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* de-alphabetizing the documentation
@ 2018-07-06 20:04 frederik
  2018-07-06 21:16 ` Jonathan Nieder
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: frederik @ 2018-07-06 20:04 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git

Dear Git Developers,

I am trying to learn how to use Git but I've been put off by not
knowing where to start. I would like to start with the 'git' man page,
but it lists the Git subcommands in alphabetical order, rather than in
an order which would be useful for learners. For example, I'm not sure
how often 'git bisect' is used, but it is strange to see it listed
before 'git init' and 'git clone'.

I know that 'gittutorial' exists, and I've indeed worked through it
and some other Git tutorials. However, these are more like lists of
examples that should come at the end of a typical manual page. I don't
think they are intended as canonical references for the program
functionality. At some point I would like to use the main 'git' manual
page as my primary source of documentation. This would be easier if it
were designed to be read straight through.

I wonder if someone familiar with Git could list the commands in an
order which makes more sense for learning, for example in the order in
which they were invented by Git developers, or in the reverse order of
frequency of use by a typical Git user. This could easily be derived
from the shell history of someone who is reading this.

    (cat ~/.bash_history; cut -d ";" -f 2 ~/.zsh_history) | grep '^git ' | cut -d ' ' -f 2 | sort | uniq -c | sort -nr

I would like to have this list for personal use, but once it is
created, perhaps someone could also add it to the main Git man page.
The list could be added at the top of the "GIT COMMANDS" section.
Alternatively, and I think preferably, the entries in that section
could be rearranged into this order.

Finally, perhaps the same listing and/or reordering could be done for
other important manual pages, like 'gitglossary'. Presumably
'gitglossary' should be sorted topologically, so that each term is
defined prior to any terms depending on it.

I'm not sure why alphabetical order was decided upon, but it seems
less than useful in the information age, when people can easily search
for text electronically. Maybe at some point someone decided to "clean
up" the presentation by alphabetizing the manual page. As a user who
is more concerned with substance, it is annoying to encounter such an
emphasis on the superficial, which seems unworthy of such an important
piece of software.

Thank you,

Frederick Eaton

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-06 20:04 de-alphabetizing the documentation frederik
@ 2018-07-06 21:16 ` Jonathan Nieder
  2018-07-06 21:18   ` Jonathan Nieder
  2018-07-06 21:32   ` Eric Sunshine
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 17+ messages in thread
From: Jonathan Nieder @ 2018-07-06 21:16 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Frederick Eaton; +Cc: git, Robert P. J. Day

Hi Frederick,

Frederick Eaton wrote:

> I am trying to learn how to use Git but I've been put off by not
> knowing where to start. I would like to start with the 'git' man page,
> but it lists the Git subcommands in alphabetical order, rather than in
> an order which would be useful for learners. For example, I'm not sure
> how often 'git bisect' is used, but it is strange to see it listed
> before 'git init' and 'git clone'.
[...]
> I wonder if someone familiar with Git could list the commands in an
> order which makes more sense for learning, for example in the order in
> which they were invented by Git developers,

That doesn't seem like a useful order pedagogically, but

>                                             or in the reverse order of
> frequency of use by a typical Git user.

That does.

Currently the commands are already broken into a few categories:

  High-level commands
    Main porcelain commands
    Ancillary commands
    Interacting with others
  Low-level commands
    Manipulation commands
    Interrogation commands
    Synching repositories
    Internal helper commands

While it's alphabetical within each section, overall it is not
alphabetical at all!

Alas, there are plenty of "Main porcelain commands", and I think that
is where your question comes from.  It would be nicer to list just five
to start, say.

Some of the most thoughtful documentation that comes with Git is at
https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/user-manual.html.
It might be useful for inspiration.

Ideas?  If you start with a proposal, we're happy to help refine it.
People in the #git channel on irc.freenode.net (wechat.freenode.net)
might also be useful for inspiration in coming up with a proposal.

Each of us have our weaknesses for this kind of work: you're telling
me you're too new to have a sense of which commands are the first a
person would need to learn (and I have no reason to doubt you), while
many on this list would have the opposite problem of taking too much
for granted and not being able to put themselves in the mind of a
newcomer.  So we'll have to help each other.

tl/dr: if you come up with a proposed "first commands to learn"
category with some proposed commands to go in it, we'll be happy to
help you with the next steps.

[...]
> Finally, perhaps the same listing and/or reordering could be done for
> other important manual pages, like 'gitglossary'. Presumably
> 'gitglossary' should be sorted topologically, so that each term is
> defined prior to any terms depending on it.

Your help is welcome here as well.  Probably a similar kind of
categorization, with entries ordered either alphabetically or
according to some narrative in each section, would be the easiest to
maintain over time.

Thanks,
Jonathan

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-06 21:16 ` Jonathan Nieder
@ 2018-07-06 21:18   ` Jonathan Nieder
  2018-07-06 23:21     ` frederik
  2018-07-06 21:32   ` Eric Sunshine
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: Jonathan Nieder @ 2018-07-06 21:18 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Frederick Eaton; +Cc: git, Robert P. J. Day

Jonathan Nieder wrote:

> Ideas?  If you start with a proposal, we're happy to help refine it.
> People in the #git channel on irc.freenode.net (wechat.freenode.net)
> might also be useful for inspiration in coming up with a proposal.

I meant to link to webchat.freenode.net.  But
https://kiwiirc.com/nextclient/ may have been a better link to use
anyway.

Thanks and sorry for the noise,
Jonathan

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-06 21:16 ` Jonathan Nieder
  2018-07-06 21:18   ` Jonathan Nieder
@ 2018-07-06 21:32   ` Eric Sunshine
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 17+ messages in thread
From: Eric Sunshine @ 2018-07-06 21:32 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Nieder; +Cc: Frederick Eaton, git, Robert P. J. Day

On Fri, Jul 06, 2018 at 02:16:00PM -0700, Jonathan Nieder wrote:
> Frederick Eaton wrote:
> > I wonder if someone familiar with Git could list the commands in an
> > order which makes more sense for learning, for example in the order in
> > which they were invented by Git developers,
> 
> Alas, there are plenty of "Main porcelain commands", and I think that
> is where your question comes from.  It would be nicer to list just five
> to start, say.

"git help" makes some attempt at narrowing the list of porcelain
commands likely to be used on an everyday basis (and it categorizes
the list by general activity). Of the 21 commands listed, I use 14-16
in pretty much every development session, so "git help" might be a
good starting place for someone trying to figure out which commands to
study, or for someone wishing to help focus the documentation a bit
more for beginners.

--- >8 ---
$ git help
usage: git ...

These are common Git commands used in various situations:

start a working area (see also: git help tutorial)
   clone      Clone a repository into a new directory
   init       Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one

work on the current change (see also: git help everyday)
   add        Add file contents to the index
   mv         Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink
   reset      Reset current HEAD to the specified state
   rm         Remove files from the working tree and from the index

examine the history and state (see also: git help revisions)
   bisect     Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug
   grep       Print lines matching a pattern
   log        Show commit logs
   show       Show various types of objects
   status     Show the working tree status

grow, mark and tweak your common history
   branch     List, create, or delete branches
   checkout   Switch branches or restore working tree files
   commit     Record changes to the repository
   diff       Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc
   merge      Join two or more development histories together
   rebase     Reapply commits on top of another base tip
   tag        Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG

collaborate (see also: git help workflows)
   fetch      Download objects and refs from another repository
   pull       Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
   push       Update remote refs along with associated objects

'git help -a' and 'git help -g' list available subcommands and some
concept guides. See 'git help <command>' or 'git help <concept>'
to read about a specific subcommand or concept.
--- >8 ---

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-06 21:18   ` Jonathan Nieder
@ 2018-07-06 23:21     ` frederik
  2018-07-06 23:47       ` Jonathan Nieder
  2018-07-07  4:25       ` de-alphabetizing the documentation Theodore Y. Ts'o
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 17+ messages in thread
From: frederik @ 2018-07-06 23:21 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Nieder, Eric Sunshine; +Cc: git, Robert P. J. Day

Thank you Jonathan for signaling your willingness to adopt the
documentation philosophy I suggested. That's a quite valuable first
step. Unfortunately my contribution will have to be limited for the
moment to making this suggestion, as I am extraordinarily busy. I hope
it will not be too burdensome to add this item to your TODO list and
keep it there until a willing volunteer comes along.

For what it's worth, I made extensive changes to the Arch Wiki Git
article back in 2015, following an initial attempt of mine to
understand various tutorials. It was the most prominent wiki-based Git
documentation I could find at the time. The article has of course seen
numerous improvements since then.

I don't think that it's really important to find a "best" ordering for
commands or glossary terms; it's more a matter of finding someone who
is willing to take responsibility for choosing a reasonable ordering.
Presumably the head maintainer of this project could delegate the task
to a qualified volunteer, not a newbie like myself but not necessarily
someone with expert knowledge either. It's too bad that a policy of
not listing things alphabetically wasn't adopted from the beginning of
this project, but I guess that's life.

Thanks Eric for the pointer to "git help". This does indeed provide a
finer and better grouping than the man-page (but it also looks like
another candidate for de-alphabetization...!).

Many thanks,

Frederick

On Fri, Jul 06, 2018 at 02:18:28PM -0700, Jonathan Nieder wrote:
> Jonathan Nieder wrote:
> 
> > Ideas?  If you start with a proposal, we're happy to help refine it.
> > People in the #git channel on irc.freenode.net (wechat.freenode.net)
> > might also be useful for inspiration in coming up with a proposal.
> 
> I meant to link to webchat.freenode.net.  But
> https://kiwiirc.com/nextclient/ may have been a better link to use
> anyway.
> 
> Thanks and sorry for the noise,
> Jonathan
> 

On Fri, Jul 06, 2018 at 05:32:39PM -0400, Eric Sunshine wrote:
> On Fri, Jul 06, 2018 at 02:16:00PM -0700, Jonathan Nieder wrote:
> > Frederick Eaton wrote:
> > > I wonder if someone familiar with Git could list the commands in an
> > > order which makes more sense for learning, for example in the order in
> > > which they were invented by Git developers,
> > 
> > Alas, there are plenty of "Main porcelain commands", and I think that
> > is where your question comes from.  It would be nicer to list just five
> > to start, say.
> 
> "git help" makes some attempt at narrowing the list of porcelain
> commands likely to be used on an everyday basis (and it categorizes
> the list by general activity). Of the 21 commands listed, I use 14-16
> in pretty much every development session, so "git help" might be a
> good starting place for someone trying to figure out which commands to
> study, or for someone wishing to help focus the documentation a bit
> more for beginners.
> 
> --- >8 ---
> $ git help
> usage: git ...
> 
> These are common Git commands used in various situations:
> 
> start a working area (see also: git help tutorial)
>    clone      Clone a repository into a new directory
>    init       Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one
> 
> work on the current change (see also: git help everyday)
>    add        Add file contents to the index
>    mv         Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink
>    reset      Reset current HEAD to the specified state
>    rm         Remove files from the working tree and from the index
> 
> examine the history and state (see also: git help revisions)
>    bisect     Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug
>    grep       Print lines matching a pattern
>    log        Show commit logs
>    show       Show various types of objects
>    status     Show the working tree status
> 
> grow, mark and tweak your common history
>    branch     List, create, or delete branches
>    checkout   Switch branches or restore working tree files
>    commit     Record changes to the repository
>    diff       Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc
>    merge      Join two or more development histories together
>    rebase     Reapply commits on top of another base tip
>    tag        Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG
> 
> collaborate (see also: git help workflows)
>    fetch      Download objects and refs from another repository
>    pull       Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
>    push       Update remote refs along with associated objects
> 
> 'git help -a' and 'git help -g' list available subcommands and some
> concept guides. See 'git help <command>' or 'git help <concept>'
> to read about a specific subcommand or concept.
> --- >8 ---
> 


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-06 23:21     ` frederik
@ 2018-07-06 23:47       ` Jonathan Nieder
  2018-07-08  1:09         ` frederik
  2018-07-07  4:25       ` de-alphabetizing the documentation Theodore Y. Ts'o
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: Jonathan Nieder @ 2018-07-06 23:47 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Frederick Eaton; +Cc: Eric Sunshine, git, Robert P. J. Day

Hi,

Frederick Eaton wrote:

>       Unfortunately my contribution will have to be limited for the
> moment to making this suggestion, as I am extraordinarily busy. I hope
> it will not be too burdensome to add this item to your TODO list and
> keep it there until a willing volunteer comes along.

No problem.  If you have time to contribute later, we can wait. :)

> For what it's worth, I made extensive changes to the Arch Wiki Git
> article back in 2015, following an initial attempt of mine to
> understand various tutorials. It was the most prominent wiki-based Git
> documentation I could find at the time. The article has of course seen
> numerous improvements since then.

For reference: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/git

> I don't think that it's really important to find a "best" ordering for
> commands or glossary terms; it's more a matter of finding someone who
> is willing to take responsibility for choosing a reasonable ordering.
> Presumably the head maintainer of this project could delegate the task
> to a qualified volunteer, not a newbie like myself but not necessarily
> someone with expert knowledge either.

I'd have to say, when I compare the troubles a new user and a
long-timer would run into, I conclude that the long-timers would be
more likely to produce worse documentation.  It is very difficult to
remember how new users see things.  The ideal skill set in fact has
nothing to do with level of Git expertise: to produce a good result, a
good technical writer would ask the right questions to gather
information from the experts and then test their documentation on
newcomers until it works well.

Based on the work you've described already having done, it sounds like
you'd be an ideal person to get this going, if you find yourself with
time for it.

>                                       It's too bad that a policy of
> not listing things alphabetically wasn't adopted from the beginning of
> this project, but I guess that's life.

From this thread I've been convinced that for this kind of reference
document, alphabetical organization within each section is a good
organization, provided each section is small enough (as in "git help"
output).

I'm also a fan of non reference documentation that can use a narrative
ordering instead (like "git help core-tutorial", except with more
modern commands).

> Thanks Eric for the pointer to "git help". This does indeed provide a
> finer and better grouping than the man-page (but it also looks like
> another candidate for de-alphabetization...!).

Indeed, copying that organization over from "git help" to the git(1)
manpage may be a good step for any interested people overhearing this
conversation.

As a first step, how about making git(1) recommend "git help", like
this?  It already recommends giteveryday(7) but the more interactive
first command might be useful for some people.

Thoughts?  Improvements?

-- >8 --
Subject: git doc: recommend "git help" as a starting point

The list of subcommands described in git(1) can be overwhelming.
Encourage newcomers to run "git help" to get a shorter list of
commands as a starting point.

Based on a suggestion by Frederick Eaton.

Signed-off-by: Jonathan Nieder <jrnieder@gmail.com>
---
 Documentation/git.txt | 9 ++++++---
 1 file changed, 6 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index dba7f0c18e..0149ce9af0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -23,9 +23,12 @@ unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
 and full access to internals.
 
 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
-linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
-commands.  The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
-in-depth introduction.
+linkgit:giteveryday[7] and run
+
+    git help
+
+for a useful minimum set of commands.  The link:user-manual.html[Git
+User's Manual] has a more in-depth introduction.
 
 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
 page to learn what commands Git offers.  You can learn more about
-- 
2.18.0.203.gfac676dfb9


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-06 23:21     ` frederik
  2018-07-06 23:47       ` Jonathan Nieder
@ 2018-07-07  4:25       ` Theodore Y. Ts'o
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 17+ messages in thread
From: Theodore Y. Ts'o @ 2018-07-07  4:25 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: frederik; +Cc: Jonathan Nieder, Eric Sunshine, git, Robert P. J. Day

On Fri, Jul 06, 2018 at 04:21:47PM -0700, frederik@ofb.net wrote:
> I don't think that it's really important to find a "best" ordering for
> commands or glossary terms; it's more a matter of finding someone who
> is willing to take responsibility for choosing a reasonable ordering.
> Presumably the head maintainer of this project could delegate the task
> to a qualified volunteer, not a newbie like myself but not necessarily
> someone with expert knowledge either. It's too bad that a policy of
> not listing things alphabetically wasn't adopted from the beginning of
> this project, but I guess that's life.

That wasn't that portion of the man page, for better or for worse.  We
can debate whethher using a non-alphabetical order would be better or
worse for everyone; personally, I think the much better pointer is at
the very beginning of the git man page, which points people at "man
gittutorial" and "man giteveryday".

It seems to me that for your stated goal, "git everyday" has a good
list of commands that people should learn, complete with a proposed
workflow.

That's probably the biggest stumbling block of finding an ideal
ordering.  What's reasonable really depends on your workflow, and
there are many different workflows depending on what a particular
developer is trying to do.  Consider carpentry; for some use cases, a
screwdriver is an absolutely critical tool.  For others, they might
never use it, and instead almost exclusively join two pieces of woods
using mortise and tenon joint.  Others might use a butt joint, plus
glue and nails.  All of these different techniques can be used to make
a wooden box, and they all involve a very different set of tools.

Regards,

					- Ted

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-06 23:47       ` Jonathan Nieder
@ 2018-07-08  1:09         ` frederik
  2018-07-24 19:52           ` frederik
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: frederik @ 2018-07-08  1:09 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Nieder; +Cc: Eric Sunshine, git, Robert P. J. Day

Hi Jonathan,

If it's really just a matter of needing someone with a newcomer's
perspective, then I'd be happy to look over the ordering of the git
subcommands. You can run the command I provided to glean the frequency
of each subcommand from your shell history, I'll look over the output
and see if the ordering makes sense to me, and then you or someone
else can rearrange the manual page to list the subcommands in this
order. Is that a suitable plan?

Thanks,

Frederick

On Fri, Jul 06, 2018 at 04:47:15PM -0700, Jonathan Nieder wrote:
> Hi,
> 
> Frederick Eaton wrote:
> 
> >       Unfortunately my contribution will have to be limited for the
> > moment to making this suggestion, as I am extraordinarily busy. I hope
> > it will not be too burdensome to add this item to your TODO list and
> > keep it there until a willing volunteer comes along.
> 
> No problem.  If you have time to contribute later, we can wait. :)
> 
> > For what it's worth, I made extensive changes to the Arch Wiki Git
> > article back in 2015, following an initial attempt of mine to
> > understand various tutorials. It was the most prominent wiki-based Git
> > documentation I could find at the time. The article has of course seen
> > numerous improvements since then.
> 
> For reference: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/git
> 
> > I don't think that it's really important to find a "best" ordering for
> > commands or glossary terms; it's more a matter of finding someone who
> > is willing to take responsibility for choosing a reasonable ordering.
> > Presumably the head maintainer of this project could delegate the task
> > to a qualified volunteer, not a newbie like myself but not necessarily
> > someone with expert knowledge either.
> 
> I'd have to say, when I compare the troubles a new user and a
> long-timer would run into, I conclude that the long-timers would be
> more likely to produce worse documentation.  It is very difficult to
> remember how new users see things.  The ideal skill set in fact has
> nothing to do with level of Git expertise: to produce a good result, a
> good technical writer would ask the right questions to gather
> information from the experts and then test their documentation on
> newcomers until it works well.
> 
> Based on the work you've described already having done, it sounds like
> you'd be an ideal person to get this going, if you find yourself with
> time for it.
> 
> >                                       It's too bad that a policy of
> > not listing things alphabetically wasn't adopted from the beginning of
> > this project, but I guess that's life.
> 
> From this thread I've been convinced that for this kind of reference
> document, alphabetical organization within each section is a good
> organization, provided each section is small enough (as in "git help"
> output).
> 
> I'm also a fan of non reference documentation that can use a narrative
> ordering instead (like "git help core-tutorial", except with more
> modern commands).
> 
> > Thanks Eric for the pointer to "git help". This does indeed provide a
> > finer and better grouping than the man-page (but it also looks like
> > another candidate for de-alphabetization...!).
> 
> Indeed, copying that organization over from "git help" to the git(1)
> manpage may be a good step for any interested people overhearing this
> conversation.
> 
> As a first step, how about making git(1) recommend "git help", like
> this?  It already recommends giteveryday(7) but the more interactive
> first command might be useful for some people.
> 
> Thoughts?  Improvements?
> 
> -- >8 --
> Subject: git doc: recommend "git help" as a starting point
> 
> The list of subcommands described in git(1) can be overwhelming.
> Encourage newcomers to run "git help" to get a shorter list of
> commands as a starting point.
> 
> Based on a suggestion by Frederick Eaton.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Jonathan Nieder <jrnieder@gmail.com>
> ---
>  Documentation/git.txt | 9 ++++++---
>  1 file changed, 6 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
> index dba7f0c18e..0149ce9af0 100644
> --- a/Documentation/git.txt
> +++ b/Documentation/git.txt
> @@ -23,9 +23,12 @@ unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
>  and full access to internals.
>  
>  See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
> -linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
> -commands.  The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
> -in-depth introduction.
> +linkgit:giteveryday[7] and run
> +
> +    git help
> +
> +for a useful minimum set of commands.  The link:user-manual.html[Git
> +User's Manual] has a more in-depth introduction.
>  
>  After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
>  page to learn what commands Git offers.  You can learn more about
> -- 
> 2.18.0.203.gfac676dfb9
> 

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-08  1:09         ` frederik
@ 2018-07-24 19:52           ` frederik
  2018-07-24 21:11             ` Jonathan Nieder
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: frederik @ 2018-07-24 19:52 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Nieder; +Cc: Eric Sunshine, git, Robert P. J. Day

Hello Jonathan,

Thank you for replying to me earlier. I just wanted to follow up on
this thread. Did you decide not to go with my proposal?

