->idx.oid), real_type,
+				oe_type(entry));
 		}
 	}
 }
@@ -184,8 +210,8 @@ static void compute_xor_offsets(void)
 
 struct bb_commit {
 	struct commit_list *reverse_edges;
-	struct bitmap *commit_mask;
-	struct bitmap *bitmap;
+	void *commit_mask;
+	void *bitmap;
 	unsigned selected:1,
 		 maximal:1;
 	unsigned idx; /* within selected array */
@@ -200,7 +226,7 @@ struct bitmap_builder {
 };
 
 static void bitmap_builder_init(struct bitmap_builder *bb,
-				struct bitmap_writer *writer,
+				struct write_bitmap_context *writer,
 				struct bitmap_index *old_bitmap)
 {
 	struct rev_info revs;
@@ -225,8 +251,8 @@ static void bitmap_builder_init(struct bitmap_builder *bb,
 		ent->maximal = 1;
 		ent->idx = i;
 
-		ent->commit_mask = bitmap_new();
-		bitmap_set(ent->commit_mask, i);
+		ent->commit_mask = roaring_or_raw_bitmap_new();
+		roaring_or_raw_bitmap_set(ent->commit_mask, i);
 
 		add_pending_object(&revs, &c->object, "");
 	}
@@ -278,18 +304,18 @@ static void bitmap_builder_init(struct bitmap_builder *bb,
 			int c_not_p, p_not_c;
 
 			if (!p_ent->commit_mask) {
-				p_ent->commit_mask = bitmap_new();
+				p_ent->commit_mask = roaring_or_raw_bitmap_new();
 				c_not_p = 1;
 				p_not_c = 0;
 			} else {
-				c_not_p = bitmap_is_subset(c_ent->commit_mask, p_ent->commit_mask);
-				p_not_c = bitmap_is_subset(p_ent->commit_mask, c_ent->commit_mask);
+				c_not_p = roaring_or_raw_bitmap_is_subset(c_ent->commit_mask, p_ent->commit_mask);
+				p_not_c = roaring_or_raw_bitmap_is_subset(p_ent->commit_mask, c_ent->commit_mask);
 			}
 
 			if (!c_not_p)
 				continue;
 
-			bitmap_or(p_ent->commit_mask, c_ent->commit_mask);
+			roaring_or_raw_bitmap_or(p_ent->commit_mask, c_ent->commit_mask);
 
 			if (p_not_c)
 				p_ent->maximal = 1;
@@ -312,7 +338,7 @@ static void bitmap_builder_init(struct bitmap_builder *bb,
 		}
 
 next:
-		bitmap_free(c_ent->commit_mask);
+		roaring_or_raw_bitmap_free(c_ent->commit_mask);
 		c_ent->commit_mask = NULL;
 	}
 
@@ -337,7 +363,7 @@ static void bitmap_builder_clear(struct bitmap_builder *bb)
 	bb->commits_nr = bb->commits_alloc = 0;
 }
 
-static int fill_bitmap_tree(struct bitmap *bitmap,
+static int fill_bitmap_tree(void *bitmap,
 			    struct tree *tree)
 {
 	int found;
@@ -352,9 +378,9 @@ static int fill_bitmap_tree(struct bitmap *bitmap,
 	pos = find_object_pos(&tree->object.oid, &found);
 	if (!found)
 		return -1;
-	if (bitmap_get(bitmap, pos))
+	if (roaring_or_raw_bitmap_get(bitmap, pos))
 		return 0;
-	bitmap_set(bitmap, pos);
+	roaring_or_raw_bitmap_set(bitmap, pos);
 
 	if (parse_tree(tree) < 0)
 		die("unable to load tree object %s",
@@ -372,7 +398,7 @@ static int fill_bitmap_tree(struct bitmap *bitmap,
 			pos = find_object_pos(&entry.oid, &found);
 			if (!found)
 				return -1;
-			bitmap_set(bitmap, pos);
+			roaring_or_raw_bitmap_set(bitmap, pos);
 			break;
 		default:
 			/* Gitlink, etc; not reachable */
@@ -394,7 +420,7 @@ static int fill_bitmap_commit(struct bb_commit *ent,
 	int found;
 	uint32_t pos;
 	if (!ent->bitmap)
-		ent->bitmap = bitmap_new();
+		ent->bitmap = roaring_or_raw_bitmap_new();
 
 	prio_queue_put(queue, commit);
 
@@ -403,13 +429,13 @@ static int fill_bitmap_commit(struct bb_commit *ent,
 		struct commit *c = prio_queue_get(queue);
 
 		if (old_bitmap && mapping) {
-			struct ewah_bitmap *old = bitmap_for_commit(old_bitmap, c);
+			void *old = bitmap_for_commit(old_bitmap, c);
 			/*
 			 * If this commit has an old bitmap, then translate that
 			 * bitmap and add its bits to this one. No need to walk
 			 * parents or the tree for this commit.
 			 */
-			if (old && !rebuild_bitmap(mapping, old, ent->bitmap))
+			if (old && !rebuild_bitmap(old_bitmap, mapping, old, ent->bitmap))
 				continue;
 		}
 
@@ -420,15 +446,15 @@ static int fill_bitmap_commit(struct bb_commit *ent,
 		pos = find_object_pos(&c->object.oid, &found);
 		if (!found)
 			return -1;
-		bitmap_set(ent->bitmap, pos);
+		roaring_or_raw_bitmap_set(ent->bitmap, pos);
 		prio_queue_put(tree_queue, get_commit_tree(c));
 
 		for (p = c->parents; p; p = p->next) {
 			pos = find_object_pos(&p->item->object.oid, &found);
 			if (!found)
 				return -1;
-			if (!bitmap_get(ent->bitmap, pos)) {
-				bitmap_set(ent->bitmap, pos);
+			if (!roaring_or_raw_bitmap_get(ent->bitmap, pos)) {
+				roaring_or_raw_bitmap_set(ent->bitmap, pos);
 				prio_queue_put(queue, p->item);
 			}
 		}
@@ -447,8 +473,15 @@ static void store_selected(struct bb_commit *ent, struct commit *commit)
 	struct bitmapped_commit *stored = &writer.selected[ent->idx];
 	khiter_t hash_pos;
 	int hash_ret;
-
-	stored->bitmap = bitmap_to_ewah(ent->bitmap);
+	enum bitmap_type bm_type = get_bitmap_type();
+
+	if (bm_type == EWAH)
+		stored->bitmap = raw_bitmap_to_ewah(ent->bitmap);
+	else if (bm_type == ROARING) {
+		stored->bitmap = roaring_bitmap_copy(ent->bitmap);
+		stored->write_as = stored->bitmap;
+		stored->xor_offset = 0;
+	}
 
 	hash_pos = kh_put_oid_map(writer.bitmaps, commit->object.oid, &hash_ret);
 	if (hash_ret == 0)
@@ -506,16 +539,16 @@ int bitmap_writer_build(struct packing_data *to_pack)
 				bb_data_at(&bb.data, child);
 
 			if (child_ent->bitmap)
-				bitmap_or(child_ent->bitmap, ent->bitmap);
+				roaring_or_raw_bitmap_or(child_ent->bitmap, ent->bitmap);
 			else if (reused)
-				child_ent->bitmap = bitmap_dup(ent->bitmap);
+				child_ent->bitmap = roaring_or_raw_bitmap_copy(ent->bitmap);
 			else {
 				child_ent->bitmap = ent->bitmap;
 				reused = 1;
 			}
 		}
 		if (!reused)
-			bitmap_free(ent->bitmap);
+			roaring_or_raw_bitmap_free(ent->bitmap);
 		ent->bitmap = NULL;
 	}
 	clear_prio_queue(&queue);
@@ -529,7 +562,7 @@ int bitmap_writer_build(struct packing_data *to_pack)
 
 	stop_progress(&writer.progress);
 
-	if (closed)
+	if (closed && writer.bitmap_type == EWAH)
 		compute_xor_offsets();
 	return closed ? 0 : -1;
 }
@@ -626,7 +659,7 @@ void bitmap_writer_select_commits(struct commit **indexed_commits,
 }
 
 
-static int hashwrite_ewah_helper(void *f, const void *buf, size_t len)
+static int hashwrite_bitmap_helper(void *f, const void *buf, size_t len)
 {
 	/* hashwrite will die on error */
 	hashwrite(f, buf, len);
@@ -638,7 +671,7 @@ static int hashwrite_ewah_helper(void *f, const void *buf, size_t len)
  */
 static inline void dump_bitmap(struct hashfile *f, struct ewah_bitmap *bitmap)
 {
-	if (ewah_serialize_to(bitmap, hashwrite_ewah_helper, f) < 0)
+	if (ewah_serialize_to(bitmap, hashwrite_bitmap_helper, f) < 0)
 		die("Failed to write bitmap index");
 }
 