Next week I should have time to send you a patch with the manual page
reordered... although, unless you have a special 'diff' which can
detect when text has been moved from one place to another, I'm
guessing it would take you even longer to check the validity of the
patch than it would for me to create it.

However, I'm happy to do this or whatever other small projects you
would like to delegate as far as improving readability of your
documentation. I just need to know what is likely to be accepted.

Thanks,

Frederick

On Sat, Jul 07, 2018 at 06:09:26PM -0700, frederik@ofb.net wrote:
> Hi Jonathan,
> 
> If it's really just a matter of needing someone with a newcomer's
> perspective, then I'd be happy to look over the ordering of the git
> subcommands. You can run the command I provided to glean the frequency
> of each subcommand from your shell history, I'll look over the output
> and see if the ordering makes sense to me, and then you or someone
> else can rearrange the manual page to list the subcommands in this
> order. Is that a suitable plan?
> 
> Thanks,
> 
> Frederick
> 
> On Fri, Jul 06, 2018 at 04:47:15PM -0700, Jonathan Nieder wrote:
> > Hi,
> > 
> > Frederick Eaton wrote:
> > 
> > >       Unfortunately my contribution will have to be limited for the
> > > moment to making this suggestion, as I am extraordinarily busy. I hope
> > > it will not be too burdensome to add this item to your TODO list and
> > > keep it there until a willing volunteer comes along.
> > 
> > No problem.  If you have time to contribute later, we can wait. :)
> > 
> > > For what it's worth, I made extensive changes to the Arch Wiki Git
> > > article back in 2015, following an initial attempt of mine to
> > > understand various tutorials. It was the most prominent wiki-based Git
> > > documentation I could find at the time. The article has of course seen
> > > numerous improvements since then.
> > 
> > For reference: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/git
> > 
> > > I don't think that it's really important to find a "best" ordering for
> > > commands or glossary terms; it's more a matter of finding someone who
> > > is willing to take responsibility for choosing a reasonable ordering.
> > > Presumably the head maintainer of this project could delegate the task
> > > to a qualified volunteer, not a newbie like myself but not necessarily
> > > someone with expert knowledge either.
> > 
> > I'd have to say, when I compare the troubles a new user and a
> > long-timer would run into, I conclude that the long-timers would be
> > more likely to produce worse documentation.  It is very difficult to
> > remember how new users see things.  The ideal skill set in fact has
> > nothing to do with level of Git expertise: to produce a good result, a
> > good technical writer would ask the right questions to gather
> > information from the experts and then test their documentation on
> > newcomers until it works well.
> > 
> > Based on the work you've described already having done, it sounds like
> > you'd be an ideal person to get this going, if you find yourself with
> > time for it.
> > 
> > >                                       It's too bad that a policy of
> > > not listing things alphabetically wasn't adopted from the beginning of
> > > this project, but I guess that's life.
> > 
> > From this thread I've been convinced that for this kind of reference
> > document, alphabetical organization within each section is a good
> > organization, provided each section is small enough (as in "git help"
> > output).
> > 
> > I'm also a fan of non reference documentation that can use a narrative
> > ordering instead (like "git help core-tutorial", except with more
> > modern commands).
> > 
> > > Thanks Eric for the pointer to "git help". This does indeed provide a
> > > finer and better grouping than the man-page (but it also looks like
> > > another candidate for de-alphabetization...!).
> > 
> > Indeed, copying that organization over from "git help" to the git(1)
> > manpage may be a good step for any interested people overhearing this
> > conversation.
> > 
> > As a first step, how about making git(1) recommend "git help", like
> > this?  It already recommends giteveryday(7) but the more interactive
> > first command might be useful for some people.
> > 
> > Thoughts?  Improvements?
> > 
> > -- >8 --
> > Subject: git doc: recommend "git help" as a starting point
> > 
> > The list of subcommands described in git(1) can be overwhelming.
> > Encourage newcomers to run "git help" to get a shorter list of
> > commands as a starting point.
> > 
> > Based on a suggestion by Frederick Eaton.
> > 
> > Signed-off-by: Jonathan Nieder <jrnieder@gmail.com>
> > ---
> >  Documentation/git.txt | 9 ++++++---
> >  1 file changed, 6 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
> > 
> > diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
> > index dba7f0c18e..0149ce9af0 100644
> > --- a/Documentation/git.txt
> > +++ b/Documentation/git.txt
> > @@ -23,9 +23,12 @@ unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
> >  and full access to internals.
> >  
> >  See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
> > -linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
> > -commands.  The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
> > -in-depth introduction.
> > +linkgit:giteveryday[7] and run
> > +
> > +    git help
> > +
> > +for a useful minimum set of commands.  The link:user-manual.html[Git
> > +User's Manual] has a more in-depth introduction.
> >  
> >  After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
> >  page to learn what commands Git offers.  You can learn more about
> > -- 
> > 2.18.0.203.gfac676dfb9
> > 
> 

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-24 19:52           ` frederik
@ 2018-07-24 21:11             ` Jonathan Nieder
  2018-08-11  2:30               ` frederik
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: Jonathan Nieder @ 2018-07-24 21:11 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: frederik; +Cc: Eric Sunshine, git, Robert P. J. Day

Hi,

frederik@ofb.net wrote:

> Next week I should have time to send you a patch with the manual page
> reordered...

Yay!

>               although, unless you have a special 'diff' which can
> detect when text has been moved from one place to another, I'm
> guessing it would take you even longer to check the validity of the
> patch than it would for me to create it.

Fortunately we have "git diff --color-moved".

> However, I'm happy to do this or whatever other small projects you
> would like to delegate as far as improving readability of your
> documentation. I just need to know what is likely to be accepted.

Starting with this one seems fine.  Maybe people on list will have
ideas for followups on top, or maybe you'll have ideas for ways others
can help you, or both. ;-)

Thanks again,
Jonathan

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-07-24 21:11             ` Jonathan Nieder
@ 2018-08-11  2:30               ` frederik
  2018-08-13 18:17                 ` Junio C Hamano
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: frederik @ 2018-08-11  2:30 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jonathan Nieder; +Cc: Eric Sunshine, git, Robert P. J. Day

[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 2021 bytes --]

Hi Jonathan and Git developers,

I poked around today and figured out how to reorder the command
listings in the manual page, they are taken from git/command-list.txt
so I just reorder the lines in that file (after disabling sorting in
git/Documentation/cmd-list.perl).

I haven't reordered the whole list yet. I could only get one computer
friend to send me his subcommand frequencies from his shell history. I
reordered the commands partly based on that, and partly based on their
order of occurrence in the various tutorial man pages.

I'm attaching a preliminary patch (not ready to be applied) just to
make sure this is going to be OK with the maintainer (who is the
maintainer?) before I continue. I made it with "git format-patch".

It seems fairly straightforward, but please let me know if there are
any problems. By the way, the command I used to check that the new
command list contains all the original commands is as follows:

diff =(sort command-list.txt | grep -v '^#') =(git cat-file blob e1c26c1bb7e618f6f372d9a568e7cab75612d2db | grep -v '^#' | sort)

Thanks,

Frederick

On Tue, Jul 24, 2018 at 02:11:46PM -0700, Jonathan Nieder wrote:
> Hi,
> 
> frederik@ofb.net wrote:
> 
> > Next week I should have time to send you a patch with the manual page
> > reordered...
> 
> Yay!
> 
> >               although, unless you have a special 'diff' which can
> > detect when text has been moved from one place to another, I'm
> > guessing it would take you even longer to check the validity of the
> > patch than it would for me to create it.
> 
> Fortunately we have "git diff --color-moved".
> 
> > However, I'm happy to do this or whatever other small projects you
> > would like to delegate as far as improving readability of your
> > documentation. I just need to know what is likely to be accepted.
> 
> Starting with this one seems fine.  Maybe people on list will have
> ideas for followups on top, or maybe you'll have ideas for ways others
> can help you, or both. ;-)
> 
> Thanks again,
> Jonathan
> 

[-- Attachment #2: 0001-First-test-of-command-reordering.patch --]
[-- Type: text/plain, Size: 14176 bytes --]

From 7aabe1060eabee16fac239ce49b8f9749be11adb Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
From: Frederick Eaton <frederik@ofb.net>
Date: Fri, 10 Aug 2018 18:54:28 -0700
Subject: [PATCH] First test of command reordering

---
 Documentation/cmd-list.perl |   2 +-
 command-list.txt            | 107 +++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------------
 2 files changed, 61 insertions(+), 48 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/cmd-list.perl b/Documentation/cmd-list.perl
index 5aa73cfe4..62c32f58d 100755
--- a/Documentation/cmd-list.perl
+++ b/Documentation/cmd-list.perl
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ sub format_one {
 }
 
 my %cmds = ();
-for (sort <>) {
+for (<>) {
 	next if /^#/;
 
 	chomp;
diff --git a/command-list.txt b/command-list.txt
index e1c26c1bb..94a15fd42 100644
--- a/command-list.txt
+++ b/command-list.txt
@@ -43,35 +43,83 @@
 # specified here, which can only have "guide" attribute and nothing
 # else.
 #
+# August 2018: The list has been reordered for didactic purposes,
+# basically according to approximate usefulness / frequency of use /
+# order of use. This is to make it possible for a beginner to read the
+# manual page "straight through" and see the most important commands
+# first, rather than getting them in alphabetical order. Please
+# consider this when adding new commands.
+#
 ### command list (do not change this line, also do not change alignment)
 # command name                          category [category] [category]
+# From tutorial
+git-help                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-config                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
+git-clone                               mainporcelain           init
+git-init                                mainporcelain           init
 git-add                                 mainporcelain           worktree
-git-am                                  mainporcelain
+git-commit                              mainporcelain           history
+git-diff                                mainporcelain           history
+git-status                              mainporcelain           info
+git-log                                 mainporcelain           info
+git-branch                              mainporcelain           history
+git-checkout                            mainporcelain           history
+git-merge                               mainporcelain           history
+gitk                                    mainporcelain
+git-pull                                mainporcelain           remote
+git-fetch                               mainporcelain           remote
+# From frequencies
+git-grep                                mainporcelain           info
+git-show                                mainporcelain           info
+git-push                                mainporcelain           remote
+git-submodule                           mainporcelain
+git-reset                               mainporcelain           worktree
+git-cherry-pick                         mainporcelain
+git-tag                                 mainporcelain           history
+git-clean                               mainporcelain
+# From tutorial NEXT STEPS
+git-format-patch                        mainporcelain
+git-bisect                              mainporcelain           info
+gitworkflows                            guide
+giteveryday                             guide
+gitcvs-migration                        guide
+# From tutorial-2 (+ls-remote)
+git-cat-file                            plumbinginterrogators
+git-ls-tree                             plumbinginterrogators
+git-ls-files                            plumbinginterrogators
+git-ls-remote                           plumbinginterrogators
+gitcore-tutorial                        guide
+gitglossary                             guide
+# From gitcore-tutorial
+git-update-index                        plumbingmanipulators
+git-diff-files                          plumbinginterrogators
+git-write-tree                          plumbingmanipulators
+git-read-tree                           plumbingmanipulators
+git-checkout-index                      plumbingmanipulators
+git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
+git-merge-index                         plumbingmanipulators
+git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
+git-prune-packed                        plumbingmanipulators
+git-update-server-info                  synchingrepositories
+git-prune                               ancillarymanipulators
+git-cherry                              ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+# Remaining unsorted (alphabetized) commands
 git-annotate                            ancillaryinterrogators
 git-apply                               plumbingmanipulators            complete
 git-archimport                          foreignscminterface
 git-archive                             mainporcelain
-git-bisect                              mainporcelain           info
 git-blame                               ancillaryinterrogators          complete
-git-branch                              mainporcelain           history
+git-am                                  mainporcelain
 git-bundle                              mainporcelain
-git-cat-file                            plumbinginterrogators
 git-check-attr                          purehelpers
 git-check-ignore                        purehelpers
 git-check-mailmap                       purehelpers
-git-checkout                            mainporcelain           history
-git-checkout-index                      plumbingmanipulators
 git-check-ref-format                    purehelpers
-git-cherry                              ancillaryinterrogators          complete
-git-cherry-pick                         mainporcelain
 git-citool                              mainporcelain
-git-clean                               mainporcelain
-git-clone                               mainporcelain           init
 git-column                              purehelpers
-git-commit                              mainporcelain           history
 git-commit-graph                        plumbingmanipulators
 git-commit-tree                         plumbingmanipulators
-git-config                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
 git-count-objects                       ancillaryinterrogators
 git-credential                          purehelpers
 git-credential-cache                    purehelpers
@@ -81,52 +129,37 @@ git-cvsimport                           foreignscminterface
 git-cvsserver                           foreignscminterface
 git-daemon                              synchingrepositories
 git-describe                            mainporcelain
-git-diff                                mainporcelain           history
-git-diff-files                          plumbinginterrogators
 git-diff-index                          plumbinginterrogators
 git-diff-tree                           plumbinginterrogators
 git-difftool                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
 git-fast-export                         ancillarymanipulators
 git-fast-import                         ancillarymanipulators
-git-fetch                               mainporcelain           remote
 git-fetch-pack                          synchingrepositories
 git-filter-branch                       ancillarymanipulators
 git-fmt-merge-msg                       purehelpers
 git-for-each-ref                        plumbinginterrogators
-git-format-patch                        mainporcelain
 git-fsck                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
 git-gc                                  mainporcelain
 git-get-tar-commit-id                   ancillaryinterrogators
-git-grep                                mainporcelain           info
 git-gui                                 mainporcelain
 git-hash-object                         plumbingmanipulators
-git-help                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
 git-http-backend                        synchingrepositories
 git-http-fetch                          synchelpers
 git-http-push                           synchelpers
 git-imap-send                           foreignscminterface
 git-index-pack                          plumbingmanipulators
-git-init                                mainporcelain           init
 git-instaweb                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
 git-interpret-trailers                  purehelpers
-gitk                                    mainporcelain
-git-log                                 mainporcelain           info
-git-ls-files                            plumbinginterrogators
-git-ls-remote                           plumbinginterrogators
-git-ls-tree                             plumbinginterrogators
 git-mailinfo                            purehelpers
 git-mailsplit                           purehelpers
-git-merge                               mainporcelain           history
 git-merge-base                          plumbinginterrogators
 git-merge-file                          plumbingmanipulators
-git-merge-index                         plumbingmanipulators
 git-merge-one-file                      purehelpers
 git-mergetool                           ancillarymanipulators           complete
 git-merge-tree                          ancillaryinterrogators
 git-mktag                               plumbingmanipulators
 git-mktree                              plumbingmanipulators
 git-mv                                  mainporcelain           worktree
-git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
 git-notes                               mainporcelain
 git-p4                                  foreignscminterface
 git-pack-objects                        plumbingmanipulators
@@ -134,21 +167,14 @@ git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
 git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
 git-parse-remote                        synchelpers
 git-patch-id                            purehelpers
-git-prune                               ancillarymanipulators
-git-prune-packed                        plumbingmanipulators
-git-pull                                mainporcelain           remote
-git-push                                mainporcelain           remote
 git-quiltimport                         foreignscminterface
-git-read-tree                           plumbingmanipulators
 git-rebase                              mainporcelain           history
 git-receive-pack                        synchelpers
 git-reflog                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
 git-remote                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
-git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
 git-replace                             ancillarymanipulators           complete
 git-request-pull                        foreignscminterface             complete
 git-rerere                              ancillaryinterrogators
-git-reset                               mainporcelain           worktree
 git-revert                              mainporcelain
 git-rev-list                            plumbinginterrogators
 git-rev-parse                           ancillaryinterrogators
@@ -157,25 +183,18 @@ git-send-email                          foreignscminterface             complete
 git-send-pack                           synchingrepositories
 git-shell                               synchelpers
 git-shortlog                            mainporcelain
-git-show                                mainporcelain           info
-git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
 git-show-index                          plumbinginterrogators
 git-show-ref                            plumbinginterrogators
 git-sh-i18n                             purehelpers
 git-sh-setup                            purehelpers
 git-stash                               mainporcelain
 git-stage                                                               complete
-git-status                              mainporcelain           info
 git-stripspace                          purehelpers
-git-submodule                           mainporcelain
 git-svn                                 foreignscminterface
 git-symbolic-ref                        plumbingmanipulators
-git-tag                                 mainporcelain           history
 git-unpack-file                         plumbinginterrogators
 git-unpack-objects                      plumbingmanipulators
-git-update-index                        plumbingmanipulators
 git-update-ref                          plumbingmanipulators
-git-update-server-info                  synchingrepositories
 git-upload-archive                      synchelpers
 git-upload-pack                         synchelpers
 git-var                                 plumbinginterrogators
@@ -185,14 +204,9 @@ git-verify-tag                          ancillaryinterrogators
 gitweb                                  ancillaryinterrogators
 git-whatchanged                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
 git-worktree                            mainporcelain
-git-write-tree                          plumbingmanipulators
 gitattributes                           guide
 gitcli                                  guide
-gitcore-tutorial                        guide
-gitcvs-migration                        guide
 gitdiffcore                             guide
-giteveryday                             guide
-gitglossary                             guide
 githooks                                guide
 gitignore                               guide
 gitmodules                              guide
@@ -201,4 +215,3 @@ gitrepository-layout                    guide
 gitrevisions                            guide
 gittutorial-2                           guide
 gittutorial                             guide
-gitworkflows                            guide
-- 
2.13.1


[-- Attachment #3: new-git.1.out --]
[-- Type: text/plain, Size: 46751 bytes --]

GIT(1)                            Git Manual                            GIT(1)

NAME
       git - the stupid content tracker

SYNOPSIS
       git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
           [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
           [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
           [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
           [--super-prefix=<path>]
           <command> [<args>]

DESCRIPTION
       Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
       unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and
       full access to internals.

       See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7) for a useful
       minimum set of commands. The Git User's Manual[1] has a more in-depth
       introduction.

       After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page
       to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual
       Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you
       an overview of the command-line command syntax.

       A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can be
       viewed at https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html.

OPTIONS
       --version
           Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.

       --help
           Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands.
           If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are
           printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the
           manual page for that command.

           Other options are available to control how the manual page is
           displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help
           ...  is converted internally into git help ....

       -C <path>
           Run as if git was started in <path> instead of the current working
           directory. When multiple -C options are given, each subsequent
           non-absolute -C <path> is interpreted relative to the preceding -C
           <path>.

           This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir
           and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names
           would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C
           option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:

               git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
               git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status

       -c <name>=<value>
           Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will
           override values from configuration files. The <name> is expected in
           the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by
           dots).

           Note that omitting the = in git -c foo.bar ...  is allowed and sets
           foo.bar to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would in a
           config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like
           git -c foo.bar= ...) sets foo.bar to the empty string which git
           config --bool will convert to false.

       --exec-path[=<path>]
           Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can
           also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
           variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting
           and then exit.

       --html-path
           Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
           documentation is installed and exit.

       --man-path
           Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version
           of Git and exit.

       --info-path
           Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of Git
           are installed and exit.

       -p, --paginate
           Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is
           a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options
           (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).

       -P, --no-pager
           Do not pipe Git output into a pager.