@@ -649,10 +682,15 @@ static const struct object_id *oid_access(size_t pos, const void *table)
 }
 
 static void write_selected_commits_v1(struct hashfile *f,
-				      uint32_t *commit_positions,
-				      off_t *offsets)
+				      struct pack_idx_entry **index,
+				      uint32_t index_nr)
 {
 	int i;
+	uint32_t *commit_positions = writer.commit_positions;
+	off_t *offsets = writer.offsets;
+
+	if (!commit_positions)
+		die(_("commit positions are not initialized properly\n"));
 
 	for (i = 0; i < writer.selected_nr; ++i) {
 		struct bitmapped_commit *stored = &writer.selected[i];
@@ -683,11 +721,13 @@ static int table_cmp(const void *_va, const void *_vb, void *_data)
 }
 
 static void write_lookup_table(struct hashfile *f,
-			       uint32_t *commit_positions,
-			       off_t *offsets)
+			       struct pack_idx_entry **index,
+			       uint32_t index_nr)
 {
 	uint32_t i;
 	uint32_t *table, *table_inv;
+	uint32_t *commit_positions = writer.commit_positions;
+	off_t *offsets = writer.offsets;
 
 	ALLOC_ARRAY(table, writer.selected_nr);
 	ALLOC_ARRAY(table_inv, writer.selected_nr);
@@ -758,59 +798,188 @@ void bitmap_writer_set_checksum(const unsigned char *sha1)
 	hashcpy(writer.pack_checksum, sha1);
 }
 
-void bitmap_writer_finish(struct pack_idx_entry **index,
-			  uint32_t index_nr,
-			  const char *filename,
-			  uint16_t options)
+static size_t compute_pt_serialize_type_indexes_size(void)
 {
-	static uint16_t default_version = 1;
-	static uint16_t flags = BITMAP_OPT_FULL_DAG;
-	struct strbuf tmp_file = STRBUF_INIT;
-	struct hashfile *f;
-	uint32_t *commit_positions = NULL;
-	off_t *offsets = NULL;
-	uint32_t i;
+	size_t type_index_size = 0;
+	type_index_size += roaring_bitmap_network_portable_size_in_bytes(writer.commits);
+	type_index_size += roaring_bitmap_network_portable_size_in_bytes(writer.trees);
+	type_index_size += roaring_bitmap_network_portable_size_in_bytes(writer.blobs);
+	type_index_size += roaring_bitmap_network_portable_size_in_bytes(writer.tags);
+	return type_index_size;
+}
 
-	struct bitmap_disk_header header;
+static size_t compute_pt_serialize_commit_bitmap_sec_size(void)
+{
+	size_t  size = 0;
+	int i;
 
-	int fd = odb_mkstemp(&tmp_file, "pack/tmp_bitmap_XXXXXX");
+	for (i = 0; i < writer.selected_nr; ++i) {
+		struct bitmapped_commit *stored = &writer.selected[i];
 
-	f = hashfd(fd, tmp_file.buf);
+		size += sizeof(uint32_t) + sizeof(uint8_t) * 2;
+		size += roaring_bitmap_network_portable_size_in_bytes(stored->write_as);
+	}
+	return size;
+}
 
-	memcpy(header.magic, BITMAP_IDX_SIGNATURE, sizeof(BITMAP_IDX_SIGNATURE));
-	header.version = htons(default_version);
-	header.options = htons(flags | options);
-	header.entry_count = htonl(writer.selected_nr);
-	hashcpy(header.checksum, writer.pack_checksum);
+static size_t compute_hash_cache_size(void)
+{
+	return st_mult(writer.index_nr, sizeof(uint32_t));
+}
 
-	hashwrite(f, &header, sizeof(header) - GIT_MAX_RAWSZ + the_hash_algo->rawsz);
+static size_t compute_bitmap_lookup_table_size(void)
+{
+	return st_mult(writer.selected_nr, BITMAP_LOOKUP_TABLE_TRIPLET_WIDTH);
+}
+
+static int write_bitmap_type_indexes(struct hashfile *f, void *data)
+{
+	struct write_bitmap_context *writer = data;
+	roaring_bitmap_portable_network_serialize(writer->commits, hashwrite_bitmap_helper, f);
+	roaring_bitmap_portable_network_serialize(writer->trees, hashwrite_bitmap_helper, f);
+	roaring_bitmap_portable_network_serialize(writer->blobs, hashwrite_bitmap_helper, f);
+	roaring_bitmap_portable_network_serialize(writer->tags, hashwrite_bitmap_helper, f);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int write_reachability_roaring_bitmaps(struct hashfile *f, void *data)
+{
+	struct write_bitmap_context *writer = data;
+	uint32_t *commit_positions = writer->commit_positions;
+	int i;
+
+	if (!commit_positions)
+		die(_("commit positions are not initialized properly\n"));
+
+	for (i = 0; i < writer->selected_nr; ++i) {
+		struct bitmapped_commit *stored = &writer->selected[i];
+
+		if (writer->offsets)
+			writer->offsets[i] = hashfile_total(f);
+
+		hashwrite_be32(f, commit_positions[i]);
+		hashwrite_u8(f, stored->xor_offset);
+		hashwrite_u8(f, stored->flags);
+
+		roaring_bitmap_portable_network_serialize(stored->write_as, hashwrite_bitmap_helper, f);
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int write_chunk_hash_cache(struct hashfile *f, void *data)
+{
+	struct write_bitmap_context *writer = data;
+	write_hash_cache(f, writer->index, writer->index_nr);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int write_chunk_lookup_table(struct hashfile *f, void *data)
+{
+	struct write_bitmap_context *writer = data;
+	write_lookup_table(f, writer->index, writer->index_nr);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void write_roaring_bitmap_file(struct hashfile *f,
+			       const char *filename,
+			       uint16_t options)
+{
+	struct chunkfile *cf = init_chunkfile(f);
+
+	add_chunk(cf, BITMAP_TYPE_INDEXES,
+		  compute_pt_serialize_type_indexes_size(),
+		  write_bitmap_type_indexes);
+
+	trace2_region_enter("pack-bitmap-write", "write-roaring-bitmap", the_repository);
+	add_chunk(cf, BITMAP_REACHABILITY_BITMAPS,
+		  compute_pt_serialize_commit_bitmap_sec_size(),
+		  write_reachability_roaring_bitmaps);
+
+	if (options & BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE)
+		add_chunk(cf, BITMAP_HASH_CACHE,
+			compute_hash_cache_size(),
+			write_chunk_hash_cache);
+
+	if (options & BITMAP_OPT_LOOKUP_TABLE)
+		add_chunk(cf, BITMAP_LOOKUP_TABLE,
+			compute_bitmap_lookup_table_size(),
+			write_chunk_lookup_table);
+
+	hashwrite_u8(f, get_num_chunks(cf));
+	write_chunkfile(cf, &writer);
+	trace2_region_leave("pack-bitmap-write", "write-roaring-bitmap", the_repository);
+}
+
+static void write_ewah_bitmap_file(struct hashfile *f,
+			    struct pack_idx_entry **index,
+			    uint32_t index_nr,
+			    const char *filename,
+			    uint16_t options)
+{
 	dump_bitmap(f, writer.commits);
 	dump_bitmap(f, writer.trees);
 	dump_bitmap(f, writer.blobs);
 	dump_bitmap(f, writer.tags);
 
+	write_selected_commits_v1(f, index, index_nr);
+
 	if (options & BITMAP_OPT_LOOKUP_TABLE)
-		CALLOC_ARRAY(offsets, index_nr);
+		write_lookup_table(f, index, index_nr);
 
+	if (options & BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE)
+		write_hash_cache(f, index, index_nr);
+}
+
+static void fill_writer_commit_positions(void)
+{
+	uint32_t *commit_positions = NULL;
+	int i;
 	ALLOC_ARRAY(commit_positions, writer.selected_nr);
 
 	for (i = 0; i < writer.selected_nr; i++) {
 		struct bitmapped_commit *stored = &writer.selected[i];
-		int commit_pos = oid_pos(&stored->commit->object.oid, index, index_nr, oid_access);
+		int commit_pos = oid_pos(&stored->commit->object.oid, writer.index, writer.index_nr, oid_access);
 
 		if (commit_pos < 0)
 			BUG(_("trying to write commit not in index"));
 
 		commit_positions[i] = commit_pos;
 	}
+	writer.commit_positions = commit_positions;
+}
+
+void bitmap_writer_finish(struct pack_idx_entry **index,
+			  uint32_t index_nr,
+			  const char *filename,
+			  uint16_t options)
+{
+	struct strbuf tmp_file = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct hashfile *f = NULL;
+	static uint16_t version = 1;
+	static uint16_t flags = BITMAP_OPT_FULL_DAG;
+	struct bitmap_disk_header header;
 
-	write_selected_commits_v1(f, commit_positions, offsets);
+	int fd = odb_mkstemp(&tmp_file, "pack/tmp_bitmap_XXXXXX");
+	f = hashfd(fd, tmp_file.buf);
+	if (writer.bitmap_type & ROARING)
+		version = 2;
+
+	memcpy(header.magic, BITMAP_IDX_SIGNATURE, sizeof(BITMAP_IDX_SIGNATURE));
+	header.version = htons(version);
+	header.options = htons(flags | options);
+	header.entry_count = htonl(writer.selected_nr);
+	hashcpy(header.checksum, writer.pack_checksum);
+
+	hashwrite(f, &header, sizeof(header) - GIT_MAX_RAWSZ + the_hash_algo->rawsz);
 
 	if (options & BITMAP_OPT_LOOKUP_TABLE)
-		write_lookup_table(f, commit_positions, offsets);
+		CALLOC_ARRAY(writer.offsets, index_nr);
 
-	if (options & BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE)
-		write_hash_cache(f, index, index_nr);
+	fill_writer_commit_positions();
+	if (writer.bitmap_type == ROARING)
+		write_roaring_bitmap_file(f, filename, options);
+	else if (writer.bitmap_type == EWAH)
+		write_ewah_bitmap_file(f, index, index_nr, filename, options);
 
 	finalize_hashfile(f, NULL, FSYNC_COMPONENT_PACK_METADATA,
 			  CSUM_HASH_IN_STREAM | CSUM_FSYNC | CSUM_CLOSE);
@@ -820,8 +989,7 @@ void bitmap_writer_finish(struct pack_idx_entry **index,
 
 	if (rename(tmp_file.buf, filename))
 		die_errno("unable to rename temporary bitmap file to '%s'", filename);
-
 	strbuf_release(&tmp_file);
-	free(commit_positions);
-	free(offsets);
+	free(writer.offsets);
+	free(writer.commit_positions);
 }
diff --git a/pack-bitmap.c b/pack-bitmap.c
index 9a208abc1fd..c1a0bc26d02 100644
--- a/pack-bitmap.c
+++ b/pack-bitmap.c
@@ -936,7 +936,7 @@ static void show_object(struct object *object, const char *name, void *data_)
 		bitmap_pos = ext_index_add_object(data->bitmap_git, object,
 						  name);
 
-	bitmap_set(data->base, bitmap_pos);
+	raw_bitmap_set(data->base, bitmap_pos);
 }
 
 static void show_commit(struct commit *commit, void *data)
@@ -950,19 +950,19 @@ static int add_to_include_set(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 {
 	struct ewah_bitmap *partial;
 
-	if (data->seen && bitmap_get(data->seen, bitmap_pos))
+	if (data->seen && raw_bitmap_get(data->seen, bitmap_pos))
 		return 0;
 
-	if (bitmap_get(data->base, bitmap_pos))
+	if (raw_bitmap_get(data->base, bitmap_pos))
 		return 0;
 
 	partial = bitmap_for_commit(bitmap_git, commit);
 	if (partial) {
-		bitmap_or_ewah(data->base, partial);
+		raw_bitmap_or_ewah(data->base, partial);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
-	bitmap_set(data->base, bitmap_pos);
+	raw_bitmap_set(data->base, bitmap_pos);
 	return 1;
 }
 
@@ -999,8 +999,8 @@ static int should_include_obj(struct object *obj, void *_data)
 	bitmap_pos = bitmap_position(data->bitmap_git, &obj->oid);
 	if (bitmap_pos < 0)
 		return 1;
-	if ((data->seen && bitmap_get(data->seen, bitmap_pos)) ||
-	     bitmap_get(data->base, bitmap_pos)) {
+	if ((data->seen && raw_bitmap_get(data->seen, bitmap_pos)) ||
+	     raw_bitmap_get(data->base, bitmap_pos)) {
 		obj->flags |= SEEN;
 		return 0;
 	}
@@ -1017,9 +1017,9 @@ static int add_commit_to_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 		return 0;
 
 	if (!*base)
-		*base = ewah_to_bitmap(or_with);
+		*base = ewah_to_raw_bitmap(or_with);
 	else
-		bitmap_or_ewah(*base, or_with);
+		raw_bitmap_or_ewah(*base, or_with);
 
 	return 1;
 }
@@ -1080,7 +1080,7 @@ static struct bitmap *find_objects(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 		roots = roots->next;
 		pos = bitmap_position(bitmap_git, &object->oid);
 
-		if (pos < 0 || base == NULL || !bitmap_get(base, pos)) {
+		if (pos < 0 || base == NULL || !raw_bitmap_get(base, pos)) {
 			object->flags &= ~UNINTERESTING;
 			add_pending_object(revs, object, "");
 			needs_walk = 1;
@@ -1094,7 +1094,7 @@ static struct bitmap *find_objects(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 		struct bitmap_show_data show_data;
 
 		if (!base)
-			base = bitmap_new();
+			base = raw_bitmap_new();
 
 		incdata.bitmap_git = bitmap_git;
 		incdata.base = base;
@@ -1133,7 +1133,7 @@ static void show_extended_objects(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 	for (i = 0; i < eindex->count; ++i) {
 		struct object *obj;
 
-		if (!bitmap_get(objects, bitmap_num_objects(bitmap_git) + i))
+		if (!raw_bitmap_get(objects, bitmap_num_objects(bitmap_git) + i))
 			continue;
 
 		obj = eindex->objects[i];
@@ -1256,7 +1256,7 @@ static struct bitmap *find_tip_objects(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 				       struct object_list *tip_objects,
 				       enum object_type type)
 {
-	struct bitmap *result = bitmap_new();
+	struct bitmap *result = raw_bitmap_new();
 	struct object_list *p;
 
 	for (p = tip_objects; p; p = p->next) {
@@ -1269,7 +1269,7 @@ static struct bitmap *find_tip_objects(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 		if (pos < 0)
 			continue;
 
-		bitmap_set(result, pos);
+		raw_bitmap_set(result, pos);
 	}
 
 	return result;
@@ -1314,12 +1314,12 @@ static void filter_bitmap_exclude_type(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 	for (i = 0; i < eindex->count; i++) {
 		uint32_t pos = i + bitmap_num_objects(bitmap_git);
 		if (eindex->objects[i]->type == type &&
-		    bitmap_get(to_filter, pos) &&
-		    !bitmap_get(tips, pos))
-			bitmap_unset(to_filter, pos);
+		    raw_bitmap_get(to_filter, pos) &&
+		    !raw_bitmap_get(tips, pos))
+			raw_bitmap_unset(to_filter, pos);
 	}
 
-	bitmap_free(tips);
+	raw_bitmap_free(tips);
 }
 
 static void filter_bitmap_blob_none(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
@@ -1396,22 +1396,22 @@ static void filter_bitmap_blob_limit(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 			offset += ewah_bit_ctz64(word >> offset);
 			pos = i * BITS_IN_EWORD + offset;
 
-			if (!bitmap_get(tips, pos) &&
+			if (!raw_bitmap_get(tips, pos) &&
 			    get_size_by_pos(bitmap_git, pos) >= limit)
-				bitmap_unset(to_filter, pos);
+				raw_bitmap_unset(to_filter, pos);
 		}
 	}
 
 	for (i = 0; i < eindex->count; i++) {
 		uint32_t pos = i + bitmap_num_objects(bitmap_git);
 		if (eindex->objects[i]->type == OBJ_BLOB &&
-		    bitmap_get(to_filter, pos) &&
-		    !bitmap_get(tips, pos) &&
+		    raw_bitmap_get(to_filter, pos) &&
+		    !raw_bitmap_get(tips, pos) &&
 		    get_size_by_pos(bitmap_git, pos) >= limit)
-			bitmap_unset(to_filter, pos);
+			raw_bitmap_unset(to_filter, pos);
 	}
 
-	bitmap_free(tips);
+	raw_bitmap_free(tips);
 }
 
 static void filter_bitmap_tree_depth(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
@@ -1597,7 +1597,7 @@ struct bitmap_index *prepare_bitmap_walk(struct rev_info *revs,
 		BUG("failed to perform bitmap walk");
 
 	if (haves_bitmap)
-		bitmap_and_not(wants_bitmap, haves_bitmap);
+		raw_bitmap_and_not(wants_bitmap, haves_bitmap);
 
 	filter_bitmap(bitmap_git,
 		      (revs->filter.choice && filter_provided_objects) ? NULL : wants,
@@ -1702,14 +1702,14 @@ static int try_partial_reuse(struct packed_git *pack,
 		 * to REF_DELTA on the fly. Better to just let the normal
 		 * object_entry code path handle it.
 		 */
-		if (!bitmap_get(reuse, base_pos))
+		if (!raw_bitmap_get(reuse, base_pos))
 			return 0;
 	}
 
 	/*
 	 * If we got here, then the object is OK to reuse. Mark it.
 	 */
-	bitmap_set(reuse, pos);
+	raw_bitmap_set(reuse, pos);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -1758,7 +1758,7 @@ int reuse_partial_packfile_from_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 	if (i > objects_nr / BITS_IN_EWORD)
 		i = objects_nr / BITS_IN_EWORD;
 
-	reuse = bitmap_word_alloc(i);
+	reuse = raw_bitmap_word_alloc(i);
 	memset(reuse->words, 0xFF, i * sizeof(eword_t));
 
 	for (; i < result->word_alloc; ++i) {
@@ -1789,9 +1789,9 @@ int reuse_partial_packfile_from_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 done:
 	unuse_pack(&w_curs);
 
-	*entries = bitmap_popcount(reuse);
+	*entries = raw_bitmap_popcount(reuse);
 	if (!*entries) {
-		bitmap_free(reuse);
+		raw_bitmap_free(reuse);
 		return -1;
 	}
 
@@ -1799,7 +1799,7 @@ done:
 	 * Drop any reused objects from the result, since they will not
 	 * need to be handled separately.
 	 */
-	bitmap_and_not(result, reuse);
+	raw_bitmap_and_not(result, reuse);
 	*packfile_out = pack;
 	*reuse_out = reuse;
 	return 0;
@@ -1814,7 +1814,7 @@ int bitmap_walk_contains(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 		return 0;
 
 	idx = bitmap_position(bitmap_git, oid);
-	return idx >= 0 && bitmap_get(bitmap, idx);
+	return idx >= 0 && raw_bitmap_get(bitmap, idx);
 }
 
 void traverse_bitmap_commit_list(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
@@ -1853,7 +1853,7 @@ static uint32_t count_object_type(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 
 	for (i = 0; i < eindex->count; ++i) {
 		if (eindex->objects[i]->type == type &&
-			bitmap_get(objects, bitmap_num_objects(bitmap_git) + i))
+			raw_bitmap_get(objects, bitmap_num_objects(bitmap_git) + i))
 			count++;
 	}
 