       --git-dir=<path>
           Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
           setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
           path or relative path to current working directory.

       --work-tree=<path>
           Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
           path relative to the current working directory. This can also be
           controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and
           the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
           config(1) for a more detailed discussion).

       --namespace=<path>
           Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
           Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.

       --super-prefix=<path>
           Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path
           from above a repository down to its root. One use is to give
           submodules context about the superproject that invoked it.

       --bare
           Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment
           is not set, it is set to the current working directory.

       --no-replace-objects
           Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-
           replace(1) for more information.

       --literal-pathspecs
           Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
           This is equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment
           variable to 1.

       --glob-pathspecs
           Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting the
           GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Disabling globbing on
           individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"

       --noglob-pathspecs
           Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
           the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Enabling
           globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic
           ":(glob)"

       --icase-pathspecs
           Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
           the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.

       --no-optional-locks
           Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
           equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS to 0.

       --list-cmds=group[,group...]
           List commands by group. This is an internal/experimental option and
           may change or be removed in the future. Supported groups are:
           builtins, parseopt (builtin commands that use parse-options), main
           (all commands in libexec directory), others (all other commands in
           $PATH that have git- prefix), list-<category> (see categories in
           command-list.txt), nohelpers (exclude helper commands), alias and
           config (retrieve command list from config variable
           completion.commands)

GIT COMMANDS
       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
       ("plumbing") commands.

HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)
       We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
       ancillary user utilities.

   Main porcelain commands
       git-clone(1)
           Clone a repository into a new directory.

       git-init(1)
           Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.

       git-add(1)
           Add file contents to the index.

       git-commit(1)
           Record changes to the repository.

       git-diff(1)
           Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.

       git-status(1)
           Show the working tree status.

       git-log(1)
           Show commit logs.

       git-branch(1)
           List, create, or delete branches.

       git-checkout(1)
           Switch branches or restore working tree files.

       git-merge(1)
           Join two or more development histories together.

       gitk(1)
           The Git repository browser.

       git-pull(1)
           Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.

       git-fetch(1)
           Download objects and refs from another repository.

       git-grep(1)
           Print lines matching a pattern.

       git-show(1)
           Show various types of objects.

       git-push(1)
           Update remote refs along with associated objects.

       git-submodule(1)
           Initialize, update or inspect submodules.

       git-reset(1)
           Reset current HEAD to the specified state.

       git-cherry-pick(1)
           Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.

       git-tag(1)
           Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.

       git-clean(1)
           Remove untracked files from the working tree.

       git-format-patch(1)
           Prepare patches for e-mail submission.

       git-bisect(1)
           Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.

       git-archive(1)
           Create an archive of files from a named tree.

       git-am(1)
           Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.

       git-bundle(1)
           Move objects and refs by archive.

       git-citool(1)
           Graphical alternative to git-commit.

       git-describe(1)
           Give an object a human readable name based on an available ref.

       git-gc(1)
           Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.

       git-gui(1)
           A portable graphical interface to Git.

       git-mv(1)
           Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.

       git-notes(1)
           Add or inspect object notes.

       git-rebase(1)
           Reapply commits on top of another base tip.

       git-revert(1)
           Revert some existing commits.

       git-rm(1)
           Remove files from the working tree and from the index.

       git-shortlog(1)
           Summarize git log output.

       git-stash(1)
           Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.

       git-worktree(1)
           Manage multiple working trees.

   Ancillary Commands
       Manipulators:

       git-config(1)
           Get and set repository or global options.

       git-repack(1)
           Pack unpacked objects in a repository.

       git-prune(1)
           Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.

       git-fast-export(1)
           Git data exporter.

       git-fast-import(1)
           Backend for fast Git data importers.

       git-filter-branch(1)
           Rewrite branches.

       git-mergetool(1)
           Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.

       git-pack-refs(1)
           Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.

       git-reflog(1)
           Manage reflog information.

       git-remote(1)
           Manage set of tracked repositories.

       git-replace(1)
           Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.

       Interrogators:

       git-help(1)
           Display help information about Git.

       git-show-branch(1)
           Show branches and their commits.

       git-cherry(1)
           Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.

       git-annotate(1)
           Annotate file lines with commit information.

       git-blame(1)
           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.

       git-count-objects(1)
           Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.

       git-difftool(1)
           Show changes using common diff tools.

       git-fsck(1)
           Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the
           database.

       git-get-tar-commit-id(1)
           Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.

       git-instaweb(1)
           Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.

       git-merge-tree(1)
           Show three-way merge without touching index.

       git-rerere(1)
           Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.

       git-rev-parse(1)
           Pick out and massage parameters.

       git-verify-commit(1)
           Check the GPG signature of commits.

       git-verify-tag(1)
           Check the GPG signature of tags.

       gitweb(1)
           Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).

       git-whatchanged(1)
           Show logs with difference each commit introduces.

   Interacting with Others
       These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people
       via patch over e-mail.

       git-archimport(1)
           Import an Arch repository into Git.

       git-cvsexportcommit(1)
           Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.

       git-cvsimport(1)
           Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.

       git-cvsserver(1)
           A CVS server emulator for Git.

       git-imap-send(1)
           Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.

       git-p4(1)
           Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.

       git-quiltimport(1)
           Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.

       git-request-pull(1)
           Generates a summary of pending changes.

       git-send-email(1)
           Send a collection of patches as emails.

       git-svn(1)
           Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.

LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (PLUMBING)
       Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands
       are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains.
       Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-
       index(1) and git-read-tree(1).

       The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to
       these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than
       Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for
       scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are
       subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.

       The following description divides the low-level commands into commands
       that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
       commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move
       objects and references between repositories.

   Manipulation commands
       git-update-index(1)
           Register file contents in the working tree to the index.

       git-write-tree(1)
           Create a tree object from the current index.

       git-read-tree(1)
           Reads tree information into the index.

       git-checkout-index(1)
           Copy files from the index to the working tree.

       git-merge-index(1)
           Run a merge for files needing merging.

       git-prune-packed(1)
           Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.

       git-apply(1)
           Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.

       git-commit-graph(1)
           Write and verify Git commit graph files.

       git-commit-tree(1)
           Create a new commit object.

       git-hash-object(1)
           Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.

       git-index-pack(1)
           Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.

       git-merge-file(1)
           Run a three-way file merge.

       git-mktag(1)
           Creates a tag object.

       git-mktree(1)
           Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.

       git-pack-objects(1)
           Create a packed archive of objects.

       git-symbolic-ref(1)
           Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.

       git-unpack-objects(1)
           Unpack objects from a packed archive.

       git-update-ref(1)
           Update the object name stored in a ref safely.

   Interrogation commands
       git-cat-file(1)
           Provide content or type and size information for repository
           objects.

       git-ls-tree(1)
           List the contents of a tree object.

       git-ls-files(1)
           Show information about files in the index and the working tree.

       git-ls-remote(1)
           List references in a remote repository.

       git-diff-files(1)
           Compares files in the working tree and the index.

       git-name-rev(1)
           Find symbolic names for given revs.

       git-diff-index(1)
           Compare a tree to the working tree or index.

       git-diff-tree(1)
           Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.

       git-for-each-ref(1)
           Output information on each ref.

       git-merge-base(1)
           Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.

       git-pack-redundant(1)
           Find redundant pack files.

       git-rev-list(1)
           Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.

       git-show-index(1)
           Show packed archive index.

       git-show-ref(1)
           List references in a local repository.

       git-unpack-file(1)
           Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.

       git-var(1)
           Show a Git logical variable.

       git-verify-pack(1)
           Validate packed Git archive files.

       In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
       working tree.

   Synching repositories
       git-update-server-info(1)
           Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

       git-daemon(1)
           A really simple server for Git repositories.

       git-fetch-pack(1)
           Receive missing objects from another repository.

       git-http-backend(1)
           Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.

       git-send-pack(1)
           Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.

       The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
       typically do not use them directly.

       git-http-fetch(1)
           Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.

       git-http-push(1)
           Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.

       git-parse-remote(1)
           Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.

       git-receive-pack(1)
           Receive what is pushed into the repository.

       git-shell(1)
           Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.

       git-upload-archive(1)
           Send archive back to git-archive.

       git-upload-pack(1)
           Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.

   Internal helper commands
       These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users
       typically do not use them directly.

       git-check-attr(1)
           Display gitattributes information.

       git-check-ignore(1)
           Debug gitignore / exclude files.

       git-check-mailmap(1)
           Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.

       git-check-ref-format(1)
           Ensures that a reference name is well formed.

       git-column(1)
           Display data in columns.

       git-credential(1)
           Retrieve and store user credentials.

       git-credential-cache(1)
           Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.

       git-credential-store(1)
           Helper to store credentials on disk.

       git-fmt-merge-msg(1)
           Produce a merge commit message.

       git-interpret-trailers(1)
           add or parse structured information in commit messages.

       git-mailinfo(1)
           Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.

       git-mailsplit(1)
           Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.

       git-merge-one-file(1)
           The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.

       git-patch-id(1)
           Compute unique ID for a patch.

       git-sh-i18n(1)
           Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.

       git-sh-setup(1)
           Common Git shell script setup code.

       git-stripspace(1)
           Remove unnecessary whitespace.

CONFIGURATION MECHANISM
       Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
       repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like
       this:

           #
           # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
           #

           ; core variables
           [core]
                   ; Don't trust file modes
                   filemode = false

           ; user identity
           [user]
                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
                   email = "gitster@pobox.com"

       Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their
       operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details
       about the configuration mechanism.

IDENTIFIER TERMINOLOGY
       <object>
           Indicates the object name for any type of object.

       <blob>
           Indicates a blob object name.

       <tree>
           Indicates a tree object name.

       <commit>
           Indicates a commit object name.

       <tree-ish>
           Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
           <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree> object
           but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that
           point at a <tree>.

       <commit-ish>
           Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
           <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit>
           object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a
           <commit>.

       <type>
           Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob,
           tree, commit, or tag.

       <file>
           Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the
           tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.

SYMBOLIC IDENTIFIERS
       Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
       symbolic notation:

       HEAD
           indicates the head of the current branch.

       <tag>
           a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).

       <head>
           a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).

       For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
       REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).

FILE/DIRECTORY STRUCTURE
       Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.

       Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.

       Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
       $GIT_DIR.

TERMINOLOGY
       Please see gitglossary(7).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Various Git commands use the following environment variables:

   The Git Repository
       These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is
       worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git
       so take care if using a foreign front-end.

       GIT_INDEX_FILE
           This environment allows the specification of an alternate index
           file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.

       GIT_INDEX_VERSION
           This environment variable allows the specification of an index
           version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index files.
           By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-
           index(1) for more information.

       GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY
           If the object storage directory is specified via this environment
           variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
           otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

       GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES
           Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
           archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
           specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git
           object directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New
           objects will not be written to these directories.

               Entries that begin with `"` (double-quote) will be interpreted
               as C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing
               double-quotes and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
               `"path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path` has two paths:
               `path-with-"-and-:-in-it` and `vanilla-path`.

       GIT_DIR
           If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path
           to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
           The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.

       GIT_WORK_TREE
           Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be
           controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the
           core.worktree configuration variable.

       GIT_NAMESPACE
           Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
           --namespace command-line option also sets this value.

       GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES
           This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it
           is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into while
           looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
           slow-loading network directories). It will not exclude the current
           working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the
           environment. Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and
           resolve any symlink that might be present in order to compare them
           with the current directory. However, if even this access is slow,
           you can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
           subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,
           GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink.

       GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM
           When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
           directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
           directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
           does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can
           be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries.
           Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit
           repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.

       GIT_COMMON_DIR
           If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
           normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path instead.
           Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from
           $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
           details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
           variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...

   Git Commits
       GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME,
       GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE, EMAIL
           see git-commit-tree(1)

   Git Diffs
       GIT_DIFF_OPTS
           Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of
           context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
           precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the
           Git diff command line.

       GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
           When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program
           named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation described
           above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:

               path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode

           where:

       <old|new>-file
           are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of
           <old|new>,

       <old|new>-hex
           are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,

       <old|new>-mode
           are the octal representation of the file modes.

           The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g.
           new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.  old-file when a new
           file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the index).
           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary
           file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.

           For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
           parameter, <path>.

           For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment
           variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.

       GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER
           A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.

       GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL
           The total number of paths.

   other
       GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY
           A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive
           merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)

       GIT_PAGER
           This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an
           empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch a pager.
           See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).

       GIT_EDITOR
           This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used
           by several Git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor is to
           be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-
           config(1).

       GIT_SSH, GIT_SSH_COMMAND
           If either of these environment variables is set then git fetch and
           git push will use the specified command instead of ssh when they
           need to connect to a remote system. The command-line parameters
           passed to the configured command are determined by the ssh variant.
           See ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.

       + $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted
       by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
       $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which
       can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).

       + Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
       personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation for
       further details.

       GIT_SSH_VARIANT
           If this environment variable is set, it overrides Git's
           autodetection whether GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand refer
           to OpenSSH, plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the
           config setting ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.

       GIT_ASKPASS
           If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need
           to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
           authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as
           command-line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See
           also the core.askPass option in git-config(1).

       GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT
           If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not prompt on
           the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).

       GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM
           Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
           $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used
           along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable
           environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
           avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone
           with sufficient permissions to fix it.

       GIT_FLUSH
           If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as
           git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git
           check-attr and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output
           stream after each record have been flushed. If this variable is set
           to "0", the output of these commands will be done using completely
           buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set, Git will
           choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on whether stdout
           appears to be redirected to a file or not.

       GIT_TRACE
           Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
           command execution and external command execution.

           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.

           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower
           than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open
           file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this
           file descriptor.

           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting
           with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and
           will try to write the trace messages into it.

           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
           (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

       GIT_TRACE_FSMONITOR
           Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

       GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS
           Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
           access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded.
           This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related
           performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
           options.

       GIT_TRACE_PACKET
           Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given
           program. This can help with debugging object negotiation or other
           protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with
           "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for
           available trace output options.

       GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE
           Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program.
           Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers, and
           no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into
           a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than
           displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.

           Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of
           clones and fetches.

       GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE
           Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
           time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
           options.

       GIT_TRACE_SETUP
           Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
           working directory after Git has completed its setup phase. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

       GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW
           Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning
           of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
           options.

       GIT_TRACE_CURL
           Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
           including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
           This is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command line.
           This option overrides setting the GIT_CURL_VERBOSE environment
           variable. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

       GIT_TRACE_CURL_NO_DATA
           When a curl trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), do not
           dump data (that is, only dump info lines and headers).

       GIT_REDACT_COOKIES
           This can be set to a comma-separated list of strings. When a curl
           trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), whenever a "Cookies:"
           header sent by the client is dumped, values of cookies whose key is
           in that list (case-sensitive) are redacted.

       GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS
           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
           literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, running
           GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits
           that touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob *.c matches.
           You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g.,
           paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output,
           etc).

       GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS
           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).

       GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS
           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           literal (aka "literal" magic).

       GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS
           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           case-insensitive.

       GIT_REFLOG_ACTION
           When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of
           the reason why the ref was updated (which is typically the name of
           the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the
           old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use
           set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name
           to this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
           end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.

       GIT_REF_PARANOIA
           If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over
           lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this does
           nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some
           operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable
           automatically when performing destructive operations like git-
           prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to
           be paranoid about making sure an operation has touched every ref
           (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).

       GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL
           If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as if
           protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the listed protocols
           has protocol.<name>.allow set to always (overriding any existing
           configuration). In other words, any protocol not mentioned will be
           disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See the
           description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more details.

       GIT_PROTOCOL_FROM_USER
           Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone which are
           configured to the user state. This is useful to restrict recursive
           submodule initialization from an untrusted repository or for
           programs which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
           git-config(1) for more details.

       GIT_PROTOCOL
           For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
           Contains a colon : separated list of keys with optional values
           key[=value]. Presence of unknown keys and values must be ignored.

       GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS
           If set to 0, Git will complete any requested operation without
           performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a lock.
           For example, this will prevent git status from refreshing the index
           as a side effect. This is useful for processes running in the
           background which do not want to cause lock contention with other
           operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.

       GIT_REDIRECT_STDIN, GIT_REDIRECT_STDOUT, GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR
           Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
           handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
           particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
           canonical way to pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not
           an option because it would require the handles to be marked
           inheritable (and consequently every spawned process would inherit
           them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The primary
           intended use case is to use named pipes for communication (e.g.
           \\.\pipe\my-git-stdin-123).

           Two special values are supported: off will simply close the
           corresponding standard handle, and if GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is 2>&1,
           standard error will be redirected to the same handle as standard
           output.

       GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
           If set to yes, print an ellipsis following an (abbreviated) SHA-1
           value. This affects indications of detached HEADs (git-checkout(1))
           and the raw diff output (git-diff(1)). Printing an ellipsis in the
           cases mentioned is no longer considered adequate and support for it
           is likely to be removed in the foreseeable future (along with the
           variable).

DISCUSSION
       More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter
       of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7).

       A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
       subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
       things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
       of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
       contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
       as tags and branch heads.

       The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
       hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
       directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
       and some number of parent commits.

       The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
       "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
       represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
       parent represent merges of independent lines of development.

       All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
       written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
       The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
       just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
       purpose.

       When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
       efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".

       Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
       may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref.
       Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most
       recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
       tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD
       contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.

       The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
       path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
       the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
       attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
       corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
       working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
       be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
       content stored in the index.

       The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
       for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
       unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.

FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
       See the references in the "description" section to get started using
       Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a
       first-time user.

       The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7)
       both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.

       See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.

       See also the howto[3] documents for some useful examples.

       The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[4].

       Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).

AUTHORS
       Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
       C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
       <git@vger.kernel.org[5]>.
       http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary gives you a more
       complete list of contributors.

       If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1)
       and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the
       project.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org[5]> where the
       development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
       subscribed to the list to send a message there.

       Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to the
       Git Security mailing list <git-security@googlegroups.com[6]>.