@@ -1896,19 +1896,19 @@ static void test_bitmap_type(struct bitmap_test_data *tdata,
 	enum object_type bitmap_type = OBJ_NONE;
 	int bitmaps_nr = 0;
 
-	if (bitmap_get(tdata->commits, pos)) {
+	if (raw_bitmap_get(tdata->commits, pos)) {
 		bitmap_type = OBJ_COMMIT;
 		bitmaps_nr++;
 	}
-	if (bitmap_get(tdata->trees, pos)) {
+	if (raw_bitmap_get(tdata->trees, pos)) {
 		bitmap_type = OBJ_TREE;
 		bitmaps_nr++;
 	}
-	if (bitmap_get(tdata->blobs, pos)) {
+	if (raw_bitmap_get(tdata->blobs, pos)) {
 		bitmap_type = OBJ_BLOB;
 		bitmaps_nr++;
 	}
-	if (bitmap_get(tdata->tags, pos)) {
+	if (raw_bitmap_get(tdata->tags, pos)) {
 		bitmap_type = OBJ_TAG;
 		bitmaps_nr++;
 	}
@@ -1939,7 +1939,7 @@ static void test_show_object(struct object *object, const char *name,
 		die(_("object not in bitmap: '%s'"), oid_to_hex(&object->oid));
 	test_bitmap_type(tdata, object, bitmap_pos);
 
-	bitmap_set(tdata->base, bitmap_pos);
+	raw_bitmap_set(tdata->base, bitmap_pos);
 	display_progress(tdata->prg, ++tdata->seen);
 }
 
@@ -1954,7 +1954,7 @@ static void test_show_commit(struct commit *commit, void *data)
 		die(_("object not in bitmap: '%s'"), oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 	test_bitmap_type(tdata, &commit->object, bitmap_pos);
 
-	bitmap_set(tdata->base, bitmap_pos);
+	raw_bitmap_set(tdata->base, bitmap_pos);
 	display_progress(tdata->prg, ++tdata->seen);
 }
 
@@ -1985,7 +1985,7 @@ void test_bitmap_walk(struct rev_info *revs)
 		fprintf_ln(stderr, "Found bitmap for '%s'. %d bits / %08x checksum",
 			oid_to_hex(&root->oid), (int)bm->bit_size, ewah_checksum(bm));
 
-		result = ewah_to_bitmap(bm);
+		result = ewah_to_raw_bitmap(bm);
 	}
 
 	if (!result)
@@ -1995,17 +1995,17 @@ void test_bitmap_walk(struct rev_info *revs)
 	revs->tree_objects = 1;
 	revs->blob_objects = 1;
 
-	result_popcnt = bitmap_popcount(result);
+	result_popcnt = raw_bitmap_popcount(result);
 
 	if (prepare_revision_walk(revs))
 		die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
 
 	tdata.bitmap_git = bitmap_git;
-	tdata.base = bitmap_new();
-	tdata.commits = ewah_to_bitmap(bitmap_git->commits);
-	tdata.trees = ewah_to_bitmap(bitmap_git->trees);
-	tdata.blobs = ewah_to_bitmap(bitmap_git->blobs);
-	tdata.tags = ewah_to_bitmap(bitmap_git->tags);
+	tdata.base = raw_bitmap_new();
+	tdata.commits = ewah_to_raw_bitmap(bitmap_git->commits);
+	tdata.trees = ewah_to_raw_bitmap(bitmap_git->trees);
+	tdata.blobs = ewah_to_raw_bitmap(bitmap_git->blobs);
+	tdata.tags = ewah_to_raw_bitmap(bitmap_git->tags);
 	tdata.prg = start_progress("Verifying bitmap entries", result_popcnt);
 	tdata.seen = 0;
 
@@ -2013,17 +2013,17 @@ void test_bitmap_walk(struct rev_info *revs)
 
 	stop_progress(&tdata.prg);
 
-	if (bitmap_equals(result, tdata.base))
+	if (raw_bitmap_equals(result, tdata.base))
 		fprintf_ln(stderr, "OK!");
 	else
 		die(_("mismatch in bitmap results"));
 
-	bitmap_free(result);
-	bitmap_free(tdata.base);
-	bitmap_free(tdata.commits);
-	bitmap_free(tdata.trees);
-	bitmap_free(tdata.blobs);
-	bitmap_free(tdata.tags);
+	raw_bitmap_free(result);
+	raw_bitmap_free(tdata.base);
+	raw_bitmap_free(tdata.commits);
+	raw_bitmap_free(tdata.trees);
+	raw_bitmap_free(tdata.blobs);
+	raw_bitmap_free(tdata.tags);
 	free_bitmap_index(bitmap_git);
 }
 
@@ -2102,7 +2102,7 @@ int rebuild_bitmap(const uint32_t *reposition,
 
 			bit_pos = reposition[pos + offset];
 			if (bit_pos > 0)
-				bitmap_set(dest, bit_pos - 1);
+				raw_bitmap_set(dest, bit_pos - 1);
 			else /* can't reuse, we don't have the object */
 				return -1;
 		}
@@ -2171,8 +2171,8 @@ void free_bitmap_index(struct bitmap_index *b)
 	free(b->ext_index.objects);
 	free(b->ext_index.hashes);
 	kh_destroy_oid_pos(b->ext_index.positions);
-	bitmap_free(b->result);
-	bitmap_free(b->haves);
+	raw_bitmap_free(b->result);
+	raw_bitmap_free(b->haves);
 	if (bitmap_is_midx(b)) {
 		/*
 		 * Multi-pack bitmaps need to have resources associated with
@@ -2265,7 +2265,7 @@ static off_t get_disk_usage_for_extended(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git)
 	for (i = 0; i < eindex->count; i++) {
 		struct object *obj = eindex->objects[i];
 
-		if (!bitmap_get(result, bitmap_num_objects(bitmap_git) + i))
+		if (!raw_bitmap_get(result, bitmap_num_objects(bitmap_git) + i))
 			continue;
 
 		if (oid_object_info_extended(the_repository, &obj->oid, &oi, 0) < 0)
diff --git a/pack-bitmap.h b/pack-bitmap.h
index f0180b5276b..7d71deca023 100644
--- a/pack-bitmap.h
+++ b/pack-bitmap.h
@@ -2,11 +2,18 @@
 #define PACK_BITMAP_H
 
 #include "ewah/ewok.h"
+#include "roaring/roaring.h"
+#include "bitmap.h"
 #include "khash.h"
 #include "pack.h"
 #include "pack-objects.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
 
+#define BITMAP_TYPE_INDEXES 0x54494458 /* "TIDX" */
+#define BITMAP_REACHABILITY_BITMAPS 0x5242544D /* "RBTM" */
+#define BITMAP_HASH_CACHE 0x424D4843 /* "BMHC" */
+#define BITMAP_LOOKUP_TABLE 0x424D4C54 /* "BMLT" */
+
 struct commit;
 struct repository;
 struct rev_info;
@@ -23,6 +30,9 @@ struct bitmap_disk_header {
 
 #define NEEDS_BITMAP (1u<<22)
 
+#define BITMAP_SET_EWAH_BITMAP 0x1
+#define BITMAP_SET_ROARING_BITMAP (1 << 1)
+
 /*
  * The width in bytes of a single triplet in the lookup table
  * extension:
@@ -86,16 +96,18 @@ off_t get_disk_usage_from_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *, struct rev_info *);
 
 void bitmap_writer_show_progress(int show);
 void bitmap_writer_set_checksum(const unsigned char *sha1);
+void bitmap_writer_init_bm_type(unsigned version_type);
 void bitmap_writer_build_type_index(struct packing_data *to_pack,
 				    struct pack_idx_entry **index,
 				    uint32_t index_nr);
 uint32_t *create_bitmap_mapping(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 				struct packing_data *mapping);
-int rebuild_bitmap(const uint32_t *reposition,
-		   struct ewah_bitmap *source,
-		   struct bitmap *dest);
-struct ewah_bitmap *bitmap_for_commit(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
-				      struct commit *commit);
+int rebuild_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
+		   const uint32_t *reposition,
+		   void *source,
+		   void *dest);
+void *bitmap_for_commit(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
+			struct commit *commit);
 void bitmap_writer_select_commits(struct commit **indexed_commits,
 		unsigned int indexed_commits_nr, int max_bitmaps);
 int bitmap_writer_build(struct packing_data *to_pack);
diff --git a/t/t5310-pack-bitmaps.sh b/t/t5310-pack-bitmaps.sh
index 7e50f8e7653..d953de6b7fe 100755
--- a/t/t5310-pack-bitmaps.sh
+++ b/t/t5310-pack-bitmaps.sh
@@ -475,4 +475,21 @@ test_expect_success 'truncated bitmap fails gracefully (lookup table)' '
 	test_i18ngrep corrupted.bitmap.index stderr
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'setup test repository (roaring)' '
+	rm -fr * .git &&
+	git init
+'
+setup_bitmap_history
+
+test_expect_success 'setup writing roaring bitmaps during repack' '
+	git config repack.writeBitmaps true &&
+	git config pack.useRoaringBitmap true
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'full repack creates roaring bitmaps' '
+	GIT_TRACE2_EVENT="$(pwd)/trace6" \
+		git repack -ad &&
+	grep "\"label\":\"write-roaring-bitmap\"" trace6
+'
+
 test_done
-- 
@@ -475,4 +475,21 @@ test_expect_success 'truncated bitmap fails gracefully (lookup table)' '
 	test_i18ngrep corrupted.bitmap.index stderr
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'setup test repository (roaring)' '
+	rm -fr * .git &&
+	git init
+'
+setup_bitmap_history
+
+test_expect_success 'setup writing roaring bitmaps during repack' '
+	git config repack.writeBitmaps true &&
+	git config pack.useRoaringBitmap true
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'full repack creates roaring bitmaps' '
+	GIT_TRACE2_EVENT="$(pwd)/trace6" \
+		git repack -ad &&
+	grep "\"label\":\"write-roaring-bitmap\"" trace6
+'
+
 test_done
-- 
gitgitgadget


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 16+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 4/5] roaring: introduce a new config option for roaring bitmaps
  2022-09-19 17:47 [PATCH 0/5] [RFC] introduce Roaring bitmaps to Git Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 3/5] roaring: teach Git to write roaring bitmaps Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
@ 2022-09-19 17:47 ` Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 5/5] roaring: teach Git to read " Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  6 siblings, 0 replies; 16+ messages in thread
From: Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget @ 2022-09-19 17:47 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git
  Cc: Taylor Blau, Kaartic Sivaram, Junio C Hamano, Derrick Stolee,
	Abhradeep Chakraborty, Abhradeep Chakraborty

From: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>

Though Git can write roaring bitmaps, there is still no way (e.g.
configurations) to control the writing of roaring bitmaps.

Introduce `pack.useroaringbitmap` option to control the writing of
roaring bitmaps.

Mentored-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com>
Mentored-by: Kaartic Sivaraam <kaartic.sivaraam@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>
---
 builtin/multi-pack-index.c | 5 +++++
 builtin/pack-objects.c     | 7 ++++++-
 midx.c                     | 7 +++++++
 midx.h                     | 1 +
 pack-bitmap.h              | 7 +++----
 5 files changed, 22 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)

diff --git a/builtin/multi-pack-index.c b/builtin/multi-pack-index.c
index 9b126d6ce0e..9e221dd7cc9 100644
--- a/builtin/multi-pack-index.c
+++ b/builtin/multi-pack-index.c
@@ -80,6 +80,11 @@ static struct option *add_common_options(struct option *prev)
 static int git_multi_pack_index_write_config(const char *var, const char *value,
 					     void *cb UNUSED)
 {
+	if (!strcmp(var, "pack.useroaringbitmap")) {
+		if (git_config_bool(var, value))
+			opts.flags |= MIDX_WRITE_ROARING_BITMAP;
+	}
+
 	if (!strcmp(var, "pack.writebitmaphashcache")) {
 		if (git_config_bool(var, value))
 			opts.flags |= MIDX_WRITE_BITMAP_HASH_CACHE;
diff --git a/builtin/pack-objects.c b/builtin/pack-objects.c
index 3658c05cafc..439c5572c18 100644
--- a/builtin/pack-objects.c
+++ b/builtin/pack-objects.c
@@ -228,7 +228,7 @@ static enum {
 	WRITE_BITMAP_QUIET,
 	WRITE_BITMAP_TRUE,
 } write_bitmap_index;
-static uint16_t write_bitmap_options = BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE;
+static uint16_t write_bitmap_options = BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE | BITMAP_SET_EWAH_BITMAP;
 
 static int exclude_promisor_objects;
 
@@ -1258,6 +1258,7 @@ static void write_pack_file(void)
 				    hash_to_hex(hash));
 
 			if (write_bitmap_index) {
+				bitmap_writer_init_bm_type(write_bitmap_options);
 				bitmap_writer_set_checksum(hash);
 				bitmap_writer_build_type_index(
 					&to_pack, written_list, nr_written);
@@ -3143,6 +3144,10 @@ static int git_pack_config(const char *k, const char *v, void *cb)
 		cache_max_small_delta_size = git_config_int(k, v);
 		return 0;
 	}
+	if (!strcmp(k, "pack.useroaringbitmap")) {
+		if (git_config_bool(k, v))
+			write_bitmap_options |= BITMAP_SET_ROARING_BITMAP;
+	}
 	if (!strcmp(k, "pack.writebitmaphashcache")) {
 		if (git_config_bool(k, v))
 			write_bitmap_options |= BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE;
diff --git a/midx.c b/midx.c
index c27d0e5f151..b80db2239a8 100644
--- a/midx.c
+++ b/midx.c
@@ -1112,10 +1112,16 @@ static int write_midx_bitmap(const char *midx_name,
 {
 	int ret, i;
 	uint16_t options = 0;
+	unsigned version = 0;
 	struct pack_idx_entry **index;
 	char *bitmap_name = xstrfmt("%s-%s.bitmap", midx_name,
 					hash_to_hex(midx_hash));
 
+	if (flags & MIDX_WRITE_ROARING_BITMAP)
+		version |= BITMAP_SET_ROARING_BITMAP;
+	else
+		version |= BITMAP_SET_EWAH_BITMAP;
+
 	if (flags & MIDX_WRITE_BITMAP_HASH_CACHE)
 		options |= BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE;
 
@@ -1131,6 +1137,7 @@ static int write_midx_bitmap(const char *midx_name,
 	for (i = 0; i < pdata->nr_objects; i++)
 		index[i] = &pdata->objects[i].idx;
 
+	bitmap_writer_init_bm_type(version);
 	bitmap_writer_show_progress(flags & MIDX_PROGRESS);
 	bitmap_writer_build_type_index(pdata, index, pdata->nr_objects);
 
diff --git a/midx.h b/midx.h
index 5578cd7b835..c0b19b93c9c 100644
--- a/midx.h
+++ b/midx.h
@@ -48,6 +48,7 @@ struct multi_pack_index {
 #define MIDX_WRITE_BITMAP (1 << 2)
 #define MIDX_WRITE_BITMAP_HASH_CACHE (1 << 3)
 #define MIDX_WRITE_BITMAP_LOOKUP_TABLE (1 << 4)
+#define MIDX_WRITE_ROARING_BITMAP (1 << 5)
 
 const unsigned char *get_midx_checksum(struct multi_pack_index *m);
 void get_midx_filename(struct strbuf *out, const char *object_dir);
diff --git a/pack-bitmap.h b/pack-bitmap.h
index 7d71deca023..6103e0d57e7 100644
--- a/pack-bitmap.h
+++ b/pack-bitmap.h
@@ -30,9 +30,6 @@ struct bitmap_disk_header {
 
 #define NEEDS_BITMAP (1u<<22)
 
-#define BITMAP_SET_EWAH_BITMAP 0x1
-#define BITMAP_SET_ROARING_BITMAP (1 << 1)
-
 /*
  * The width in bytes of a single triplet in the lookup table
  * extension:
@@ -44,7 +41,9 @@ struct bitmap_disk_header {
 
 enum pack_bitmap_opts {
 	BITMAP_OPT_FULL_DAG = 0x1,
-	BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE = 0x4,
+	BITMAP_SET_EWAH_BITMAP = 0x2,
+	BITMAP_SET_ROARING_BITMAP = 0x4,
+	BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE = 0x8,
 	BITMAP_OPT_LOOKUP_TABLE = 0x10,
 };
 
-- 
@@ -30,9 +30,6 @@ struct bitmap_disk_header {
 
 #define NEEDS_BITMAP (1u<<22)
 
-#define BITMAP_SET_EWAH_BITMAP 0x1
-#define BITMAP_SET_ROARING_BITMAP (1 << 1)
-
 /*
  * The width in bytes of a single triplet in the lookup table
  * extension:
@@ -44,7 +41,9 @@ struct bitmap_disk_header {
 
 enum pack_bitmap_opts {
 	BITMAP_OPT_FULL_DAG = 0x1,
-	BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE = 0x4,
+	BITMAP_SET_EWAH_BITMAP = 0x2,
+	BITMAP_SET_ROARING_BITMAP = 0x4,
+	BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE = 0x8,
 	BITMAP_OPT_LOOKUP_TABLE = 0x10,
 };
 
-- 
gitgitgadget


^ permalink raw reply related	[flat|nested] 16+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 5/5] roaring: teach Git to read roaring bitmaps
  2022-09-19 17:47 [PATCH 0/5] [RFC] introduce Roaring bitmaps to Git Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
                   ` (3 preceding siblings ...)
  2022-09-19 17:47 ` [PATCH 4/5] roaring: introduce a new config option for " Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
@ 2022-09-19 17:47 ` Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget
  2022-09-19 18:18 ` [PATCH 0/5] [RFC] introduce Roaring bitmaps to Git Derrick Stolee
  2022-09-20 21:59 ` Taylor Blau
  6 siblings, 0 replies; 16+ messages in thread
From: Abhradeep Chakraborty via GitGitGadget @ 2022-09-19 17:47 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git
  Cc: Taylor Blau, Kaartic Sivaram, Junio C Hamano, Derrick Stolee,
	Abhradeep Chakraborty, Abhradeep Chakraborty

From: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>

Git knows how to write roaring bitmaps but it still doesn't know
how to read roaring bitmaps. The changes are backward-compatible.