SEE ALSO
       gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7),
       gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's
       Manual[1], gitworkflows(7)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES
        1. Git User's Manual
           file:///home/frederik/pkg-tmp/git/../gitbuild//share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html

        2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
           file:///home/frederik/pkg-tmp/git/../gitbuild//share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html#git-concepts

        3. howto
           file:///home/frederik/pkg-tmp/git/../gitbuild//share/doc/git-doc/howto-index.html

        4. Git API documentation
           file:///home/frederik/pkg-tmp/git/../gitbuild//share/doc/git-doc/technical/api-index.html

        5. git@vger.kernel.org
           mailto:git@vger.kernel.org

        6. git-security@googlegroups.com
           mailto:git-security@googlegroups.com

Git 2.18.0.548.g7aabe1            08/10/2018                            GIT(1)

[-- Attachment #4: command-list.txt --]
[-- Type: text/plain, Size: 11695 bytes --]

# Command classification list
# ---------------------------
# All supported commands, builtin or external, must be described in
# here. This info is used to list commands in various places. Each
# command is on one line followed by one or more attributes.
#
# The first attribute group is mandatory and indicates the command
# type. This group includes:
#
#   mainporcelain
#   ancillarymanipulators
#   ancillaryinterrogators
#   foreignscminterface
#   plumbingmanipulators
#   plumbinginterrogators
#   synchingrepositories
#   synchelpers
#   purehelpers
#
# The type names are self explanatory. But if you want to see what
# command belongs to what group to get a better picture, have a look
# at "git" man page, "GIT COMMANDS" section.
#
# Commands of type mainporcelain can also optionally have one of these
# attributes:
#
#   init
#   worktree
#   info
#   history
#   remote
#
# These commands are considered "common" and will show up in "git
# help" output in groups. Uncommon porcelain commands must not
# specify any of these attributes.
#
# "complete" attribute is used to mark that the command should be
# completable by git-completion.bash. Note that by default,
# mainporcelain commands are completable so you don't need this
# attribute.
#
# As part of the Git man page list, the man(5/7) guides are also
# specified here, which can only have "guide" attribute and nothing
# else.
#
# August 2018: The list has been reordered for didactic purposes,
# basically according to approximate usefulness / frequency of use /
# order of use. This is to make it possible for a beginner to read the
# manual page "straight through" and see the most important commands
# first, rather than getting them in alphabetical order. Please
# consider this when adding new commands.
#
### command list (do not change this line, also do not change alignment)
# command name                          category [category] [category]
# From tutorial
git-help                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-config                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-clone                               mainporcelain           init
git-init                                mainporcelain           init
git-add                                 mainporcelain           worktree
git-commit                              mainporcelain           history
git-diff                                mainporcelain           history
git-status                              mainporcelain           info
git-log                                 mainporcelain           info
git-branch                              mainporcelain           history
git-checkout                            mainporcelain           history
git-merge                               mainporcelain           history
gitk                                    mainporcelain
git-pull                                mainporcelain           remote
git-fetch                               mainporcelain           remote
# From frequencies
git-grep                                mainporcelain           info
git-show                                mainporcelain           info
git-push                                mainporcelain           remote
git-submodule                           mainporcelain
git-reset                               mainporcelain           worktree
git-cherry-pick                         mainporcelain
git-tag                                 mainporcelain           history
git-clean                               mainporcelain
# From tutorial NEXT STEPS
git-format-patch                        mainporcelain
git-bisect                              mainporcelain           info
gitworkflows                            guide
giteveryday                             guide
gitcvs-migration                        guide
# From tutorial-2 (+ls-remote)
git-cat-file                            plumbinginterrogators
git-ls-tree                             plumbinginterrogators
git-ls-files                            plumbinginterrogators
git-ls-remote                           plumbinginterrogators
gitcore-tutorial                        guide
gitglossary                             guide
# From gitcore-tutorial
git-update-index                        plumbingmanipulators
git-diff-files                          plumbinginterrogators
git-write-tree                          plumbingmanipulators
git-read-tree                           plumbingmanipulators
git-checkout-index                      plumbingmanipulators
git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
git-merge-index                         plumbingmanipulators
git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-prune-packed                        plumbingmanipulators
git-update-server-info                  synchingrepositories
git-prune                               ancillarymanipulators
git-cherry                              ancillaryinterrogators          complete
# Remaining unsorted (alphabetized) commands
git-annotate                            ancillaryinterrogators
git-apply                               plumbingmanipulators            complete
git-archimport                          foreignscminterface
git-archive                             mainporcelain
git-blame                               ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-am                                  mainporcelain
git-bundle                              mainporcelain
git-check-attr                          purehelpers
git-check-ignore                        purehelpers
git-check-mailmap                       purehelpers
git-check-ref-format                    purehelpers
git-citool                              mainporcelain
git-column                              purehelpers
git-commit-graph                        plumbingmanipulators
git-commit-tree                         plumbingmanipulators
git-count-objects                       ancillaryinterrogators
git-credential                          purehelpers
git-credential-cache                    purehelpers
git-credential-store                    purehelpers
git-cvsexportcommit                     foreignscminterface
git-cvsimport                           foreignscminterface
git-cvsserver                           foreignscminterface
git-daemon                              synchingrepositories
git-describe                            mainporcelain
git-diff-index                          plumbinginterrogators
git-diff-tree                           plumbinginterrogators
git-difftool                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-fast-export                         ancillarymanipulators
git-fast-import                         ancillarymanipulators
git-fetch-pack                          synchingrepositories
git-filter-branch                       ancillarymanipulators
git-fmt-merge-msg                       purehelpers
git-for-each-ref                        plumbinginterrogators
git-fsck                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-gc                                  mainporcelain
git-get-tar-commit-id                   ancillaryinterrogators
git-gui                                 mainporcelain
git-hash-object                         plumbingmanipulators
git-http-backend                        synchingrepositories
git-http-fetch                          synchelpers
git-http-push                           synchelpers
git-imap-send                           foreignscminterface
git-index-pack                          plumbingmanipulators
git-instaweb                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-interpret-trailers                  purehelpers
git-mailinfo                            purehelpers
git-mailsplit                           purehelpers
git-merge-base                          plumbinginterrogators
git-merge-file                          plumbingmanipulators
git-merge-one-file                      purehelpers
git-mergetool                           ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-merge-tree                          ancillaryinterrogators
git-mktag                               plumbingmanipulators
git-mktree                              plumbingmanipulators
git-mv                                  mainporcelain           worktree
git-notes                               mainporcelain
git-p4                                  foreignscminterface
git-pack-objects                        plumbingmanipulators
git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
git-parse-remote                        synchelpers
git-patch-id                            purehelpers
git-quiltimport                         foreignscminterface
git-rebase                              mainporcelain           history
git-receive-pack                        synchelpers
git-reflog                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-remote                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-replace                             ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-request-pull                        foreignscminterface             complete
git-rerere                              ancillaryinterrogators
git-revert                              mainporcelain
git-rev-list                            plumbinginterrogators
git-rev-parse                           ancillaryinterrogators
git-rm                                  mainporcelain           worktree
git-send-email                          foreignscminterface             complete
git-send-pack                           synchingrepositories
git-shell                               synchelpers
git-shortlog                            mainporcelain
git-show-index                          plumbinginterrogators
git-show-ref                            plumbinginterrogators
git-sh-i18n                             purehelpers
git-sh-setup                            purehelpers
git-stash                               mainporcelain
git-stage                                                               complete
git-stripspace                          purehelpers
git-svn                                 foreignscminterface
git-symbolic-ref                        plumbingmanipulators
git-unpack-file                         plumbinginterrogators
git-unpack-objects                      plumbingmanipulators
git-update-ref                          plumbingmanipulators
git-upload-archive                      synchelpers
git-upload-pack                         synchelpers
git-var                                 plumbinginterrogators
git-verify-commit                       ancillaryinterrogators
git-verify-pack                         plumbinginterrogators
git-verify-tag                          ancillaryinterrogators
gitweb                                  ancillaryinterrogators
git-whatchanged                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-worktree                            mainporcelain
gitattributes                           guide
gitcli                                  guide
gitdiffcore                             guide
githooks                                guide
gitignore                               guide
gitmodules                              guide
gitnamespaces                           guide
gitrepository-layout                    guide
gitrevisions                            guide
gittutorial-2                           guide
gittutorial                             guide

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: de-alphabetizing the documentation
  2018-08-11  2:30               ` frederik
@ 2018-08-13 18:17                 ` Junio C Hamano
  2019-02-19 17:54                   ` [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list Frederick Eaton
  2019-02-19 17:54                   ` [PATCH] Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt. Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl Frederick Eaton
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 17+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2018-08-13 18:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: frederik; +Cc: Jonathan Nieder, Eric Sunshine, git, Robert P. J. Day

frederik@ofb.net writes:

> Hi Jonathan and Git developers,
>
> I poked around today and figured out how to reorder the command
> listings in the manual page, they are taken from git/command-list.txt
> so I just reorder the lines in that file (after disabling sorting in
> git/Documentation/cmd-list.perl).
>
> I haven't reordered the whole list yet. I could only get one computer
> friend to send me his subcommand frequencies from his shell history. I
> reordered the commands partly based on that, and partly based on their
> order of occurrence in the various tutorial man pages.

There are two good things about a list that is alphabetical.  One is
that you can scan with your eyes and a finger to find what you are
looking for more quickly.  The other is that it is mechanical so we
won't waste time on bickering whose frequency table is more correct,
whether frequency table is a good approach to derive a better order
(than, say, the order in which the commands appear in an every-day
workflow) to begin with.

I would say if we were departing from alphabetical order, we should
first declare that we are *not* looking for the best way to order
the list, so that people do not waste too much time bikeshedding.
Instead what we should aim for is to come up with _an_ order that is
not too unreasonable and settle as quickly as we can.

And from that point of view, what I saw in new-git.1.out, I found it
not so outrageously unreasonable ;-).

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list
  2018-08-13 18:17                 ` Junio C Hamano
@ 2019-02-19 17:54                   ` Frederick Eaton
  2019-02-21 18:05                     ` frederik
  2019-02-19 17:54                   ` [PATCH] Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt. Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl Frederick Eaton
  1 sibling, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: Frederick Eaton @ 2019-02-19 17:54 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git
  Cc: Junio C Hamano, Eric Sunshine, Jonathan Nieder,
	Theodore Y. Ts'o, Frederick Eaton

This is a follow-up to my proposal to de-alphabetize the command
listings in the git(1) manual page, from 6 July 2018.

Some projects have manual page items listed in alphabetical order,
some don't. As I argued in my proposal, I find it easier to learn from
material which is not alphabetized. If this patch is accepted, I hope
that it will make the Git documentation more accessible to myself and
others.

I produced the reordered command list in this patch using several
sources, as indicated by comments in the new command-list.txt file.
First, all the commands in the main part of "gittutorial(7)" appear in
order, then the commands in giteveryday(7). Then appear additional
commands from a friend's shell history, in reverse order of frequency.
Then gittutorial-2(7), then gitcore-tutorial(7). After that there is a
list of "guides", followed by about 100 commands not appearing in the
earlier lists. I kept the guides and the remaining commands in their
category groupings (guide, mainporcelain, ancillarymanipulators,
etc.), but ordered the commands within each category according to my
own judgment after skimming each manual page.

To verify that the new list is a permutation of the most recent list,
I use the following command (it should produce no output and exit 0):

    diff <(git show master:command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort ) <(cat command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort)

Note this patch changes the order of commands appearing in the
generated file "command-list.h", which mostly seems to be used by
"help.c". Probably due to the various occurrences of QSORT in
"help.c", I think this reordering has no visible effect. I am willing
to do any additional testing which may be recommended to ensure that
this patch has no undesired consequences.

Frederick Eaton (1):
  Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt.
    Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl.

 Documentation/cmd-list.perl |   2 +-
 command-list.txt            | 295 +++++++++++++++++++-----------------
 2 files changed, 158 insertions(+), 139 deletions(-)

-- 
2.20.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* [PATCH] Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt. Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl.
  2018-08-13 18:17                 ` Junio C Hamano
  2019-02-19 17:54                   ` [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list Frederick Eaton
@ 2019-02-19 17:54                   ` Frederick Eaton
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 17+ messages in thread
From: Frederick Eaton @ 2019-02-19 17:54 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git
  Cc: Junio C Hamano, Eric Sunshine, Jonathan Nieder,
	Theodore Y. Ts'o, Frederick Eaton

Signed-off-by: Frederick Eaton <frederik@ofb.net>
---
 Documentation/cmd-list.perl |   2 +-
 command-list.txt            | 295 +++++++++++++++++++-----------------
 2 files changed, 158 insertions(+), 139 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/cmd-list.perl b/Documentation/cmd-list.perl
index 5aa73cfe45..62c32f58da 100755
--- a/Documentation/cmd-list.perl
+++ b/Documentation/cmd-list.perl
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ sub format_one {
 }
 
 my %cmds = ();
-for (sort <>) {
+for (<>) {
 	next if /^#/;
 
 	chomp;
diff --git a/command-list.txt b/command-list.txt
index 3a9af104b5..fb088dadea 100644
--- a/command-list.txt
+++ b/command-list.txt
@@ -43,164 +43,183 @@
 # specified here, which can only have "guide" attribute and nothing
 # else.
 #
+# February 2019: This list had been sorted alphabetically but has been
+# reordered to make it easier for people to learn from the main git(1)
+# manual page. The new ordering is according to approximate usefulness
+# / frequency of use / order of use, with some grouping by topic. The
+# idea is to make it possible to read the manual page from beginning
+# to end and see the most important commands first, rather than
+# getting them in alphabetical order - in other words, to make the
+# manual page more like a table of contents and less like an index.
+# Please consider this when adding new commands.
+#
 ### command list (do not change this line, also do not change alignment)
 # command name                          category [category] [category]
+# From gittutorial
+git-help                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-config                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
+git-clone                               mainporcelain           init
+git-init                                mainporcelain           init
 git-add                                 mainporcelain           worktree
-git-am                                  mainporcelain
-git-annotate                            ancillaryinterrogators
-git-apply                               plumbingmanipulators            complete
-git-archimport                          foreignscminterface
-git-archive                             mainporcelain
-git-bisect                              mainporcelain           info
-git-blame                               ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-commit                              mainporcelain           history
+git-diff                                mainporcelain           history
+git-status                              mainporcelain           info
+git-log                                 mainporcelain           info
 git-branch                              mainporcelain           history
-git-bundle                              mainporcelain
-git-cat-file                            plumbinginterrogators
-git-check-attr                          purehelpers
-git-check-ignore                        purehelpers
-git-check-mailmap                       purehelpers
 git-checkout                            mainporcelain           history
+git-merge                               mainporcelain           history
+gitk                                    mainporcelain
+git-pull                                mainporcelain           remote
+git-fetch                               mainporcelain           remote
+# From tutorial NEXT STEPS
+git-format-patch                        mainporcelain
+git-bisect                              mainporcelain           info
+giteveryday                             guide
+gitworkflows                            guide
+gitcvs-migration                        guide
+# From giteveryday
+git-reset                               mainporcelain           worktree
+git-rebase                              mainporcelain           history
+git-tag                                 mainporcelain           history
+git-push                                mainporcelain           remote
+git-send-email                          foreignscminterface             complete
+git-request-pull                        foreignscminterface             complete
+git-am                                  mainporcelain
+git-revert                              mainporcelain
+git-daemon                              synchingrepositories
+git-shell                               synchelpers
+git-http-backend                        synchingrepositories
+gitweb                                  ancillaryinterrogators
+# From user feedback
+git-grep                                mainporcelain           info
+git-show                                mainporcelain           info
+git-submodule                           mainporcelain
+git-cherry-pick                         mainporcelain
+git-clean                               mainporcelain
+# From gittutorial-2
+git-cat-file                            plumbinginterrogators
+git-ls-tree                             plumbinginterrogators
+git-ls-files                            plumbinginterrogators
+gitcore-tutorial                        guide
+gitglossary                             guide
+# From gitcore-tutorial
+git-update-index                        plumbingmanipulators
+git-diff-files                          plumbinginterrogators
+git-write-tree                          plumbingmanipulators
+git-read-tree                           plumbingmanipulators
 git-checkout-index                      plumbingmanipulators
-git-check-ref-format                    purehelpers
+git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
+git-merge-index                         plumbingmanipulators
+git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
+git-prune-packed                        plumbingmanipulators
+git-update-server-info                  synchingrepositories
+git-prune                               ancillarymanipulators
 git-cherry                              plumbinginterrogators          complete
-git-cherry-pick                         mainporcelain
+# Guides, reordered
+gittutorial                             guide
+gittutorial-2                           guide
+gitrevisions                            guide
+gitignore                               guide
+gitcli                                  guide
+gitrepository-layout                    guide
+gitdiffcore                             guide
+gitmodules                              guide
+githooks                                guide
+gitnamespaces                           guide
+gitattributes                           guide
+# All other commands, sorted by man page category and then by
+# approximate priority
+git-stash                               mainporcelain
+git-rm                                  mainporcelain           worktree
+git-mv                                  mainporcelain           worktree
+git-gui                                 mainporcelain
 git-citool                              mainporcelain
-git-clean                               mainporcelain
-git-clone                               mainporcelain           init
-git-column                              purehelpers
-git-commit                              mainporcelain           history
-git-commit-graph                        plumbingmanipulators
-git-commit-tree                         plumbingmanipulators
-git-config                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
-git-count-objects                       ancillaryinterrogators
-git-credential                          purehelpers
-git-credential-cache                    purehelpers
-git-credential-store                    purehelpers
-git-cvsexportcommit                     foreignscminterface
-git-cvsimport                           foreignscminterface
-git-cvsserver                           foreignscminterface
-git-daemon                              synchingrepositories
+git-archive                             mainporcelain
+git-shortlog                            mainporcelain
 git-describe                            mainporcelain
-git-diff                                mainporcelain           history
-git-diff-files                          plumbinginterrogators
-git-diff-index                          plumbinginterrogators
-git-diff-tree                           plumbinginterrogators
-git-difftool                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-gc                                  mainporcelain
+git-notes                               mainporcelain
+git-worktree                            mainporcelain
+git-bundle                              mainporcelain
+git-range-diff                          mainporcelain
+git-stage                                                               complete
+git-reflog                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
+git-remote                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
+git-mergetool                           ancillarymanipulators           complete
+git-filter-branch                       ancillarymanipulators
+git-replace                             ancillarymanipulators           complete
 git-fast-export                         ancillarymanipulators
 git-fast-import                         ancillarymanipulators
-git-fetch                               mainporcelain           remote
-git-fetch-pack                          synchingrepositories
-git-filter-branch                       ancillarymanipulators
-git-fmt-merge-msg                       purehelpers
-git-for-each-ref                        plumbinginterrogators
-git-format-patch                        mainporcelain
-git-fsck                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
-git-gc                                  mainporcelain
-git-get-tar-commit-id                   plumbinginterrogators
-git-grep                                mainporcelain           info
-git-gui                                 mainporcelain
-git-hash-object                         plumbingmanipulators
-git-help                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
-git-http-backend                        synchingrepositories
-git-http-fetch                          synchelpers
-git-http-push                           synchelpers
+git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
+git-cvsimport                           foreignscminterface
+git-cvsserver                           foreignscminterface
+git-cvsexportcommit                     foreignscminterface
+git-svn                                 foreignscminterface
+git-p4                                  foreignscminterface
+git-quiltimport                         foreignscminterface
+git-archimport                          foreignscminterface
 git-imap-send                           foreignscminterface
-git-index-pack                          plumbingmanipulators
-git-init                                mainporcelain           init
-git-instaweb                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
-git-interpret-trailers                  purehelpers
-gitk                                    mainporcelain
-git-log                                 mainporcelain           info
-git-ls-files                            plumbinginterrogators
-git-ls-remote                           plumbinginterrogators
-git-ls-tree                             plumbinginterrogators
-git-mailinfo                            purehelpers
-git-mailsplit                           purehelpers
-git-merge                               mainporcelain           history
-git-merge-base                          plumbinginterrogators
+git-apply                               plumbingmanipulators            complete
 git-merge-file                          plumbingmanipulators
-git-merge-index                         plumbingmanipulators
-git-merge-one-file                      purehelpers
-git-mergetool                           ancillarymanipulators           complete
-git-merge-tree                          ancillaryinterrogators
-git-multi-pack-index                    plumbingmanipulators
 git-mktag                               plumbingmanipulators
+git-hash-object                         plumbingmanipulators
+git-update-ref                          plumbingmanipulators
+git-symbolic-ref                        plumbingmanipulators
+git-commit-tree                         plumbingmanipulators
+git-commit-graph                        plumbingmanipulators
 git-mktree                              plumbingmanipulators
-git-mv                                  mainporcelain           worktree
-git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
-git-notes                               mainporcelain
-git-p4                                  foreignscminterface
 git-pack-objects                        plumbingmanipulators
-git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
-git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
+git-unpack-objects                      plumbingmanipulators
+git-index-pack                          plumbingmanipulators
+git-multi-pack-index                    plumbingmanipulators
+git-blame                               ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-annotate                            ancillaryinterrogators
+git-instaweb                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-rerere                              ancillaryinterrogators
+git-fsck                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-whatchanged                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-difftool                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
+git-merge-tree                          ancillaryinterrogators
+git-count-objects                       ancillaryinterrogators
+git-verify-commit                       ancillaryinterrogators
+git-verify-tag                          ancillaryinterrogators
+git-send-pack                           synchingrepositories
+git-fetch-pack                          synchingrepositories
 git-parse-remote                        synchelpers
-git-patch-id                            purehelpers
-git-prune                               ancillarymanipulators
-git-prune-packed                        plumbingmanipulators
-git-pull                                mainporcelain           remote
-git-push                                mainporcelain           remote
-git-quiltimport                         foreignscminterface
-git-range-diff                          mainporcelain
-git-read-tree                           plumbingmanipulators
-git-rebase                              mainporcelain           history
 git-receive-pack                        synchelpers
-git-reflog                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
-git-remote                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
-git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
-git-replace                             ancillarymanipulators           complete
-git-request-pull                        foreignscminterface             complete
-git-rerere                              ancillaryinterrogators
-git-reset                               mainporcelain           worktree
-git-revert                              mainporcelain
+git-upload-pack                         synchelpers
+git-upload-archive                      synchelpers
+git-http-fetch                          synchelpers
+git-http-push                           synchelpers
+git-var                                 plumbinginterrogators
 git-rev-list                            plumbinginterrogators
 git-rev-parse                           plumbinginterrogators
-git-rm                                  mainporcelain           worktree
-git-send-email                          foreignscminterface             complete
-git-send-pack                           synchingrepositories
-git-shell                               synchelpers
-git-shortlog                            mainporcelain
-git-show                                mainporcelain           info
-git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
-git-show-index                          plumbinginterrogators
+git-for-each-ref                        plumbinginterrogators
 git-show-ref                            plumbinginterrogators
-git-sh-i18n                             purehelpers
+git-ls-remote                           plumbinginterrogators
+git-diff-tree                           plumbinginterrogators
+git-diff-index                          plumbinginterrogators
+git-merge-base                          plumbinginterrogators
+git-verify-pack                         plumbinginterrogators
+git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
+git-unpack-file                         plumbinginterrogators
+git-show-index                          plumbinginterrogators
+git-get-tar-commit-id                   plumbinginterrogators
+git-merge-one-file                      purehelpers
 git-sh-setup                            purehelpers
-git-stash                               mainporcelain
-git-stage                                                               complete
-git-status                              mainporcelain           info
+git-check-ref-format                    purehelpers
+git-check-ignore                        purehelpers
+git-check-attr                          purehelpers
+git-credential                          purehelpers
+git-credential-cache                    purehelpers
+git-credential-store                    purehelpers
+git-fmt-merge-msg                       purehelpers
+git-check-mailmap                       purehelpers
+git-mailsplit                           purehelpers
+git-mailinfo                            purehelpers
+git-interpret-trailers                  purehelpers
+git-column                              purehelpers
 git-stripspace                          purehelpers
-git-submodule                           mainporcelain
-git-svn                                 foreignscminterface
-git-symbolic-ref                        plumbingmanipulators
-git-tag                                 mainporcelain           history
-git-unpack-file                         plumbinginterrogators
-git-unpack-objects                      plumbingmanipulators
-git-update-index                        plumbingmanipulators
-git-update-ref                          plumbingmanipulators
-git-update-server-info                  synchingrepositories
-git-upload-archive                      synchelpers
-git-upload-pack                         synchelpers
-git-var                                 plumbinginterrogators
-git-verify-commit                       ancillaryinterrogators
-git-verify-pack                         plumbinginterrogators
-git-verify-tag                          ancillaryinterrogators
-gitweb                                  ancillaryinterrogators
-git-whatchanged                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
-git-worktree                            mainporcelain
-git-write-tree                          plumbingmanipulators
-gitattributes                           guide
-gitcli                                  guide
-gitcore-tutorial                        guide
-gitcvs-migration                        guide
-gitdiffcore                             guide
-giteveryday                             guide
-gitglossary                             guide
-githooks                                guide
-gitignore                               guide
-gitmodules                              guide
-gitnamespaces                           guide
-gitrepository-layout                    guide
-gitrevisions                            guide
-gittutorial-2                           guide
-gittutorial                             guide
-gitworkflows                            guide
+git-patch-id                            purehelpers
+git-sh-i18n                             purehelpers
-- 
2.20.1