Teach Git to read roaring bitmaps.

Mentored-by: Taylor Blau <me@ttaylorr.com>
Mentored-by: Kaartic Sivaraam <kaartic.sivaraam@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: Abhradeep Chakraborty <chakrabortyabhradeep79@gmail.com>
---
 builtin/pack-objects.c  |  74 ++-
 pack-bitmap.c           | 969 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------------
 pack-bitmap.h           |   4 +-
 t/t5310-pack-bitmaps.sh |  84 ++--
 4 files changed, 798 insertions(+), 333 deletions(-)

diff --git a/builtin/pack-objects.c b/builtin/pack-objects.c
index 439c5572c18..e4011669889 100644
--- a/builtin/pack-objects.c
+++ b/builtin/pack-objects.c
@@ -218,7 +218,7 @@ static struct progress *progress_state;
 
 static struct packed_git *reuse_packfile;
 static uint32_t reuse_packfile_objects;
-static struct bitmap *reuse_packfile_bitmap;
+static void *reuse_packfile_bitmap;
 
 static int use_bitmap_index_default = 1;
 static int use_bitmap_index = -1;
@@ -1084,15 +1084,29 @@ static size_t write_reused_pack_verbatim(struct hashfile *out,
 					 struct pack_window **w_curs)
 {
 	size_t pos = 0;
-
-	while (pos < reuse_packfile_bitmap->word_alloc &&
-			reuse_packfile_bitmap->words[pos] == (eword_t)~0)
-		pos++;
+	enum bitmap_type bm_type = get_bitmap_type();
+	trace2_region_enter("pack-objects", "write-reuse-v2-pack", the_repository);
+
+	if (bm_type == EWAH) {
+		struct bitmap *raw_reuse_packfile_bitmap = reuse_packfile_bitmap;
+		while (pos < raw_reuse_packfile_bitmap->word_alloc &&
+				raw_reuse_packfile_bitmap->words[pos] == (eword_t)~0)
+			pos++;
+		written = (pos * BITS_IN_EWORD);
+	}
+	else if (bm_type == ROARING) {
+		uint32_t cardinality = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(reuse_packfile_bitmap);
+		while (pos < cardinality && roaring_bitmap_contains(reuse_packfile_bitmap, pos))
+			pos++;
+		written = pos;
+	}
+	else
+		die(_("bitmap type is not initialized\n"));
+	trace2_region_leave("pack-objects", "write-reuse-v2-pack", the_repository);
 
 	if (pos) {
 		off_t to_write;
 
-		written = (pos * BITS_IN_EWORD);
 		to_write = pack_pos_to_offset(reuse_packfile, written)
 			- sizeof(struct pack_header);
 
@@ -1112,30 +1126,49 @@ static void write_reused_pack(struct hashfile *f)
 	size_t i = 0;
 	uint32_t offset;
 	struct pack_window *w_curs = NULL;
+	enum bitmap_type bm_type = get_bitmap_type();
+	trace2_region_enter("pack-objects", "write-reused-pack", the_repository);
 
 	if (allow_ofs_delta)
 		i = write_reused_pack_verbatim(f, &w_curs);
 
-	for (; i < reuse_packfile_bitmap->word_alloc; ++i) {
-		eword_t word = reuse_packfile_bitmap->words[i];
-		size_t pos = (i * BITS_IN_EWORD);
+	if (bm_type == EWAH) {
+		struct bitmap *raw_reuse_packfile_bitmap = reuse_packfile_bitmap;
+		for (; i < raw_reuse_packfile_bitmap->word_alloc; ++i) {
+			eword_t word = raw_reuse_packfile_bitmap->words[i];
+			size_t pos = (i * BITS_IN_EWORD);
 
-		for (offset = 0; offset < BITS_IN_EWORD; ++offset) {
-			if ((word >> offset) == 0)
-				break;
+			for (offset = 0; offset < BITS_IN_EWORD; ++offset) {
+				if ((word >> offset) == 0)
+					break;
 
-			offset += ewah_bit_ctz64(word >> offset);
-			/*
-			 * Can use bit positions directly, even for MIDX
-			 * bitmaps. See comment in try_partial_reuse()
-			 * for why.
-			 */
-			write_reused_pack_one(pos + offset, f, &w_curs);
+				offset += ewah_bit_ctz64(word >> offset);
+				/*
+				* Can use bit positions directly, even for MIDX
+				* bitmaps. See comment in try_partial_reuse()
+				* for why.
+				*/
+				write_reused_pack_one(pos + offset, f, &w_curs);
+				display_progress(progress_state, ++written);
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	else if (bm_type == ROARING) {
+		uint32_t cardinality = roaring_bitmap_get_cardinality(reuse_packfile_bitmap);
+		uint32_t *bm_arr = NULL;
+		roaring_bitmap_to_uint32_array(reuse_packfile_bitmap, bm_arr);
+
+		for (; i < cardinality; ++i) {
+			write_reused_pack_one(bm_arr[i], f, &w_curs);
 			display_progress(progress_state, ++written);
 		}
+		free(bm_arr);
 	}
+	else
+		die(_("bitmap_type not initialized"));
 
 	unuse_pack(&w_curs);
+	trace2_region_leave("pack-objects", "write-reused-pack", the_repository);
 }
 
 static void write_excluded_by_configs(void)
@@ -1260,6 +1293,7 @@ static void write_pack_file(void)
 			if (write_bitmap_index) {
 				bitmap_writer_init_bm_type(write_bitmap_options);
 				bitmap_writer_set_checksum(hash);
+				fprintf(stderr, "hi man\n");
 				bitmap_writer_build_type_index(
 					&to_pack, written_list, nr_written);
 			}
@@ -1279,9 +1313,11 @@ static void write_pack_file(void)
 				stop_progress(&progress_state);
 
 				bitmap_writer_show_progress(progress);
+				fprintf(stderr, "hello I am working good\n");
 				bitmap_writer_select_commits(indexed_commits, indexed_commits_nr, -1);
 				if (bitmap_writer_build(&to_pack) < 0)
 					die(_("failed to write bitmap index"));
+				fprintf(stderr, "after building bitmaps\n");
 				bitmap_writer_finish(written_list, nr_written,
 						     tmpname.buf, write_bitmap_options);
 				write_bitmap_index = 0;
diff --git a/pack-bitmap.c b/pack-bitmap.c
index c1a0bc26d02..6c0b72d4503 100644
--- a/pack-bitmap.c
+++ b/pack-bitmap.c
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
 #include "list-objects-filter-options.h"
 #include "midx.h"
 #include "config.h"
+#include "chunk-format.h"
 
 /*
  * An entry on the bitmap index, representing the bitmap for a given
@@ -23,7 +24,7 @@
  */
 struct stored_bitmap {
 	struct object_id oid;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *root;
+	void *root;
 	struct stored_bitmap *xor;
 	int flags;
 };
@@ -66,10 +67,10 @@ struct bitmap_index {
 	 * type. This provides type information when yielding the objects from
 	 * the packfile during a walk, which allows for better delta bases.
 	 */
-	struct ewah_bitmap *commits;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *trees;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *blobs;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *tags;
+	void *commits;
+	void *trees;
+	void *blobs;
+	void *tags;
 
 	/* Map from object ID -> `stored_bitmap` for all the bitmapped commits */
 	kh_oid_map_t *bitmaps;
@@ -104,28 +105,37 @@ struct bitmap_index {
 	} ext_index;
 
 	/* Bitmap result of the last performed walk */
-	struct bitmap *result;
+	void *result;
 
 	/* "have" bitmap from the last performed walk */
-	struct bitmap *haves;
+	void *haves;
 
 	/* Version of the bitmap index */
 	unsigned int version;
+
+	/* for version 2 */
+	unsigned char chunk_nr;
 };
 
-static struct ewah_bitmap *lookup_stored_bitmap(struct stored_bitmap *st)
+static void *lookup_stored_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *index, struct stored_bitmap *st)
 {
-	struct ewah_bitmap *parent;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *composed;
+	void *parent;
+	void *composed;
 
 	if (!st->xor)
 		return st->root;
 
-	composed = ewah_pool_new();
-	parent = lookup_stored_bitmap(st->xor);
-	ewah_xor(st->root, parent, composed);
+	if (index->version == 1) {
+		composed = ewah_pool_new();
+		parent = lookup_stored_bitmap(index, st->xor);
+		ewah_xor(st->root, parent, composed);
 
-	ewah_pool_free(st->root);
+		ewah_pool_free(st->root);
+	}
+	else if (index->version == 2) {
+		parent = lookup_stored_bitmap(index, st->xor);
+		composed = roaring_bitmap_xor(st->root, parent);
+	}
 	st->root = composed;
 	st->xor = NULL;
 
@@ -154,6 +164,20 @@ static struct ewah_bitmap *read_bitmap_1(struct bitmap_index *index)
 	return b;
 }
 
+static roaring_bitmap_t *read_roaring_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *index, size_t  max_limit)
+{
+	roaring_bitmap_t *rb = NULL;
+	size_t bitmap_size = roaring_bitmap_portable_network_deserialize_size((const char *)index->map + index->map_pos, max_limit);
+
+	if (bitmap_size ==  0) {
+		error(_("failed to load bitmap index (corrupted?)"));
+		return NULL;
+	}
+	rb = roaring_bitmap_portable_network_deserialize_safe((const char *)index->map + index->map_pos, max_limit);
+	index->map_pos += bitmap_size;
+	return rb;
+}
+
 static uint32_t bitmap_num_objects(struct bitmap_index *index)
 {
 	if (index->midx)
@@ -161,10 +185,39 @@ static uint32_t bitmap_num_objects(struct bitmap_index *index)
 	return index->pack->num_objects;
 }
 