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list
  2019-02-19 17:54                   ` [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list Frederick Eaton
@ 2019-02-21 18:05                     ` frederik
  2019-03-11  9:04                       ` frederik
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: frederik @ 2019-02-21 18:05 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Junio C Hamano, Eric Sunshine, Jonathan Nieder, Theodore Y. Ts'o

[-- Attachment #1: Type: text/plain, Size: 2413 bytes --]

I realized that it would probably be easier to discuss this proposal
if I attached the final command listing and the rendered manual page.
Please find them attached to this message.

Thank you,

Frederick

On Tue, Feb 19, 2019 at 09:54:12AM -0800, Frederick Eaton wrote:
>This is a follow-up to my proposal to de-alphabetize the command
>listings in the git(1) manual page, from 6 July 2018.
>
>Some projects have manual page items listed in alphabetical order,
>some don't. As I argued in my proposal, I find it easier to learn from
>material which is not alphabetized. If this patch is accepted, I hope
>that it will make the Git documentation more accessible to myself and
>others.
>
>I produced the reordered command list in this patch using several
>sources, as indicated by comments in the new command-list.txt file.
>First, all the commands in the main part of "gittutorial(7)" appear in
>order, then the commands in giteveryday(7). Then appear additional
>commands from a friend's shell history, in reverse order of frequency.
>Then gittutorial-2(7), then gitcore-tutorial(7). After that there is a
>list of "guides", followed by about 100 commands not appearing in the
>earlier lists. I kept the guides and the remaining commands in their
>category groupings (guide, mainporcelain, ancillarymanipulators,
>etc.), but ordered the commands within each category according to my
>own judgment after skimming each manual page.
>
>To verify that the new list is a permutation of the most recent list,
>I use the following command (it should produce no output and exit 0):
>
>    diff <(git show master:command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort ) <(cat command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort)
>
>Note this patch changes the order of commands appearing in the
>generated file "command-list.h", which mostly seems to be used by
>"help.c". Probably due to the various occurrences of QSORT in
>"help.c", I think this reordering has no visible effect. I am willing
>to do any additional testing which may be recommended to ensure that
>this patch has no undesired consequences.
>
>Frederick Eaton (1):
>  Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt.
>    Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl.
>
> Documentation/cmd-list.perl |   2 +-
> command-list.txt            | 295 +++++++++++++++++++-----------------
> 2 files changed, 158 insertions(+), 139 deletions(-)
>
>-- 
>2.20.1
>

[-- Attachment #2: reordered-command-list.txt --]
[-- Type: text/plain, Size: 12100 bytes --]

# Command classification list
# ---------------------------
# All supported commands, builtin or external, must be described in
# here. This info is used to list commands in various places. Each
# command is on one line followed by one or more attributes.
#
# The first attribute group is mandatory and indicates the command
# type. This group includes:
#
#   mainporcelain
#   ancillarymanipulators
#   ancillaryinterrogators
#   foreignscminterface
#   plumbingmanipulators
#   plumbinginterrogators
#   synchingrepositories
#   synchelpers
#   purehelpers
#
# The type names are self explanatory. But if you want to see what
# command belongs to what group to get a better picture, have a look
# at "git" man page, "GIT COMMANDS" section.
#
# Commands of type mainporcelain can also optionally have one of these
# attributes:
#
#   init
#   worktree
#   info
#   history
#   remote
#
# These commands are considered "common" and will show up in "git
# help" output in groups. Uncommon porcelain commands must not
# specify any of these attributes.
#
# "complete" attribute is used to mark that the command should be
# completable by git-completion.bash. Note that by default,
# mainporcelain commands are completable so you don't need this
# attribute.
#
# As part of the Git man page list, the man(5/7) guides are also
# specified here, which can only have "guide" attribute and nothing
# else.
#
# February 2019: This list had been sorted alphabetically but has been
# reordered to make it easier for people to learn from the main git(1)
# manual page. The new ordering is according to approximate usefulness
# / frequency of use / order of use, with some grouping by topic. The
# idea is to make it possible to read the manual page from beginning
# to end and see the most important commands first, rather than
# getting them in alphabetical order - in other words, to make the
# manual page more like a table of contents and less like an index.
# Please consider this when adding new commands.
#
### command list (do not change this line, also do not change alignment)
# command name                          category [category] [category]
# From gittutorial
git-help                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-config                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-clone                               mainporcelain           init
git-init                                mainporcelain           init
git-add                                 mainporcelain           worktree
git-commit                              mainporcelain           history
git-diff                                mainporcelain           history
git-status                              mainporcelain           info
git-log                                 mainporcelain           info
git-branch                              mainporcelain           history
git-checkout                            mainporcelain           history
git-merge                               mainporcelain           history
gitk                                    mainporcelain
git-pull                                mainporcelain           remote
git-fetch                               mainporcelain           remote
# From tutorial NEXT STEPS
git-format-patch                        mainporcelain
git-bisect                              mainporcelain           info
giteveryday                             guide
gitworkflows                            guide
gitcvs-migration                        guide
# From giteveryday
git-reset                               mainporcelain           worktree
git-rebase                              mainporcelain           history
git-tag                                 mainporcelain           history
git-push                                mainporcelain           remote
git-send-email                          foreignscminterface             complete
git-request-pull                        foreignscminterface             complete
git-am                                  mainporcelain
git-revert                              mainporcelain
git-daemon                              synchingrepositories
git-shell                               synchelpers
git-http-backend                        synchingrepositories
gitweb                                  ancillaryinterrogators
# From user feedback
git-grep                                mainporcelain           info
git-show                                mainporcelain           info
git-submodule                           mainporcelain
git-cherry-pick                         mainporcelain
git-clean                               mainporcelain
# From gittutorial-2
git-cat-file                            plumbinginterrogators
git-ls-tree                             plumbinginterrogators
git-ls-files                            plumbinginterrogators
gitcore-tutorial                        guide
gitglossary                             guide
# From gitcore-tutorial
git-update-index                        plumbingmanipulators
git-diff-files                          plumbinginterrogators
git-write-tree                          plumbingmanipulators
git-read-tree                           plumbingmanipulators
git-checkout-index                      plumbingmanipulators
git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
git-merge-index                         plumbingmanipulators
git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-prune-packed                        plumbingmanipulators
git-update-server-info                  synchingrepositories
git-prune                               ancillarymanipulators
git-cherry                              plumbinginterrogators          complete
# Guides, reordered
gittutorial                             guide
gittutorial-2                           guide
gitrevisions                            guide
gitignore                               guide
gitcli                                  guide
gitrepository-layout                    guide
gitdiffcore                             guide
gitmodules                              guide
githooks                                guide
gitnamespaces                           guide
gitattributes                           guide
# All other commands, sorted by man page category and then by
# approximate priority
git-stash                               mainporcelain
git-rm                                  mainporcelain           worktree
git-mv                                  mainporcelain           worktree
git-gui                                 mainporcelain
git-citool                              mainporcelain
git-archive                             mainporcelain
git-shortlog                            mainporcelain
git-describe                            mainporcelain
git-gc                                  mainporcelain
git-notes                               mainporcelain
git-worktree                            mainporcelain
git-bundle                              mainporcelain
git-range-diff                          mainporcelain
git-stage                                                               complete
git-reflog                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-remote                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-mergetool                           ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-filter-branch                       ancillarymanipulators
git-replace                             ancillarymanipulators           complete
git-fast-export                         ancillarymanipulators
git-fast-import                         ancillarymanipulators
git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
git-cvsimport                           foreignscminterface
git-cvsserver                           foreignscminterface
git-cvsexportcommit                     foreignscminterface
git-svn                                 foreignscminterface
git-p4                                  foreignscminterface
git-quiltimport                         foreignscminterface
git-archimport                          foreignscminterface
git-imap-send                           foreignscminterface
git-apply                               plumbingmanipulators            complete
git-merge-file                          plumbingmanipulators
git-mktag                               plumbingmanipulators
git-hash-object                         plumbingmanipulators
git-update-ref                          plumbingmanipulators
git-symbolic-ref                        plumbingmanipulators
git-commit-tree                         plumbingmanipulators
git-commit-graph                        plumbingmanipulators
git-mktree                              plumbingmanipulators
git-pack-objects                        plumbingmanipulators
git-unpack-objects                      plumbingmanipulators
git-index-pack                          plumbingmanipulators
git-multi-pack-index                    plumbingmanipulators
git-blame                               ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-annotate                            ancillaryinterrogators
git-instaweb                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-rerere                              ancillaryinterrogators
git-fsck                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-whatchanged                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-difftool                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
git-merge-tree                          ancillaryinterrogators
git-count-objects                       ancillaryinterrogators
git-verify-commit                       ancillaryinterrogators
git-verify-tag                          ancillaryinterrogators
git-send-pack                           synchingrepositories
git-fetch-pack                          synchingrepositories
git-parse-remote                        synchelpers
git-receive-pack                        synchelpers
git-upload-pack                         synchelpers
git-upload-archive                      synchelpers
git-http-fetch                          synchelpers
git-http-push                           synchelpers
git-var                                 plumbinginterrogators
git-rev-list                            plumbinginterrogators
git-rev-parse                           plumbinginterrogators
git-for-each-ref                        plumbinginterrogators
git-show-ref                            plumbinginterrogators
git-ls-remote                           plumbinginterrogators
git-diff-tree                           plumbinginterrogators
git-diff-index                          plumbinginterrogators
git-merge-base                          plumbinginterrogators
git-verify-pack                         plumbinginterrogators
git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
git-unpack-file                         plumbinginterrogators
git-show-index                          plumbinginterrogators
git-get-tar-commit-id                   plumbinginterrogators
git-merge-one-file                      purehelpers
git-sh-setup                            purehelpers
git-check-ref-format                    purehelpers
git-check-ignore                        purehelpers
git-check-attr                          purehelpers
git-credential                          purehelpers
git-credential-cache                    purehelpers
git-credential-store                    purehelpers
git-fmt-merge-msg                       purehelpers
git-check-mailmap                       purehelpers
git-mailsplit                           purehelpers
git-mailinfo                            purehelpers
git-interpret-trailers                  purehelpers
git-column                              purehelpers
git-stripspace                          purehelpers
git-patch-id                            purehelpers
git-sh-i18n                             purehelpers

[-- Attachment #3: reordered-git.1.new --]
[-- Type: text/plain, Size: 46921 bytes --]

GIT(1)                            Git Manual                            GIT(1)

NAME
       git - the stupid content tracker

SYNOPSIS
       git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
           [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
           [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
           [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
           [--super-prefix=<path>]
           <command> [<args>]

DESCRIPTION
       Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
       unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and
       full access to internals.

       See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7) for a useful
       minimum set of commands. The Git User's Manual[1] has a more in-depth
       introduction.

       After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page
       to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual
       Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you
       an overview of the command-line command syntax.

       A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can be
       viewed at https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html.

OPTIONS
       --version
           Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.

       --help
           Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands.
           If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are
           printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the
           manual page for that command.

           Other options are available to control how the manual page is
           displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help
           ...  is converted internally into git help ....

       -C <path>
           Run as if git was started in <path> instead of the current working
           directory. When multiple -C options are given, each subsequent
           non-absolute -C <path> is interpreted relative to the preceding -C
           <path>.

           This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir
           and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names
           would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C
           option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:

               git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
               git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status

       -c <name>=<value>
           Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will
           override values from configuration files. The <name> is expected in
           the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by
           dots).

           Note that omitting the = in git -c foo.bar ...  is allowed and sets
           foo.bar to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would in a
           config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like
           git -c foo.bar= ...) sets foo.bar to the empty string which git
           config --type=bool will convert to false.

       --exec-path[=<path>]
           Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can
           also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
           variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting
           and then exit.

       --html-path
           Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
           documentation is installed and exit.

       --man-path
           Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version
           of Git and exit.

       --info-path
           Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of Git
           are installed and exit.

       -p, --paginate
           Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is
           a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options
           (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).

       -P, --no-pager
           Do not pipe Git output into a pager.

       --git-dir=<path>
           Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
           setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
           path or relative path to current working directory.

       --work-tree=<path>
           Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
           path relative to the current working directory. This can also be
           controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and
           the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
           config(1) for a more detailed discussion).

       --namespace=<path>
           Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
           Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.

       --super-prefix=<path>
           Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path
           from above a repository down to its root. One use is to give
           submodules context about the superproject that invoked it.

       --bare
           Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment
           is not set, it is set to the current working directory.

       --no-replace-objects
           Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-
           replace(1) for more information.

       --literal-pathspecs
           Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
           This is equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment
           variable to 1.

       --glob-pathspecs
           Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting the
           GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Disabling globbing on
           individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"

       --noglob-pathspecs
           Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
           the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Enabling
           globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic
           ":(glob)"

       --icase-pathspecs
           Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
           the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.

       --no-optional-locks
           Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
           equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS to 0.

       --list-cmds=group[,group...]
           List commands by group. This is an internal/experimental option and
           may change or be removed in the future. Supported groups are:
           builtins, parseopt (builtin commands that use parse-options), main
           (all commands in libexec directory), others (all other commands in
           $PATH that have git- prefix), list-<category> (see categories in
           command-list.txt), nohelpers (exclude helper commands), alias and
           config (retrieve command list from config variable
           completion.commands)

GIT COMMANDS
       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
       ("plumbing") commands.

HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)
       We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
       ancillary user utilities.

   Main porcelain commands
       git-clone(1)
           Clone a repository into a new directory.

       git-init(1)
           Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.

       git-add(1)
           Add file contents to the index.

       git-commit(1)
           Record changes to the repository.

       git-diff(1)
           Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.

       git-status(1)
           Show the working tree status.

       git-log(1)
           Show commit logs.

       git-branch(1)
           List, create, or delete branches.

       git-checkout(1)
           Switch branches or restore working tree files.

       git-merge(1)
           Join two or more development histories together.

       gitk(1)
           The Git repository browser.

       git-pull(1)
           Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.

       git-fetch(1)
           Download objects and refs from another repository.

       git-format-patch(1)
           Prepare patches for e-mail submission.

       git-bisect(1)
           Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.

       git-reset(1)
           Reset current HEAD to the specified state.

       git-rebase(1)
           Reapply commits on top of another base tip.

       git-tag(1)
           Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.

       git-push(1)
           Update remote refs along with associated objects.

       git-am(1)
           Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.

       git-revert(1)
           Revert some existing commits.

       git-grep(1)
           Print lines matching a pattern.

       git-show(1)
           Show various types of objects.

       git-submodule(1)
           Initialize, update or inspect submodules.

       git-cherry-pick(1)
           Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.

       git-clean(1)
           Remove untracked files from the working tree.

       git-stash(1)
           Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.

       git-rm(1)
           Remove files from the working tree and from the index.

       git-mv(1)
           Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.

       git-gui(1)
           A portable graphical interface to Git.

       git-citool(1)
           Graphical alternative to git-commit.

       git-archive(1)
           Create an archive of files from a named tree.

       git-shortlog(1)
           Summarize git log output.

       git-describe(1)
           Give an object a human readable name based on an available ref.

       git-gc(1)
           Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.

       git-notes(1)
           Add or inspect object notes.

       git-worktree(1)
           Manage multiple working trees.

       git-bundle(1)
           Move objects and refs by archive.

       git-range-diff(1)
           Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch).

   Ancillary Commands
       Manipulators:

       git-config(1)
           Get and set repository or global options.

       git-repack(1)
           Pack unpacked objects in a repository.

       git-prune(1)
           Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.

       git-reflog(1)
           Manage reflog information.

       git-remote(1)
           Manage set of tracked repositories.

       git-mergetool(1)
           Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.

       git-filter-branch(1)
           Rewrite branches.

       git-replace(1)
           Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.

       git-fast-export(1)
           Git data exporter.

       git-fast-import(1)
           Backend for fast Git data importers.

       git-pack-refs(1)
           Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.

       Interrogators:

       git-help(1)
           Display help information about Git.

       gitweb(1)
           Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).

       git-show-branch(1)
           Show branches and their commits.

       git-blame(1)
           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.

       git-annotate(1)
           Annotate file lines with commit information.

       git-instaweb(1)
           Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.

       git-rerere(1)
           Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.

       git-fsck(1)
           Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the
           database.

       git-whatchanged(1)
           Show logs with difference each commit introduces.

       git-difftool(1)
           Show changes using common diff tools.

       git-merge-tree(1)
           Show three-way merge without touching index.

       git-count-objects(1)
           Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.

       git-verify-commit(1)
           Check the GPG signature of commits.

       git-verify-tag(1)
           Check the GPG signature of tags.

   Interacting with Others
       These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people
       via patch over e-mail.

       git-send-email(1)
           Send a collection of patches as emails.

       git-request-pull(1)
           Generates a summary of pending changes.

       git-cvsimport(1)
           Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.

       git-cvsserver(1)
           A CVS server emulator for Git.

       git-cvsexportcommit(1)
           Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.

       git-svn(1)
           Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.

       git-p4(1)
           Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.

       git-quiltimport(1)
           Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.

       git-archimport(1)
           Import a GNU Arch repository into Git.

       git-imap-send(1)
           Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.

LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (PLUMBING)
       Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands
       are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains.
       Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-
       index(1) and git-read-tree(1).

       The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to
       these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than
       Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for
       scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are
       subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.

       The following description divides the low-level commands into commands
       that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
       commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move
       objects and references between repositories.