+static int ewah_load_bitmap_header(struct bitmap_index *index,
+				       struct bitmap_disk_header *header,
+				       uint32_t flags)
+{
+	ssize_t header_size = sizeof(*header) - GIT_MAX_RAWSZ + the_hash_algo->rawsz;
+	size_t cache_size = st_mult(bitmap_num_objects(index), sizeof(uint32_t));
+	unsigned char *index_end = index->map + index->map_size - the_hash_algo->rawsz;
+
+	if (flags & BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE) {
+		if (cache_size > index_end - index->map - header_size)
+			return error(_("corrupted bitmap index file (too short to fit hash cache)"));
+		index->hashes = (void *)(index_end - cache_size);
+		index_end -= cache_size;
+	}
+
+	if (flags & BITMAP_OPT_LOOKUP_TABLE) {
+		size_t table_size = st_mult(ntohl(header->entry_count),
+						BITMAP_LOOKUP_TABLE_TRIPLET_WIDTH);
+		if (table_size > index_end - index->map - header_size)
+			return error(_("corrupted bitmap index file (too short to fit lookup table)"));
+		if (git_env_bool("GIT_TEST_READ_COMMIT_TABLE", 1))
+			index->table_lookup = (void *)(index_end - table_size);
+		index_end -= table_size;
+	}
+	index->map_pos += header_size;
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static int load_bitmap_header(struct bitmap_index *index)
 {
 	struct bitmap_disk_header *header = (void *)index->map;
 	size_t header_size = sizeof(*header) - GIT_MAX_RAWSZ + the_hash_algo->rawsz;
+	uint32_t flags = ntohs(header->options);
 
 	if (index->map_size < header_size + the_hash_algo->rawsz)
 		return error(_("corrupted bitmap index (too small)"));
@@ -172,46 +225,29 @@ static int load_bitmap_header(struct bitmap_index *index)
 	if (memcmp(header->magic, BITMAP_IDX_SIGNATURE, sizeof(BITMAP_IDX_SIGNATURE)) != 0)
 		return error(_("corrupted bitmap index file (wrong header)"));
 
-	index->version = ntohs(header->version);
-	if (index->version != 1)
-		return error(_("unsupported version '%d' for bitmap index file"), index->version);
-
-	/* Parse known bitmap format options */
-	{
-		uint32_t flags = ntohs(header->options);
-		size_t cache_size = st_mult(bitmap_num_objects(index), sizeof(uint32_t));
-		unsigned char *index_end = index->map + index->map_size - the_hash_algo->rawsz;
-
-		if ((flags & BITMAP_OPT_FULL_DAG) == 0)
-			BUG("unsupported options for bitmap index file "
-				"(Git requires BITMAP_OPT_FULL_DAG)");
-
-		if (flags & BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE) {
-			if (cache_size > index_end - index->map - header_size)
-				return error(_("corrupted bitmap index file (too short to fit hash cache)"));
-			index->hashes = (void *)(index_end - cache_size);
-			index_end -= cache_size;
-		}
-
-		if (flags & BITMAP_OPT_LOOKUP_TABLE) {
-			size_t table_size = st_mult(ntohl(header->entry_count),
-						    BITMAP_LOOKUP_TABLE_TRIPLET_WIDTH);
-			if (table_size > index_end - index->map - header_size)
-				return error(_("corrupted bitmap index file (too short to fit lookup table)"));
-			if (git_env_bool("GIT_TEST_READ_COMMIT_TABLE", 1))
-				index->table_lookup = (void *)(index_end - table_size);
-			index_end -= table_size;
-		}
-	}
+	if ((flags & BITMAP_OPT_FULL_DAG) == 0)
+		BUG("unsupported options for bitmap index file "
+			"(Git requires BITMAP_OPT_FULL_DAG)");
 
+	index->version = ntohs(header->version);
 	index->entry_count = ntohl(header->entry_count);
 	index->checksum = header->checksum;
-	index->map_pos += header_size;
-	return 0;
+	if (index->version == 1) {
+		set_bitmap_type(EWAH);
+		return ewah_load_bitmap_header(index, header, flags);
+	}
+	if (index->version == 2) {
+		set_bitmap_type(ROARING);
+		index->chunk_nr = *(index->map + header_size);
+		index->map_pos += header_size + sizeof(char);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	return error(_("unsupported version '%d' for bitmap index file"), index->version);
 }
 
 static struct stored_bitmap *store_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *index,
-					  struct ewah_bitmap *root,
+					  void *root,
 					  const struct object_id *oid,
 					  struct stored_bitmap *xor_with,
 					  int flags)
@@ -484,6 +520,105 @@ static int load_reverse_index(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git)
 	return load_pack_revindex(bitmap_git->pack);
 }
 
+static int load_ewah_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git)
+{
+	if (!(bitmap_git->commits = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git)) ||
+		!(bitmap_git->trees = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git)) ||
+		!(bitmap_git->blobs = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git)) ||
+		!(bitmap_git->tags = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git)))
+		return -1;
+
+	if (!bitmap_git->table_lookup && load_bitmap_entries_v1(bitmap_git) < 0)
+		return -1;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+static int load_roaring_type_index(const unsigned char *chunk_start,
+				   size_t chunk_size, void *data)
+{
+	struct bitmap_index *index = data;
+	size_t initial_map_pos = chunk_start - index->map;
+	index->map_pos = initial_map_pos;
+
+	if (!(index->commits = read_roaring_bitmap(index, chunk_size)) ||
+		!(index->trees = read_roaring_bitmap(index, chunk_size - (index->map_pos - initial_map_pos))) ||
+		!(index->blobs = read_roaring_bitmap(index, chunk_size - (index->map_pos - initial_map_pos))) ||
+		!(index->tags = read_roaring_bitmap(index, chunk_size - (index->map_pos - initial_map_pos))))
+		return 1;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int load_bitmap_entries_v2(const unsigned char *chunk_start,
+				     size_t chunk_size, void *data)
+{
+	struct stored_bitmap *recent_bitmaps[MAX_XOR_OFFSET] = { NULL };
+	struct bitmap_index *index = data;
+	size_t max_limit = chunk_size;
+	size_t initial_map_pos = chunk_start - index->map;
+	uint32_t i;
+	index->map_pos = initial_map_pos;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < index->entry_count; i++) {
+		int xor_offset, flags;
+		roaring_bitmap_t *bitmap = NULL;
+		struct stored_bitmap *xor_bitmap = NULL;
+		uint32_t commit_idx_pos;
+		struct object_id oid;
+
+		max_limit = chunk_size - (index->map_pos - initial_map_pos);
+
+		if (max_limit < 6)
+			return error(_("corrupt roaring bitmap: truncated header for entry %d"), i);
+
+		commit_idx_pos = read_be32(index->map, &index->map_pos);
+		xor_offset = read_u8(index->map, &index->map_pos);
+		flags = read_u8(index->map, &index->map_pos);
+
+		if (nth_bitmap_object_oid(index, &oid, commit_idx_pos) < 0)
+			return error(_("corrupt roaring bitmap: commit index %u out of range"),
+				     (unsigned)commit_idx_pos);
+
+		bitmap = read_roaring_bitmap(index, max_limit);
+		if (!bitmap)
+			return -1;
+
+		if (xor_offset > MAX_XOR_OFFSET || xor_offset > i)
+			return error(_("corrupted bitmap pack index"));
+
+		if (xor_offset > 0) {
+			xor_bitmap = recent_bitmaps[(i - xor_offset) % MAX_XOR_OFFSET];
+
+			if (!xor_bitmap)
+				return error(_("invalid XOR offset in bitmap pack index"));
+		}
+
+		recent_bitmaps[i % MAX_XOR_OFFSET] = store_bitmap(
+			index, bitmap, &oid, xor_bitmap, flags);
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int load_roaring_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git)
+{
+	struct chunkfile *cf = init_chunkfile(NULL);
+	trace2_region_enter("pack-bitmap", "load-roaring-bitmap", the_repository);
+	if (read_table_of_contents(cf, bitmap_git->map, bitmap_git->map_size,
+				   bitmap_git->map_pos,
+				   bitmap_git->chunk_nr))
+		return -1;
+
+	if (read_chunk(cf, BITMAP_TYPE_INDEXES, load_roaring_type_index, bitmap_git) == CHUNK_NOT_FOUND)
+		die(_("bitmap file missing required type index chunk"));
+	pair_chunk(cf, BITMAP_LOOKUP_TABLE, (const unsigned char **)&bitmap_git->table_lookup);
+	if (!bitmap_git->table_lookup && read_chunk(cf, BITMAP_REACHABILITY_BITMAPS,
+		 load_bitmap_entries_v2, bitmap_git) == CHUNK_NOT_FOUND)
+		die(_("bitmap file missing required reachability chunk"));
+	pair_chunk(cf, BITMAP_HASH_CACHE, (const unsigned char **)&bitmap_git->hashes);
+	trace2_region_leave("pack-bitmap", "load-roaring-bitmap", the_repository);
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static int load_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git)
 {
 	assert(bitmap_git->map);
@@ -494,13 +629,9 @@ static int load_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git)
 	if (load_reverse_index(bitmap_git))
 		goto failed;
 