   Manipulation commands
       git-update-index(1)
           Register file contents in the working tree to the index.

       git-write-tree(1)
           Create a tree object from the current index.

       git-read-tree(1)
           Reads tree information into the index.

       git-checkout-index(1)
           Copy files from the index to the working tree.

       git-merge-index(1)
           Run a merge for files needing merging.

       git-prune-packed(1)
           Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.

       git-apply(1)
           Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.

       git-merge-file(1)
           Run a three-way file merge.

       git-mktag(1)
           Creates a tag object.

       git-hash-object(1)
           Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.

       git-update-ref(1)
           Update the object name stored in a ref safely.

       git-symbolic-ref(1)
           Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.

       git-commit-tree(1)
           Create a new commit object.

       git-commit-graph(1)
           Write and verify Git commit-graph files.

       git-mktree(1)
           Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.

       git-pack-objects(1)
           Create a packed archive of objects.

       git-unpack-objects(1)
           Unpack objects from a packed archive.

       git-index-pack(1)
           Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.

       git-multi-pack-index(1)
           Write and verify multi-pack-indexes.

   Interrogation commands
       git-cat-file(1)
           Provide content or type and size information for repository
           objects.

       git-ls-tree(1)
           List the contents of a tree object.

       git-ls-files(1)
           Show information about files in the index and the working tree.

       git-diff-files(1)
           Compares files in the working tree and the index.

       git-name-rev(1)
           Find symbolic names for given revs.

       git-cherry(1)
           Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.

       git-var(1)
           Show a Git logical variable.

       git-rev-list(1)
           Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.

       git-rev-parse(1)
           Pick out and massage parameters.

       git-for-each-ref(1)
           Output information on each ref.

       git-show-ref(1)
           List references in a local repository.

       git-ls-remote(1)
           List references in a remote repository.

       git-diff-tree(1)
           Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.

       git-diff-index(1)
           Compare a tree to the working tree or index.

       git-merge-base(1)
           Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.

       git-verify-pack(1)
           Validate packed Git archive files.

       git-pack-redundant(1)
           Find redundant pack files.

       git-unpack-file(1)
           Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.

       git-show-index(1)
           Show packed archive index.

       git-get-tar-commit-id(1)
           Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.

       In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
       working tree.

   Synching repositories
       git-daemon(1)
           A really simple server for Git repositories.

       git-http-backend(1)
           Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.

       git-update-server-info(1)
           Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.

       git-send-pack(1)
           Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.

       git-fetch-pack(1)
           Receive missing objects from another repository.

       The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
       typically do not use them directly.

       git-shell(1)
           Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.

       git-parse-remote(1)
           Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.

       git-receive-pack(1)
           Receive what is pushed into the repository.

       git-upload-pack(1)
           Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.

       git-upload-archive(1)
           Send archive back to git-archive.

       git-http-fetch(1)
           Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.

       git-http-push(1)
           Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.

   Internal helper commands
       These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users
       typically do not use them directly.

       git-merge-one-file(1)
           The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.

       git-sh-setup(1)
           Common Git shell script setup code.

       git-check-ref-format(1)
           Ensures that a reference name is well formed.

       git-check-ignore(1)
           Debug gitignore / exclude files.

       git-check-attr(1)
           Display gitattributes information.

       git-credential(1)
           Retrieve and store user credentials.

       git-credential-cache(1)
           Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.

       git-credential-store(1)
           Helper to store credentials on disk.

       git-fmt-merge-msg(1)
           Produce a merge commit message.

       git-check-mailmap(1)
           Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.

       git-mailsplit(1)
           Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.

       git-mailinfo(1)
           Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.

       git-interpret-trailers(1)
           add or parse structured information in commit messages.

       git-column(1)
           Display data in columns.

       git-stripspace(1)
           Remove unnecessary whitespace.

       git-patch-id(1)
           Compute unique ID for a patch.

       git-sh-i18n(1)
           Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.

CONFIGURATION MECHANISM
       Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
       repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like
       this:

           #
           # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
           #

           ; core variables
           [core]
                   ; Don't trust file modes
                   filemode = false

           ; user identity
           [user]
                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
                   email = "gitster@pobox.com"

       Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their
       operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details
       about the configuration mechanism.

IDENTIFIER TERMINOLOGY
       <object>
           Indicates the object name for any type of object.

       <blob>
           Indicates a blob object name.

       <tree>
           Indicates a tree object name.

       <commit>
           Indicates a commit object name.

       <tree-ish>
           Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
           <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree> object
           but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that
           point at a <tree>.

       <commit-ish>
           Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
           <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit>
           object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a
           <commit>.

       <type>
           Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob,
           tree, commit, or tag.

       <file>
           Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the
           tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.

SYMBOLIC IDENTIFIERS
       Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
       symbolic notation:

       HEAD
           indicates the head of the current branch.

       <tag>
           a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).

       <head>
           a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).

       For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
       REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).

FILE/DIRECTORY STRUCTURE
       Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.

       Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.

       Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
       $GIT_DIR.

TERMINOLOGY
       Please see gitglossary(7).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Various Git commands use the following environment variables:

   The Git Repository
       These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is
       worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git
       so take care if using a foreign front-end.

       GIT_INDEX_FILE
           This environment allows the specification of an alternate index
           file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.

       GIT_INDEX_VERSION
           This environment variable allows the specification of an index
           version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index files.
           By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-
           index(1) for more information.

       GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY
           If the object storage directory is specified via this environment
           variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
           otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.

       GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES
           Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
           archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
           specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git
           object directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New
           objects will not be written to these directories.

           Entries that begin with " (double-quote) will be interpreted as
           C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing double-quotes
           and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
           "path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path has two paths:
           path-with-"-and-:-in-it and vanilla-path.

       GIT_DIR
           If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path
           to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
           The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.

       GIT_WORK_TREE
           Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be
           controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the
           core.worktree configuration variable.

       GIT_NAMESPACE
           Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
           --namespace command-line option also sets this value.

       GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES
           This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it
           is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into while
           looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
           slow-loading network directories). It will not exclude the current
           working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the
           environment. Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and
           resolve any symlink that might be present in order to compare them
           with the current directory. However, if even this access is slow,
           you can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
           subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,
           GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink.

       GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM
           When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
           directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
           directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
           does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can
           be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries.
           Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit
           repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.

       GIT_COMMON_DIR
           If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
           normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path instead.
           Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from
           $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
           details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
           variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...

   Git Commits
       GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME,
       GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE, EMAIL
           see git-commit-tree(1)

   Git Diffs
       GIT_DIFF_OPTS
           Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of
           context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
           precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the
           Git diff command line.

       GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
           When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program
           named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation described
           above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:

               path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode

           where:

       <old|new>-file
           are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of
           <old|new>,

       <old|new>-hex
           are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,

       <old|new>-mode
           are the octal representation of the file modes.

           The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g.
           new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.  old-file when a new
           file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the index).
           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary
           file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.

           For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
           parameter, <path>.

           For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment
           variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.

       GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER
           A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.

       GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL
           The total number of paths.

   other
       GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY
           A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive
           merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)

       GIT_PAGER
           This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an
           empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch a pager.
           See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).

       GIT_EDITOR
           This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used
           by several Git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor is to
           be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-
           config(1).

       GIT_SSH, GIT_SSH_COMMAND
           If either of these environment variables is set then git fetch and
           git push will use the specified command instead of ssh when they
           need to connect to a remote system. The command-line parameters
           passed to the configured command are determined by the ssh variant.
           See ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.

       + $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted
       by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
       $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which
       can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).

       + Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
       personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation for
       further details.

       GIT_SSH_VARIANT
           If this environment variable is set, it overrides Git's
           autodetection whether GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand refer
           to OpenSSH, plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the
           config setting ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.

       GIT_ASKPASS
           If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need
           to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
           authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as
           command-line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See
           also the core.askPass option in git-config(1).

       GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT
           If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not prompt on
           the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).

       GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM
           Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
           $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used
           along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable
           environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
           avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone
           with sufficient permissions to fix it.

       GIT_FLUSH
           If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as
           git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git
           check-attr and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output
           stream after each record have been flushed. If this variable is set
           to "0", the output of these commands will be done using completely
           buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set, Git will
           choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on whether stdout
           appears to be redirected to a file or not.

       GIT_TRACE
           Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
           command execution and external command execution.

           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.

           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower
           than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open
           file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this
           file descriptor.

           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting
           with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and
           will try to append the trace messages to it.

           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
           (case insensitive) disables trace messages.

       GIT_TRACE_FSMONITOR
           Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

       GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS
           Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
           access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded.
           This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related
           performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
           options.

       GIT_TRACE_PACKET
           Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given
           program. This can help with debugging object negotiation or other
           protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with
           "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for
           available trace output options.

       GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE
           Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program.
           Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers, and
           no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into
           a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than
           displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.

           Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of
           clones and fetches.

       GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE
           Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
           time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
           options.

       GIT_TRACE_SETUP
           Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
           working directory after Git has completed its setup phase. See
           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

       GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW
           Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning
           of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
           options.

       GIT_TRACE_CURL
           Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
           including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
           This is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command line.
           This option overrides setting the GIT_CURL_VERBOSE environment
           variable. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.

       GIT_TRACE_CURL_NO_DATA
           When a curl trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), do not
           dump data (that is, only dump info lines and headers).

       GIT_REDACT_COOKIES
           This can be set to a comma-separated list of strings. When a curl
           trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), whenever a "Cookies:"
           header sent by the client is dumped, values of cookies whose key is
           in that list (case-sensitive) are redacted.

       GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS
           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
           literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, running
           GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits
           that touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob *.c matches.
           You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g.,
           paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output,
           etc).

       GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS
           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).

       GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS
           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           literal (aka "literal" magic).

       GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS
           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
           case-insensitive.

       GIT_REFLOG_ACTION
           When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of
           the reason why the ref was updated (which is typically the name of
           the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the
           old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use
           set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name
           to this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
           end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.

       GIT_REF_PARANOIA
           If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over
           lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this does
           nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some
           operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable
           automatically when performing destructive operations like git-
           prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to
           be paranoid about making sure an operation has touched every ref
           (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).

       GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL
           If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as if
           protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the listed protocols
           has protocol.<name>.allow set to always (overriding any existing
           configuration). In other words, any protocol not mentioned will be
           disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See the
           description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more details.

       GIT_PROTOCOL_FROM_USER
           Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone which are
           configured to the user state. This is useful to restrict recursive
           submodule initialization from an untrusted repository or for
           programs which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
           git-config(1) for more details.

       GIT_PROTOCOL
           For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
           Contains a colon : separated list of keys with optional values
           key[=value]. Presence of unknown keys and values must be ignored.

       GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS
           If set to 0, Git will complete any requested operation without
           performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a lock.
           For example, this will prevent git status from refreshing the index
           as a side effect. This is useful for processes running in the
           background which do not want to cause lock contention with other
           operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.

       GIT_REDIRECT_STDIN, GIT_REDIRECT_STDOUT, GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR
           Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
           handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
           particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
           canonical way to pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not
           an option because it would require the handles to be marked
           inheritable (and consequently every spawned process would inherit
           them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The primary
           intended use case is to use named pipes for communication (e.g.
           \\.\pipe\my-git-stdin-123).

           Two special values are supported: off will simply close the
           corresponding standard handle, and if GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is 2>&1,
           standard error will be redirected to the same handle as standard
           output.

       GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
           If set to yes, print an ellipsis following an (abbreviated) SHA-1
           value. This affects indications of detached HEADs (git-checkout(1))
           and the raw diff output (git-diff(1)). Printing an ellipsis in the
           cases mentioned is no longer considered adequate and support for it
           is likely to be removed in the foreseeable future (along with the
           variable).

DISCUSSION
       More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter
       of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7).

       A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
       subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
       things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
       of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
       contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
       as tags and branch heads.

       The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
       hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
       directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
       and some number of parent commits.

       The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
       "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
       represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
       parent represent merges of independent lines of development.

       All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
       written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
       The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
       just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
       purpose.

       When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
       efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".

       Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
       may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref.
       Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most
       recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
       tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD
       contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.

       The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
       path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
       the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
       attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
       corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
       working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
       be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
       content stored in the index.

       The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
       for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
       unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.

FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
       See the references in the "description" section to get started using
       Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a
       first-time user.

       The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7)
       both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.

       See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.

       See also the howto[3] documents for some useful examples.

       The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[4].

       Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).

AUTHORS
       Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
       C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
       <git@vger.kernel.org[5]>.
       http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary gives you a more
       complete list of contributors.

       If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1)
       and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the
       project.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org[5]> where the
       development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
       subscribed to the list to send a message there. See the list archive at
       https://public-inbox.org/git for previous bug reports and other
       discussions.

       Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to the
       Git Security mailing list <git-security@googlegroups.com[6]>.

SEE ALSO
       gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7),
       gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's
       Manual[1], gitworkflows(7)

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES
        1. Git User's Manual
           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html

        2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html#git-concepts

        3. howto
           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/howto-index.html

        4. Git API documentation
           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/technical/api-index.html

        5. git@vger.kernel.org
           mailto:git@vger.kernel.org

        6. git-security@googlegroups.com
           mailto:git-security@googlegroups.com

Git 2.21.0.rc1.9.g3f              02/18/2019                            GIT(1)

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list
  2019-02-21 18:05                     ` frederik
@ 2019-03-11  9:04                       ` frederik
  2019-03-11 14:38                         ` Jacob Keller
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 17+ messages in thread
From: frederik @ 2019-03-11  9:04 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Junio C Hamano, Eric Sunshine, Jonathan Nieder, Theodore Y. Ts'o

Hey Git people,

I didn't get a reply and I'm not sure what the appropriate ping
interval is, or when I should conclude that no one is interested.

There seemed to be some vaguely positive feedback before I embarked on
this project. At the same time I don't want to pester anyone into
applying patches in a disorganized fashion.

I'm not subscribed to the mailing list so I apologize if I'm out of
tune with a release cycle or current development thrust.

Thanks,

Frederick

On Thu, Feb 21, 2019 at 10:05:22AM -0800, frederik@ofb.net wrote:
>I realized that it would probably be easier to discuss this proposal
>if I attached the final command listing and the rendered manual page.
>Please find them attached to this message.
>
>Thank you,
>
>Frederick
>
>On Tue, Feb 19, 2019 at 09:54:12AM -0800, Frederick Eaton wrote:
>>This is a follow-up to my proposal to de-alphabetize the command
>>listings in the git(1) manual page, from 6 July 2018.
>>
>>Some projects have manual page items listed in alphabetical order,
>>some don't. As I argued in my proposal, I find it easier to learn from
>>material which is not alphabetized. If this patch is accepted, I hope
>>that it will make the Git documentation more accessible to myself and
>>others.
>>
>>I produced the reordered command list in this patch using several
>>sources, as indicated by comments in the new command-list.txt file.
>>First, all the commands in the main part of "gittutorial(7)" appear in
>>order, then the commands in giteveryday(7). Then appear additional
>>commands from a friend's shell history, in reverse order of frequency.
>>Then gittutorial-2(7), then gitcore-tutorial(7). After that there is a
>>list of "guides", followed by about 100 commands not appearing in the
>>earlier lists. I kept the guides and the remaining commands in their
>>category groupings (guide, mainporcelain, ancillarymanipulators,
>>etc.), but ordered the commands within each category according to my
>>own judgment after skimming each manual page.
>>
>>To verify that the new list is a permutation of the most recent list,
>>I use the following command (it should produce no output and exit 0):
>>
>>   diff <(git show master:command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort ) <(cat command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort)
>>
>>Note this patch changes the order of commands appearing in the
>>generated file "command-list.h", which mostly seems to be used by
>>"help.c". Probably due to the various occurrences of QSORT in
>>"help.c", I think this reordering has no visible effect. I am willing
>>to do any additional testing which may be recommended to ensure that
>>this patch has no undesired consequences.
>>
>>Frederick Eaton (1):
>> Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt.
>>   Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl.
>>
>>Documentation/cmd-list.perl |   2 +-
>>command-list.txt            | 295 +++++++++++++++++++-----------------
>>2 files changed, 158 insertions(+), 139 deletions(-)
>>
>>-- 
>>2.20.1
>>

># Command classification list
># ---------------------------
># All supported commands, builtin or external, must be described in
># here. This info is used to list commands in various places. Each
># command is on one line followed by one or more attributes.
>#
># The first attribute group is mandatory and indicates the command
># type. This group includes:
>#
>#   mainporcelain
>#   ancillarymanipulators
>#   ancillaryinterrogators
>#   foreignscminterface
>#   plumbingmanipulators
>#   plumbinginterrogators
>#   synchingrepositories
>#   synchelpers
>#   purehelpers
>#
># The type names are self explanatory. But if you want to see what
># command belongs to what group to get a better picture, have a look
># at "git" man page, "GIT COMMANDS" section.
>#
># Commands of type mainporcelain can also optionally have one of these
># attributes:
>#
>#   init
>#   worktree
>#   info
>#   history
>#   remote
>#
># These commands are considered "common" and will show up in "git
># help" output in groups. Uncommon porcelain commands must not
># specify any of these attributes.
>#
># "complete" attribute is used to mark that the command should be
># completable by git-completion.bash. Note that by default,
># mainporcelain commands are completable so you don't need this
># attribute.
>#
># As part of the Git man page list, the man(5/7) guides are also
># specified here, which can only have "guide" attribute and nothing
># else.
>#
># February 2019: This list had been sorted alphabetically but has been
># reordered to make it easier for people to learn from the main git(1)
># manual page. The new ordering is according to approximate usefulness
># / frequency of use / order of use, with some grouping by topic. The
># idea is to make it possible to read the manual page from beginning
># to end and see the most important commands first, rather than
># getting them in alphabetical order - in other words, to make the
># manual page more like a table of contents and less like an index.
># Please consider this when adding new commands.
>#
>### command list (do not change this line, also do not change alignment)
># command name                          category [category] [category]
># From gittutorial
>git-help                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-config                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-clone                               mainporcelain           init
>git-init                                mainporcelain           init
>git-add                                 mainporcelain           worktree
>git-commit                              mainporcelain           history
>git-diff                                mainporcelain           history
>git-status                              mainporcelain           info
>git-log                                 mainporcelain           info
>git-branch                              mainporcelain           history
>git-checkout                            mainporcelain           history
>git-merge                               mainporcelain           history
>gitk                                    mainporcelain
>git-pull                                mainporcelain           remote
>git-fetch                               mainporcelain           remote
># From tutorial NEXT STEPS
>git-format-patch                        mainporcelain
>git-bisect                              mainporcelain           info
>giteveryday                             guide
>gitworkflows                            guide
>gitcvs-migration                        guide
># From giteveryday
>git-reset                               mainporcelain           worktree
>git-rebase                              mainporcelain           history
>git-tag                                 mainporcelain           history
>git-push                                mainporcelain           remote
>git-send-email                          foreignscminterface             complete
>git-request-pull                        foreignscminterface             complete
>git-am                                  mainporcelain
>git-revert                              mainporcelain
>git-daemon                              synchingrepositories
>git-shell                               synchelpers
>git-http-backend                        synchingrepositories
>gitweb                                  ancillaryinterrogators
># From user feedback
>git-grep                                mainporcelain           info
>git-show                                mainporcelain           info
>git-submodule                           mainporcelain
>git-cherry-pick                         mainporcelain
>git-clean                               mainporcelain
># From gittutorial-2
>git-cat-file                            plumbinginterrogators
>git-ls-tree                             plumbinginterrogators
>git-ls-files                            plumbinginterrogators
>gitcore-tutorial                        guide
>gitglossary                             guide
># From gitcore-tutorial
>git-update-index                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-diff-files                          plumbinginterrogators
>git-write-tree                          plumbingmanipulators
>git-read-tree                           plumbingmanipulators
>git-checkout-index                      plumbingmanipulators
>git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
>git-merge-index                         plumbingmanipulators
>git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-prune-packed                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-update-server-info                  synchingrepositories
>git-prune                               ancillarymanipulators
>git-cherry                              plumbinginterrogators          complete
># Guides, reordered
>gittutorial                             guide
>gittutorial-2                           guide
>gitrevisions                            guide
>gitignore                               guide
>gitcli                                  guide
>gitrepository-layout                    guide
>gitdiffcore                             guide
>gitmodules                              guide
>githooks                                guide
>gitnamespaces                           guide
>gitattributes                           guide
># All other commands, sorted by man page category and then by
># approximate priority
>git-stash                               mainporcelain
>git-rm                                  mainporcelain           worktree
>git-mv                                  mainporcelain           worktree
>git-gui                                 mainporcelain
>git-citool                              mainporcelain
>git-archive                             mainporcelain
>git-shortlog                            mainporcelain
>git-describe                            mainporcelain
>git-gc                                  mainporcelain
>git-notes                               mainporcelain
>git-worktree                            mainporcelain
>git-bundle                              mainporcelain
>git-range-diff                          mainporcelain
>git-stage                                                               complete
>git-reflog                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-remote                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-mergetool                           ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-filter-branch                       ancillarymanipulators
>git-replace                             ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-fast-export                         ancillarymanipulators
>git-fast-import                         ancillarymanipulators
>git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
>git-cvsimport                           foreignscminterface
>git-cvsserver                           foreignscminterface
>git-cvsexportcommit                     foreignscminterface
>git-svn                                 foreignscminterface
>git-p4                                  foreignscminterface
>git-quiltimport                         foreignscminterface
>git-archimport                          foreignscminterface
>git-imap-send                           foreignscminterface
>git-apply                               plumbingmanipulators            complete
>git-merge-file                          plumbingmanipulators
>git-mktag                               plumbingmanipulators
>git-hash-object                         plumbingmanipulators
>git-update-ref                          plumbingmanipulators
>git-symbolic-ref                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-commit-tree                         plumbingmanipulators
>git-commit-graph                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-mktree                              plumbingmanipulators
>git-pack-objects                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-unpack-objects                      plumbingmanipulators
>git-index-pack                          plumbingmanipulators
>git-multi-pack-index                    plumbingmanipulators
>git-blame                               ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-annotate                            ancillaryinterrogators
>git-instaweb                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-rerere                              ancillaryinterrogators
>git-fsck                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-whatchanged                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-difftool                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-merge-tree                          ancillaryinterrogators
>git-count-objects                       ancillaryinterrogators
>git-verify-commit                       ancillaryinterrogators
>git-verify-tag                          ancillaryinterrogators
>git-send-pack                           synchingrepositories
>git-fetch-pack                          synchingrepositories
>git-parse-remote                        synchelpers
>git-receive-pack                        synchelpers
>git-upload-pack                         synchelpers
>git-upload-archive                      synchelpers
>git-http-fetch                          synchelpers
>git-http-push                           synchelpers
>git-var                                 plumbinginterrogators
>git-rev-list                            plumbinginterrogators
>git-rev-parse                           plumbinginterrogators
>git-for-each-ref                        plumbinginterrogators
>git-show-ref                            plumbinginterrogators
>git-ls-remote                           plumbinginterrogators
>git-diff-tree                           plumbinginterrogators
>git-diff-index                          plumbinginterrogators
>git-merge-base                          plumbinginterrogators
>git-verify-pack                         plumbinginterrogators
>git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
>git-unpack-file                         plumbinginterrogators
>git-show-index                          plumbinginterrogators
>git-get-tar-commit-id                   plumbinginterrogators
>git-merge-one-file                      purehelpers
>git-sh-setup                            purehelpers
>git-check-ref-format                    purehelpers
>git-check-ignore                        purehelpers
>git-check-attr                          purehelpers
>git-credential                          purehelpers
>git-credential-cache                    purehelpers
>git-credential-store                    purehelpers
>git-fmt-merge-msg                       purehelpers
>git-check-mailmap                       purehelpers
>git-mailsplit                           purehelpers
>git-mailinfo                            purehelpers
>git-interpret-trailers                  purehelpers
>git-column                              purehelpers
>git-stripspace                          purehelpers
>git-patch-id                            purehelpers
>git-sh-i18n                             purehelpers

>GIT(1)                            Git Manual                            GIT(1)
>
>NAME
>       git - the stupid content tracker
>
>SYNOPSIS
>       git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
>           [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
>           [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
>           [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
>           [--super-prefix=<path>]
>           <command> [<args>]
>
>DESCRIPTION
>       Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
>       unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and
>       full access to internals.
>
>       See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7) for a useful
>       minimum set of commands. The Git User's Manual[1] has a more in-depth
>       introduction.
>
>       After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page
>       to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual
>       Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you
>       an overview of the command-line command syntax.
>
>       A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can be
>       viewed at https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html.
>
>OPTIONS
>       --version
>           Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.
>
>       --help
>           Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands.
>           If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are
>           printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the
>           manual page for that command.
>
>           Other options are available to control how the manual page is
>           displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help
>           ...  is converted internally into git help ....
>
>       -C <path>
>           Run as if git was started in <path> instead of the current working
>           directory. When multiple -C options are given, each subsequent
>           non-absolute -C <path> is interpreted relative to the preceding -C
>           <path>.
>
>           This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir
>           and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names
>           would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C
>           option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:
>
>               git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
>               git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
>
>       -c <name>=<value>
>           Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will
>           override values from configuration files. The <name> is expected in
>           the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by
>           dots).
>
>           Note that omitting the = in git -c foo.bar ...  is allowed and sets
>           foo.bar to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would in a
>           config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like
>           git -c foo.bar= ...) sets foo.bar to the empty string which git
>           config --type=bool will convert to false.
>
>       --exec-path[=<path>]
>           Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can
>           also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
>           variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting
>           and then exit.
>
>       --html-path
>           Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
>           documentation is installed and exit.
>
>       --man-path
>           Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version
>           of Git and exit.
>
>       --info-path
>           Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of Git
>           are installed and exit.
>
>       -p, --paginate
>           Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is
>           a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options
>           (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).
>
>       -P, --no-pager
>           Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
>
>       --git-dir=<path>
>           Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
>           setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
>           path or relative path to current working directory.
>
>       --work-tree=<path>
>           Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
>           path relative to the current working directory. This can also be
>           controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and
>           the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
>           config(1) for a more detailed discussion).
>
>       --namespace=<path>
>           Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
>           Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.
>
>       --super-prefix=<path>
>           Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path
>           from above a repository down to its root. One use is to give
>           submodules context about the superproject that invoked it.
>
>       --bare
>           Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment
>           is not set, it is set to the current working directory.
>
>       --no-replace-objects
>           Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-
>           replace(1) for more information.
>
>       --literal-pathspecs
>           Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
>           This is equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment
>           variable to 1.
>
>       --glob-pathspecs
>           Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting the
>           GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Disabling globbing on
>           individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"
>
>       --noglob-pathspecs
>           Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
>           the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Enabling
>           globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic
>           ":(glob)"
>
>       --icase-pathspecs
>           Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
>           the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.
>
>       --no-optional-locks
>           Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
>           equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS to 0.
>
>       --list-cmds=group[,group...]
>           List commands by group. This is an internal/experimental option and
>           may change or be removed in the future. Supported groups are:
>           builtins, parseopt (builtin commands that use parse-options), main
>           (all commands in libexec directory), others (all other commands in
>           $PATH that have git- prefix), list-<category> (see categories in
>           command-list.txt), nohelpers (exclude helper commands), alias and
>           config (retrieve command list from config variable
>           completion.commands)
>
>GIT COMMANDS
>       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
>       ("plumbing") commands.
>
>HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)
>       We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
>       ancillary user utilities.
>
>   Main porcelain commands
>       git-clone(1)
>           Clone a repository into a new directory.
>
>       git-init(1)
>           Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.
>
>       git-add(1)
>           Add file contents to the index.
>
>       git-commit(1)
>           Record changes to the repository.
>
>       git-diff(1)
>           Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
>
>       git-status(1)
>           Show the working tree status.
>
>       git-log(1)
>           Show commit logs.
>
>       git-branch(1)
>           List, create, or delete branches.
>
>       git-checkout(1)
>           Switch branches or restore working tree files.
>
>       git-merge(1)
>           Join two or more development histories together.
>
>       gitk(1)
>           The Git repository browser.
>
>       git-pull(1)
>           Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.
>
>       git-fetch(1)
>           Download objects and refs from another repository.
>
>       git-format-patch(1)
>           Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
>
>       git-bisect(1)
>           Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.
>
>       git-reset(1)
>           Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
>
>       git-rebase(1)
>           Reapply commits on top of another base tip.
>
>       git-tag(1)
>           Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.
>
>       git-push(1)
>           Update remote refs along with associated objects.
>
>       git-am(1)
>           Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.
>
>       git-revert(1)
>           Revert some existing commits.
>
>       git-grep(1)
>           Print lines matching a pattern.
>
>       git-show(1)
>           Show various types of objects.
>
>       git-submodule(1)
>           Initialize, update or inspect submodules.
>
>       git-cherry-pick(1)
>           Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.
>
>       git-clean(1)
>           Remove untracked files from the working tree.
>
>       git-stash(1)
>           Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.
>
>       git-rm(1)
>           Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
>
>       git-mv(1)
>           Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
>
>       git-gui(1)
>           A portable graphical interface to Git.
>
>       git-citool(1)
>           Graphical alternative to git-commit.
>
>       git-archive(1)
>           Create an archive of files from a named tree.
>
>       git-shortlog(1)
>           Summarize git log output.
>
>       git-describe(1)
>           Give an object a human readable name based on an available ref.
>
>       git-gc(1)
>           Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.
>
>       git-notes(1)
>           Add or inspect object notes.
>
>       git-worktree(1)
>           Manage multiple working trees.
>
>       git-bundle(1)
>           Move objects and refs by archive.
>
>       git-range-diff(1)
>           Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch).
>
>   Ancillary Commands
>       Manipulators:
>
>       git-config(1)
>           Get and set repository or global options.
>
>       git-repack(1)
>           Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
>
>       git-prune(1)
>           Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.
>
>       git-reflog(1)
>           Manage reflog information.
>
>       git-remote(1)
>           Manage set of tracked repositories.
>
>       git-mergetool(1)
>           Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.
>
>       git-filter-branch(1)
>           Rewrite branches.
>
>       git-replace(1)
>           Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.
>
>       git-fast-export(1)
>           Git data exporter.
>
>       git-fast-import(1)
>           Backend for fast Git data importers.
>
>       git-pack-refs(1)
>           Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.
>
>       Interrogators:
>
>       git-help(1)
>           Display help information about Git.
>
>       gitweb(1)
>           Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).
>
>       git-show-branch(1)
>           Show branches and their commits.
>
>       git-blame(1)
>           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.
>
>       git-annotate(1)
>           Annotate file lines with commit information.
>
>       git-instaweb(1)
>           Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
>
>       git-rerere(1)
>           Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
>
>       git-fsck(1)
>           Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the
>           database.
>
>       git-whatchanged(1)
>           Show logs with difference each commit introduces.
>
>       git-difftool(1)
>           Show changes using common diff tools.
>
>       git-merge-tree(1)
>           Show three-way merge without touching index.
>
>       git-count-objects(1)
>           Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
>
>       git-verify-commit(1)
>           Check the GPG signature of commits.
>
>       git-verify-tag(1)
>           Check the GPG signature of tags.
>
>   Interacting with Others
>       These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people
>       via patch over e-mail.
>
>       git-send-email(1)
>           Send a collection of patches as emails.
>
>       git-request-pull(1)
>           Generates a summary of pending changes.
>
>       git-cvsimport(1)
>           Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
>
>       git-cvsserver(1)
>           A CVS server emulator for Git.
>
>       git-cvsexportcommit(1)
>           Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
>
>       git-svn(1)
>           Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.
>
>       git-p4(1)
>           Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.
>
>       git-quiltimport(1)
>           Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
>
>       git-archimport(1)
>           Import a GNU Arch repository into Git.
>
>       git-imap-send(1)
>           Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.
>
>LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (PLUMBING)
>       Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands
>       are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains.
>       Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-
>       index(1) and git-read-tree(1).
>
>       The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to
>       these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than
>       Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for
>       scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are
>       subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.
>
>       The following description divides the low-level commands into commands
>       that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
>       commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move
>       objects and references between repositories.
>
>   Manipulation commands
>       git-update-index(1)
>           Register file contents in the working tree to the index.
>
>       git-write-tree(1)
>           Create a tree object from the current index.
>
>       git-read-tree(1)
>           Reads tree information into the index.
>
>       git-checkout-index(1)
>           Copy files from the index to the working tree.
>
>       git-merge-index(1)
>           Run a merge for files needing merging.
>
>       git-prune-packed(1)
>           Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
>
>       git-apply(1)
>           Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.
>
>       git-merge-file(1)
>           Run a three-way file merge.
>
>       git-mktag(1)
>           Creates a tag object.
>
>       git-hash-object(1)
>           Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.
>
>       git-update-ref(1)
>           Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
>
>       git-symbolic-ref(1)
>           Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.
>
>       git-commit-tree(1)
>           Create a new commit object.
>
>       git-commit-graph(1)
>           Write and verify Git commit-graph files.
>
>       git-mktree(1)
>           Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
>
>       git-pack-objects(1)
>           Create a packed archive of objects.
>
>       git-unpack-objects(1)
>           Unpack objects from a packed archive.
>
>       git-index-pack(1)
>           Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.
>
>       git-multi-pack-index(1)
>           Write and verify multi-pack-indexes.
>
>   Interrogation commands
>       git-cat-file(1)
>           Provide content or type and size information for repository
>           objects.
>
>       git-ls-tree(1)
>           List the contents of a tree object.
>
>       git-ls-files(1)
>           Show information about files in the index and the working tree.
>
>       git-diff-files(1)
>           Compares files in the working tree and the index.
>
>       git-name-rev(1)
>           Find symbolic names for given revs.
>
>       git-cherry(1)
>           Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.
>
>       git-var(1)
>           Show a Git logical variable.
>
>       git-rev-list(1)
>           Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
>
>       git-rev-parse(1)
>           Pick out and massage parameters.
>
>       git-for-each-ref(1)
>           Output information on each ref.
>
>       git-show-ref(1)
>           List references in a local repository.
>
>       git-ls-remote(1)
>           List references in a remote repository.
>
>       git-diff-tree(1)
>           Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
>
>       git-diff-index(1)
>           Compare a tree to the working tree or index.
>
>       git-merge-base(1)
>           Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
>
>       git-verify-pack(1)
>           Validate packed Git archive files.
>
>       git-pack-redundant(1)
>           Find redundant pack files.
>
>       git-unpack-file(1)
>           Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
>
>       git-show-index(1)
>           Show packed archive index.
>
>       git-get-tar-commit-id(1)
>           Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.
>
>       In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
>       working tree.
>
>   Synching repositories
>       git-daemon(1)
>           A really simple server for Git repositories.
>
>       git-http-backend(1)
>           Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.
>
>       git-update-server-info(1)
>           Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.
>
>       git-send-pack(1)
>           Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.
>
>       git-fetch-pack(1)
>           Receive missing objects from another repository.
>
>       The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
>       typically do not use them directly.
>
>       git-shell(1)
>           Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.
>
>       git-parse-remote(1)
>           Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.
>
>       git-receive-pack(1)
>           Receive what is pushed into the repository.
>
>       git-upload-pack(1)
>           Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.
>
>       git-upload-archive(1)
>           Send archive back to git-archive.
>
>       git-http-fetch(1)
>           Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.
>
>       git-http-push(1)
>           Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.
>
>   Internal helper commands
>       These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users
>       typically do not use them directly.
>
>       git-merge-one-file(1)
>           The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.
>
>       git-sh-setup(1)
>           Common Git shell script setup code.
>
>       git-check-ref-format(1)
>           Ensures that a reference name is well formed.
>
>       git-check-ignore(1)
>           Debug gitignore / exclude files.
>
>       git-check-attr(1)
>           Display gitattributes information.
>
>       git-credential(1)
>           Retrieve and store user credentials.
>
>       git-credential-cache(1)
>           Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.
>
>       git-credential-store(1)
>           Helper to store credentials on disk.
>
>       git-fmt-merge-msg(1)
>           Produce a merge commit message.
>
>       git-check-mailmap(1)
>           Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.
>
>       git-mailsplit(1)
>           Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
>
>       git-mailinfo(1)
>           Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.
>
>       git-interpret-trailers(1)
>           add or parse structured information in commit messages.
>
>       git-column(1)
>           Display data in columns.
>
>       git-stripspace(1)
>           Remove unnecessary whitespace.
>
>       git-patch-id(1)
>           Compute unique ID for a patch.
>
>       git-sh-i18n(1)
>           Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.
>
>CONFIGURATION MECHANISM
>       Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
>       repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like
>       this:
>
>           #
>           # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
>           #
>
>           ; core variables
>           [core]
>                   ; Don't trust file modes
>                   filemode = false
>
>           ; user identity
>           [user]
>                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
>                   email = "gitster@pobox.com"
>
>       Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their
>       operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details
>       about the configuration mechanism.
>
>IDENTIFIER TERMINOLOGY
>       <object>
>           Indicates the object name for any type of object.
>
>       <blob>
>           Indicates a blob object name.
>
>       <tree>
>           Indicates a tree object name.
>
>       <commit>
>           Indicates a commit object name.
>
>       <tree-ish>
>           Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
>           <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree> object
>           but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that
>           point at a <tree>.
>
>       <commit-ish>
>           Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
>           <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit>
>           object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a
>           <commit>.
>
>       <type>
>           Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob,
>           tree, commit, or tag.
>
>       <file>
>           Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the
>           tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
>
>SYMBOLIC IDENTIFIERS
>       Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
>       symbolic notation:
>
>       HEAD
>           indicates the head of the current branch.
>
>       <tag>
>           a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).
>
>       <head>
>           a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).
>
>       For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
>       REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).
>
>FILE/DIRECTORY STRUCTURE
>       Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.
>
>       Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.
>
>       Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
>       $GIT_DIR.
>
>TERMINOLOGY
>       Please see gitglossary(7).
>
>ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
>       Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
>
>   The Git Repository
>       These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is
>       worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git
>       so take care if using a foreign front-end.
>
>       GIT_INDEX_FILE
>           This environment allows the specification of an alternate index
>           file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.
>
>       GIT_INDEX_VERSION
>           This environment variable allows the specification of an index
>           version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index files.
>           By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-
>           index(1) for more information.
>
>       GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY
>           If the object storage directory is specified via this environment
>           variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
>           otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.
>
>       GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES
>           Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
>           archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
>           specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git
>           object directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New
>           objects will not be written to these directories.
>
>           Entries that begin with " (double-quote) will be interpreted as
>           C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing double-quotes
>           and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
>           "path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path has two paths:
>           path-with-"-and-:-in-it and vanilla-path.
>
>       GIT_DIR
>           If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path
>           to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
>           The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.
>
>       GIT_WORK_TREE
>           Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be
>           controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the
>           core.worktree configuration variable.
>
>       GIT_NAMESPACE
>           Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
>           --namespace command-line option also sets this value.
>
>       GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES
>           This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it
>           is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into while
>           looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
>           slow-loading network directories). It will not exclude the current
>           working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the
>           environment. Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and
>           resolve any symlink that might be present in order to compare them
>           with the current directory. However, if even this access is slow,
>           you can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
>           subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,
>           GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink.
>
>       GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM
>           When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
>           directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
>           directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
>           does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can
>           be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries.
>           Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit
>           repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.
>
>       GIT_COMMON_DIR
>           If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
>           normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path instead.
>           Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from
>           $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
>           details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
>           variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
>
>   Git Commits
>       GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME,
>       GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE, EMAIL
>           see git-commit-tree(1)
>
>   Git Diffs
>       GIT_DIFF_OPTS
>           Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of
>           context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
>           precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the
>           Git diff command line.
>
>       GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
>           When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program
>           named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation described
>           above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
>           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:
>
>               path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
>
>           where:
>
>       <old|new>-file
>           are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of
>           <old|new>,
>
>       <old|new>-hex
>           are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
>
>       <old|new>-mode
>           are the octal representation of the file modes.
>
>           The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g.
>           new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.  old-file when a new
>           file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the index).
>           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary
>           file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.
>
>           For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
>           parameter, <path>.
>
>           For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment
>           variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.
>
>       GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER
>           A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
>
>       GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL
>           The total number of paths.
>
>   other
>       GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY
>           A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive
>           merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)
>
>       GIT_PAGER
>           This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an
>           empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch a pager.
>           See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).
>
>       GIT_EDITOR
>           This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used
>           by several Git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor is to
>           be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-
>           config(1).
>
>       GIT_SSH, GIT_SSH_COMMAND
>           If either of these environment variables is set then git fetch and
>           git push will use the specified command instead of ssh when they
>           need to connect to a remote system. The command-line parameters
>           passed to the configured command are determined by the ssh variant.
>           See ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.
>
>       + $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted
>       by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
>       $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which
>       can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).
>
>       + Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
>       personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation for
>       further details.
>
>       GIT_SSH_VARIANT
>           If this environment variable is set, it overrides Git's
>           autodetection whether GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand refer
>           to OpenSSH, plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the
>           config setting ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.
>
>       GIT_ASKPASS
>           If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need
>           to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
>           authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as
>           command-line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See
>           also the core.askPass option in git-config(1).
>
>       GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT
>           If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not prompt on
>           the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
>
>       GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM
>           Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
>           $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used
>           along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable
>           environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
>           avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone
>           with sufficient permissions to fix it.
>
>       GIT_FLUSH
>           If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as
>           git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git
>           check-attr and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output
>           stream after each record have been flushed. If this variable is set
>           to "0", the output of these commands will be done using completely
>           buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set, Git will
>           choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on whether stdout
>           appears to be redirected to a file or not.
>
>       GIT_TRACE
>           Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
>           command execution and external command execution.
>
>           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
>           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.
>
>           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower
>           than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open
>           file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this
>           file descriptor.
>
>           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting
>           with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and
>           will try to append the trace messages to it.
>
>           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
>           (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
>
>       GIT_TRACE_FSMONITOR
>           Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension. See
>           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
>
>       GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS
>           Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
>           access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded.
>           This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related
>           performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
>           options.
>
>       GIT_TRACE_PACKET
>           Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given
>           program. This can help with debugging object negotiation or other
>           protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with
>           "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for
>           available trace output options.
>
>       GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE
>           Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program.
>           Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers, and
>           no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into
>           a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than
>           displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
>
>           Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of
>           clones and fetches.
>
>       GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE
>           Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
>           time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
>           options.
>
>       GIT_TRACE_SETUP
>           Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
>           working directory after Git has completed its setup phase. See
>           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
>
>       GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW
>           Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning
>           of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
>           options.
>
>       GIT_TRACE_CURL
>           Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
>           including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
>           This is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command line.
>           This option overrides setting the GIT_CURL_VERBOSE environment
>           variable. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
>
>       GIT_TRACE_CURL_NO_DATA
>           When a curl trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), do not
>           dump data (that is, only dump info lines and headers).
>
>       GIT_REDACT_COOKIES
>           This can be set to a comma-separated list of strings. When a curl
>           trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), whenever a "Cookies:"
>           header sent by the client is dumped, values of cookies whose key is
>           in that list (case-sensitive) are redacted.
>
>       GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS
>           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
>           literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, running
>           GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits
>           that touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob *.c matches.
>           You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g.,
>           paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output,
>           etc).
>
>       GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS
>           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
>           glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
>
>       GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS
>           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
>           literal (aka "literal" magic).
>
>       GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS
>           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
>           case-insensitive.
>
>       GIT_REFLOG_ACTION
>           When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of
>           the reason why the ref was updated (which is typically the name of
>           the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the
>           old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use
>           set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name
>           to this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
>           end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
>
>       GIT_REF_PARANOIA
>           If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over
>           lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this does
>           nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some
>           operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable
>           automatically when performing destructive operations like git-
>           prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to
>           be paranoid about making sure an operation has touched every ref
>           (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).
>
>       GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL
>           If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as if
>           protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the listed protocols
>           has protocol.<name>.allow set to always (overriding any existing
>           configuration). In other words, any protocol not mentioned will be
>           disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See the
>           description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more details.
>
>       GIT_PROTOCOL_FROM_USER
>           Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone which are
>           configured to the user state. This is useful to restrict recursive
>           submodule initialization from an untrusted repository or for
>           programs which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
>           git-config(1) for more details.
>
>       GIT_PROTOCOL
>           For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
>           Contains a colon : separated list of keys with optional values
>           key[=value]. Presence of unknown keys and values must be ignored.
>
>       GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS
>           If set to 0, Git will complete any requested operation without
>           performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a lock.
>           For example, this will prevent git status from refreshing the index
>           as a side effect. This is useful for processes running in the
>           background which do not want to cause lock contention with other
>           operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.
>
>       GIT_REDIRECT_STDIN, GIT_REDIRECT_STDOUT, GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR
>           Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
>           handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
>           particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
>           canonical way to pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not
>           an option because it would require the handles to be marked
>           inheritable (and consequently every spawned process would inherit
>           them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The primary
>           intended use case is to use named pipes for communication (e.g.
>           \\.\pipe\my-git-stdin-123).
>
>           Two special values are supported: off will simply close the
>           corresponding standard handle, and if GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is 2>&1,
>           standard error will be redirected to the same handle as standard
>           output.
>
>       GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
>           If set to yes, print an ellipsis following an (abbreviated) SHA-1
>           value. This affects indications of detached HEADs (git-checkout(1))
>           and the raw diff output (git-diff(1)). Printing an ellipsis in the
>           cases mentioned is no longer considered adequate and support for it
>           is likely to be removed in the foreseeable future (along with the
>           variable).
>
>DISCUSSION
>       More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter
>       of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7).
>
>       A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
>       subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
>       things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
>       of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
>       contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
>       as tags and branch heads.
>
>       The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
>       hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
>       directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
>       and some number of parent commits.
>
>       The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
>       "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
>       represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
>       parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
>
>       All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
>       written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
>       The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
>       just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
>       purpose.
>
>       When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
>       efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
>
>       Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
>       may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref.
>       Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most
>       recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
>       tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD
>       contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
>
>       The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
>       path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
>       the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
>       attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
>       corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
>       working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
>       be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
>       content stored in the index.
>
>       The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
>       for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
>       unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
>
>FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
>       See the references in the "description" section to get started using
>       Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a
>       first-time user.
>
>       The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7)
>       both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
>
>       See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.
>
>       See also the howto[3] documents for some useful examples.
>
>       The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[4].
>
>       Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).
>
>AUTHORS
>       Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
>       C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
>       <git@vger.kernel.org[5]>.
>       http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary gives you a more
>       complete list of contributors.
>
>       If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1)
>       and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the
>       project.
>
>REPORTING BUGS
>       Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org[5]> where the
>       development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
>       subscribed to the list to send a message there. See the list archive at
>       https://public-inbox.org/git for previous bug reports and other
>       discussions.
>
>       Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to the
>       Git Security mailing list <git-security@googlegroups.com[6]>.
>
>SEE ALSO
>       gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7),
>       gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's
>       Manual[1], gitworkflows(7)
>
>GIT
>       Part of the git(1) suite
>
>NOTES
>        1. Git User's Manual
>           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html
>
>        2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
>           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html#git-concepts
>
>        3. howto
>           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/howto-index.html
>
>        4. Git API documentation
>           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/technical/api-index.html
>
>        5. git@vger.kernel.org
>           mailto:git@vger.kernel.org
>
>        6. git-security@googlegroups.com
>           mailto:git-security@googlegroups.com
>
>Git 2.21.0.rc1.9.g3f              02/18/2019                            GIT(1)