-	if (!(bitmap_git->commits = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git)) ||
-		!(bitmap_git->trees = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git)) ||
-		!(bitmap_git->blobs = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git)) ||
-		!(bitmap_git->tags = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git)))
+	if (bitmap_git->version == 1 && load_ewah_bitmap(bitmap_git) < 0)
 		goto failed;
-
-	if (!bitmap_git->table_lookup && load_bitmap_entries_v1(bitmap_git) < 0)
+	else if (bitmap_git->version == 2 && load_roaring_bitmap(bitmap_git) < 0)
 		goto failed;
 
 	return 0;
@@ -563,6 +694,12 @@ static int open_bitmap(struct repository *r,
 struct bitmap_index *prepare_bitmap_git(struct repository *r)
 {
 	struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*bitmap_git));
+	bitmap_git->haves = NULL;
+	bitmap_git->result = NULL;
+	bitmap_git->commits = NULL;
+	bitmap_git->trees = NULL;
+	bitmap_git->blobs = NULL;
+	bitmap_git->tags = NULL;
 
 	if (!open_bitmap(r, bitmap_git) && !load_bitmap(bitmap_git))
 		return bitmap_git;
@@ -584,8 +721,8 @@ struct bitmap_index *prepare_midx_bitmap_git(struct multi_pack_index *midx)
 
 struct include_data {
 	struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git;
-	struct bitmap *base;
-	struct bitmap *seen;
+	void *base;
+	void *seen;
 };
 
 struct bitmap_lookup_table_triplet {
@@ -696,12 +833,13 @@ static struct stored_bitmap *lazy_bitmap_for_commit(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_
 	int flags;
 	struct bitmap_lookup_table_triplet triplet;
 	struct object_id *oid = &commit->object.oid;
-	struct ewah_bitmap *bitmap;
+	void *bitmap;
 	struct stored_bitmap *xor_bitmap = NULL;
 	const int bitmap_header_size = 6;
 	static struct bitmap_lookup_table_xor_item *xor_items = NULL;
 	static size_t xor_items_nr = 0, xor_items_alloc = 0;
 	static int is_corrupt = 0;
+	size_t max_limit = 0;
 	int xor_flags;
 	khiter_t hash_pos;
 	struct bitmap_lookup_table_xor_item *xor_item;
@@ -766,7 +904,15 @@ static struct stored_bitmap *lazy_bitmap_for_commit(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_
 
 		bitmap_git->map_pos += sizeof(uint32_t) + sizeof(uint8_t);
 		xor_flags = read_u8(bitmap_git->map, &bitmap_git->map_pos);
-		bitmap = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git);
+		if (bitmap_git->version == 1)
+			bitmap = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git);
+		else if (bitmap_git->version == 2) {
+			if (bitmap_git->hashes)
+				max_limit = ((unsigned char *)bitmap_git->hashes - bitmap_git->map) - bitmap_git->map_pos;
+			else
+				max_limit = (bitmap_git->table_lookup - bitmap_git->map) - bitmap_git->map_pos;
+			bitmap = read_roaring_bitmap(bitmap_git, max_limit);
+		}
 
 		if (!bitmap)
 			goto corrupt;
@@ -807,7 +953,15 @@ static struct stored_bitmap *lazy_bitmap_for_commit(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_
 	 */
 	bitmap_git->map_pos += sizeof(uint32_t) + sizeof(uint8_t);
 	flags = read_u8(bitmap_git->map, &bitmap_git->map_pos);
-	bitmap = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git);
+
+	if (bitmap_git->hashes)
+		max_limit = ((unsigned char *)bitmap_git->hashes - bitmap_git->map) - bitmap_git->map_pos;
+	else
+		max_limit = (bitmap_git->table_lookup - bitmap_git->map) - bitmap_git->map_pos;
+	if (bitmap_git->version == 1)
+		bitmap = read_bitmap_1(bitmap_git);
+	else if (bitmap_git->version == 2)
+		bitmap = read_roaring_bitmap(bitmap_git, max_limit);
 
 	if (!bitmap)
 		goto corrupt;
@@ -820,8 +974,8 @@ corrupt:
 	return NULL;
 }
 
-struct ewah_bitmap *bitmap_for_commit(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
-				      struct commit *commit)
+void *bitmap_for_commit(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
+			struct commit *commit)
 {
 	khiter_t hash_pos = kh_get_oid_map(bitmap_git->bitmaps,
 					   commit->object.oid);
@@ -836,9 +990,9 @@ struct ewah_bitmap *bitmap_for_commit(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 		trace2_region_leave("pack-bitmap", "reading_lookup_table", the_repository);
 		if (!bitmap)
 			return NULL;
-		return lookup_stored_bitmap(bitmap);
+		return lookup_stored_bitmap(bitmap_git, bitmap);
 	}
-	return lookup_stored_bitmap(kh_value(bitmap_git->bitmaps, hash_pos));
+	return lookup_stored_bitmap(bitmap_git, kh_value(bitmap_git->bitmaps, hash_pos));
 }
 
 static inline int bitmap_position_extended(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
@@ -922,7 +1076,7 @@ static int ext_index_add_object(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 
 struct bitmap_show_data {
 	struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git;
-	struct bitmap *base;
+	void *base;
 };
 
 static void show_object(struct object *object, const char *name, void *data_)
@@ -936,7 +1090,7 @@ static void show_object(struct object *object, const char *name, void *data_)
 		bitmap_pos = ext_index_add_object(data->bitmap_git, object,
 						  name);
 
-	raw_bitmap_set(data->base, bitmap_pos);
+	roaring_or_raw_bitmap_set(data->base, bitmap_pos);
 }
 
 static void show_commit(struct commit *commit, void *data)
@@ -948,21 +1102,24 @@ static int add_to_include_set(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 			      struct commit *commit,
 			      int bitmap_pos)
 {
-	struct ewah_bitmap *partial;
+	void *partial;
 
-	if (data->seen && raw_bitmap_get(data->seen, bitmap_pos))
+	if (data->seen && roaring_or_raw_bitmap_get(data->seen, bitmap_pos))
 		return 0;
 
-	if (raw_bitmap_get(data->base, bitmap_pos))
+	if (roaring_or_raw_bitmap_get(data->base, bitmap_pos))
 		return 0;
 
 	partial = bitmap_for_commit(bitmap_git, commit);
 	if (partial) {
-		raw_bitmap_or_ewah(data->base, partial);
+		if (bitmap_git->version == 1)
+			raw_bitmap_or_ewah(data->base, partial);
+		else if (bitmap_git->version == 2)
+			roaring_bitmap_or(data->base, partial);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
-	raw_bitmap_set(data->base, bitmap_pos);
+	roaring_or_raw_bitmap_set(data->base, bitmap_pos);
 	return 1;
 }
 
@@ -999,8 +1156,8 @@ static int should_include_obj(struct object *obj, void *_data)
 	bitmap_pos = bitmap_position(data->bitmap_git, &obj->oid);
 	if (bitmap_pos < 0)
 		return 1;
-	if ((data->seen && raw_bitmap_get(data->seen, bitmap_pos)) ||
-	     raw_bitmap_get(data->base, bitmap_pos)) {
+	if ((data->seen && roaring_or_raw_bitmap_get(data->seen, bitmap_pos)) ||
+	     roaring_or_raw_bitmap_get(data->base, bitmap_pos)) {
 		obj->flags |= SEEN;
 		return 0;
 	}
@@ -1008,28 +1165,36 @@ static int should_include_obj(struct object *obj, void *_data)
 }
 
 static int add_commit_to_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
-				struct bitmap **base,
+				void **base,
 				struct commit *commit)
 {
-	struct ewah_bitmap *or_with = bitmap_for_commit(bitmap_git, commit);
+	void *or_with = bitmap_for_commit(bitmap_git, commit);
 
 	if (!or_with)
 		return 0;
 
-	if (!*base)
-		*base = ewah_to_raw_bitmap(or_with);
-	else
-		raw_bitmap_or_ewah(*base, or_with);
+	if (!*base) {
+		if (bitmap_git->version == 1)
+			*base = ewah_to_raw_bitmap(or_with);
+		else if (bitmap_git->version == 2)
+			*base = roaring_bitmap_copy(or_with);
+	}
+	else {
+		if (bitmap_git->version == 1)
+			raw_bitmap_or_ewah(*base, or_with);
+		else if (bitmap_git->version == 2)
+			roaring_bitmap_or(*base, or_with);
+	}
 
 	return 1;
 }
 
-static struct bitmap *find_objects(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
+static void *find_objects(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 				   struct rev_info *revs,
 				   struct object_list *roots,
-				   struct bitmap *seen)
+				   void *seen)
 {
-	struct bitmap *base = NULL;
+	void *base = NULL;
 	int needs_walk = 0;
 
 	struct object_list *not_mapped = NULL;
@@ -1080,7 +1245,7 @@ static struct bitmap *find_objects(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 		roots = roots->next;
 		pos = bitmap_position(bitmap_git, &object->oid);
 
-		if (pos < 0 || base == NULL || !raw_bitmap_get(base, pos)) {
+		if (pos < 0 || base == NULL || !roaring_or_raw_bitmap_get(base, pos)) {
 			object->flags &= ~UNINTERESTING;
 			add_pending_object(revs, object, "");
 			needs_walk = 1;