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list
  2019-03-11  9:04                       ` frederik
@ 2019-03-11 14:38                         ` Jacob Keller
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 17+ messages in thread
From: Jacob Keller @ 2019-03-11 14:38 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: frederik
  Cc: Git mailing list, Junio C Hamano, Eric Sunshine, Jonathan Nieder,
	Theodore Y. Ts'o

On Mon, Mar 11, 2019 at 2:09 AM <frederik@ofb.net> wrote:
>
> Hey Git people,
>
> I didn't get a reply and I'm not sure what the appropriate ping
> interval is, or when I should conclude that no one is interested.
>
> There seemed to be some vaguely positive feedback before I embarked on
> this project. At the same time I don't want to pester anyone into
> applying patches in a disorganized fashion.
>
> I'm not subscribed to the mailing list so I apologize if I'm out of
> tune with a release cycle or current development thrust.
>
> Thanks,
>
> Frederick
>

FWIW, I felt like the changes in your proposed patch were good. I
haven't had more time to dig into reviewing it much though :(

-Jake

> On Thu, Feb 21, 2019 at 10:05:22AM -0800, frederik@ofb.net wrote:
> >I realized that it would probably be easier to discuss this proposal
> >if I attached the final command listing and the rendered manual page.
> >Please find them attached to this message.
> >
> >Thank you,
> >
> >Frederick
> >
> >On Tue, Feb 19, 2019 at 09:54:12AM -0800, Frederick Eaton wrote:
> >>This is a follow-up to my proposal to de-alphabetize the command
> >>listings in the git(1) manual page, from 6 July 2018.
> >>
> >>Some projects have manual page items listed in alphabetical order,
> >>some don't. As I argued in my proposal, I find it easier to learn from
> >>material which is not alphabetized. If this patch is accepted, I hope
> >>that it will make the Git documentation more accessible to myself and
> >>others.
> >>
> >>I produced the reordered command list in this patch using several
> >>sources, as indicated by comments in the new command-list.txt file.
> >>First, all the commands in the main part of "gittutorial(7)" appear in
> >>order, then the commands in giteveryday(7). Then appear additional
> >>commands from a friend's shell history, in reverse order of frequency.
> >>Then gittutorial-2(7), then gitcore-tutorial(7). After that there is a
> >>list of "guides", followed by about 100 commands not appearing in the
> >>earlier lists. I kept the guides and the remaining commands in their
> >>category groupings (guide, mainporcelain, ancillarymanipulators,
> >>etc.), but ordered the commands within each category according to my
> >>own judgment after skimming each manual page.
> >>
> >>To verify that the new list is a permutation of the most recent list,
> >>I use the following command (it should produce no output and exit 0):
> >>
> >>   diff <(git show master:command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort ) <(cat command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort)
> >>
> >>Note this patch changes the order of commands appearing in the
> >>generated file "command-list.h", which mostly seems to be used by
> >>"help.c". Probably due to the various occurrences of QSORT in
> >>"help.c", I think this reordering has no visible effect. I am willing
> >>to do any additional testing which may be recommended to ensure that
> >>this patch has no undesired consequences.
> >>
> >>Frederick Eaton (1):
> >> Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt.
> >>   Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl.
> >>
> >>Documentation/cmd-list.perl |   2 +-
> >>command-list.txt            | 295 +++++++++++++++++++-----------------
> >>2 files changed, 158 insertions(+), 139 deletions(-)
> >>
> >>--
> >>2.20.1
> >>
>
> ># Command classification list
> ># ---------------------------
> ># All supported commands, builtin or external, must be described in
> ># here. This info is used to list commands in various places. Each
> ># command is on one line followed by one or more attributes.
> >#
> ># The first attribute group is mandatory and indicates the command
> ># type. This group includes:
> >#
> >#   mainporcelain
> >#   ancillarymanipulators
> >#   ancillaryinterrogators
> >#   foreignscminterface
> >#   plumbingmanipulators
> >#   plumbinginterrogators
> >#   synchingrepositories
> >#   synchelpers
> >#   purehelpers
> >#
> ># The type names are self explanatory. But if you want to see what
> ># command belongs to what group to get a better picture, have a look
> ># at "git" man page, "GIT COMMANDS" section.
> >#
> ># Commands of type mainporcelain can also optionally have one of these
> ># attributes:
> >#
> >#   init
> >#   worktree
> >#   info
> >#   history
> >#   remote
> >#
> ># These commands are considered "common" and will show up in "git
> ># help" output in groups. Uncommon porcelain commands must not
> ># specify any of these attributes.
> >#
> ># "complete" attribute is used to mark that the command should be
> ># completable by git-completion.bash. Note that by default,
> ># mainporcelain commands are completable so you don't need this
> ># attribute.
> >#
> ># As part of the Git man page list, the man(5/7) guides are also
> ># specified here, which can only have "guide" attribute and nothing
> ># else.
> >#
> ># February 2019: This list had been sorted alphabetically but has been
> ># reordered to make it easier for people to learn from the main git(1)
> ># manual page. The new ordering is according to approximate usefulness
> ># / frequency of use / order of use, with some grouping by topic. The
> ># idea is to make it possible to read the manual page from beginning
> ># to end and see the most important commands first, rather than
> ># getting them in alphabetical order - in other words, to make the
> ># manual page more like a table of contents and less like an index.
> ># Please consider this when adding new commands.
> >#
> >### command list (do not change this line, also do not change alignment)
> ># command name                          category [category] [category]
> ># From gittutorial
> >git-help                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
> >git-config                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
> >git-clone                               mainporcelain           init
> >git-init                                mainporcelain           init
> >git-add                                 mainporcelain           worktree
> >git-commit                              mainporcelain           history
> >git-diff                                mainporcelain           history
> >git-status                              mainporcelain           info
> >git-log                                 mainporcelain           info
> >git-branch                              mainporcelain           history
> >git-checkout                            mainporcelain           history
> >git-merge                               mainporcelain           history
> >gitk                                    mainporcelain
> >git-pull                                mainporcelain           remote
> >git-fetch                               mainporcelain           remote
> ># From tutorial NEXT STEPS
> >git-format-patch                        mainporcelain
> >git-bisect                              mainporcelain           info
> >giteveryday                             guide
> >gitworkflows                            guide
> >gitcvs-migration                        guide
> ># From giteveryday
> >git-reset                               mainporcelain           worktree
> >git-rebase                              mainporcelain           history
> >git-tag                                 mainporcelain           history
> >git-push                                mainporcelain           remote
> >git-send-email                          foreignscminterface             complete
> >git-request-pull                        foreignscminterface             complete
> >git-am                                  mainporcelain
> >git-revert                              mainporcelain
> >git-daemon                              synchingrepositories
> >git-shell                               synchelpers
> >git-http-backend                        synchingrepositories
> >gitweb                                  ancillaryinterrogators
> ># From user feedback
> >git-grep                                mainporcelain           info
> >git-show                                mainporcelain           info
> >git-submodule                           mainporcelain
> >git-cherry-pick                         mainporcelain
> >git-clean                               mainporcelain
> ># From gittutorial-2
> >git-cat-file                            plumbinginterrogators
> >git-ls-tree                             plumbinginterrogators
> >git-ls-files                            plumbinginterrogators
> >gitcore-tutorial                        guide
> >gitglossary                             guide
> ># From gitcore-tutorial
> >git-update-index                        plumbingmanipulators
> >git-diff-files                          plumbinginterrogators
> >git-write-tree                          plumbingmanipulators
> >git-read-tree                           plumbingmanipulators
> >git-checkout-index                      plumbingmanipulators
> >git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
> >git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
> >git-merge-index                         plumbingmanipulators
> >git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
> >git-prune-packed                        plumbingmanipulators
> >git-update-server-info                  synchingrepositories
> >git-prune                               ancillarymanipulators
> >git-cherry                              plumbinginterrogators          complete
> ># Guides, reordered
> >gittutorial                             guide
> >gittutorial-2                           guide
> >gitrevisions                            guide
> >gitignore                               guide
> >gitcli                                  guide
> >gitrepository-layout                    guide
> >gitdiffcore                             guide
> >gitmodules                              guide
> >githooks                                guide
> >gitnamespaces                           guide
> >gitattributes                           guide
> ># All other commands, sorted by man page category and then by
> ># approximate priority
> >git-stash                               mainporcelain
> >git-rm                                  mainporcelain           worktree
> >git-mv                                  mainporcelain           worktree
> >git-gui                                 mainporcelain
> >git-citool                              mainporcelain
> >git-archive                             mainporcelain
> >git-shortlog                            mainporcelain
> >git-describe                            mainporcelain
> >git-gc                                  mainporcelain
> >git-notes                               mainporcelain
> >git-worktree                            mainporcelain
> >git-bundle                              mainporcelain
> >git-range-diff                          mainporcelain
> >git-stage                                                               complete
> >git-reflog                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
> >git-remote                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
> >git-mergetool                           ancillarymanipulators           complete
> >git-filter-branch                       ancillarymanipulators
> >git-replace                             ancillarymanipulators           complete
> >git-fast-export                         ancillarymanipulators
> >git-fast-import                         ancillarymanipulators
> >git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
> >git-cvsimport                           foreignscminterface
> >git-cvsserver                           foreignscminterface
> >git-cvsexportcommit                     foreignscminterface
> >git-svn                                 foreignscminterface
> >git-p4                                  foreignscminterface
> >git-quiltimport                         foreignscminterface
> >git-archimport                          foreignscminterface
> >git-imap-send                           foreignscminterface
> >git-apply                               plumbingmanipulators            complete
> >git-merge-file                          plumbingmanipulators
> >git-mktag                               plumbingmanipulators
> >git-hash-object                         plumbingmanipulators
> >git-update-ref                          plumbingmanipulators
> >git-symbolic-ref                        plumbingmanipulators
> >git-commit-tree                         plumbingmanipulators
> >git-commit-graph                        plumbingmanipulators
> >git-mktree                              plumbingmanipulators
> >git-pack-objects                        plumbingmanipulators
> >git-unpack-objects                      plumbingmanipulators
> >git-index-pack                          plumbingmanipulators
> >git-multi-pack-index                    plumbingmanipulators
> >git-blame                               ancillaryinterrogators          complete
> >git-annotate                            ancillaryinterrogators
> >git-instaweb                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
> >git-rerere                              ancillaryinterrogators
> >git-fsck                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
> >git-whatchanged                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
> >git-difftool                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
> >git-merge-tree                          ancillaryinterrogators
> >git-count-objects                       ancillaryinterrogators
> >git-verify-commit                       ancillaryinterrogators
> >git-verify-tag                          ancillaryinterrogators
> >git-send-pack                           synchingrepositories
> >git-fetch-pack                          synchingrepositories
> >git-parse-remote                        synchelpers
> >git-receive-pack                        synchelpers
> >git-upload-pack                         synchelpers
> >git-upload-archive                      synchelpers
> >git-http-fetch                          synchelpers
> >git-http-push                           synchelpers
> >git-var                                 plumbinginterrogators
> >git-rev-list                            plumbinginterrogators
> >git-rev-parse                           plumbinginterrogators
> >git-for-each-ref                        plumbinginterrogators
> >git-show-ref                            plumbinginterrogators
> >git-ls-remote                           plumbinginterrogators
> >git-diff-tree                           plumbinginterrogators
> >git-diff-index                          plumbinginterrogators
> >git-merge-base                          plumbinginterrogators
> >git-verify-pack                         plumbinginterrogators
> >git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
> >git-unpack-file                         plumbinginterrogators
> >git-show-index                          plumbinginterrogators
> >git-get-tar-commit-id                   plumbinginterrogators
> >git-merge-one-file                      purehelpers
> >git-sh-setup                            purehelpers
> >git-check-ref-format                    purehelpers
> >git-check-ignore                        purehelpers
> >git-check-attr                          purehelpers
> >git-credential                          purehelpers
> >git-credential-cache                    purehelpers
> >git-credential-store                    purehelpers
> >git-fmt-merge-msg                       purehelpers
> >git-check-mailmap                       purehelpers
> >git-mailsplit                           purehelpers
> >git-mailinfo                            purehelpers
> >git-interpret-trailers                  purehelpers
> >git-column                              purehelpers
> >git-stripspace                          purehelpers
> >git-patch-id                            purehelpers
> >git-sh-i18n                             purehelpers
>
> >GIT(1)                            Git Manual                            GIT(1)
> >
> >NAME
> >       git - the stupid content tracker
> >
> >SYNOPSIS
> >       git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
> >           [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
> >           [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
> >           [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
> >           [--super-prefix=<path>]
> >           <command> [<args>]
> >
> >DESCRIPTION
> >       Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
> >       unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and
> >       full access to internals.
> >
> >       See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7) for a useful
> >       minimum set of commands. The Git User's Manual[1] has a more in-depth
> >       introduction.
> >
> >       After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page
> >       to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual
> >       Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you
> >       an overview of the command-line command syntax.
> >
> >       A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can be
> >       viewed at https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html.
> >
> >OPTIONS
> >       --version
> >           Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.
> >
> >       --help
> >           Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands.
> >           If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are
> >           printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the
> >           manual page for that command.
> >
> >           Other options are available to control how the manual page is
> >           displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help
> >           ...  is converted internally into git help ....
> >
> >       -C <path>
> >           Run as if git was started in <path> instead of the current working
> >           directory. When multiple -C options are given, each subsequent
> >           non-absolute -C <path> is interpreted relative to the preceding -C
> >           <path>.
> >
> >           This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir
> >           and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names
> >           would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C
> >           option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:
> >
> >               git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
> >               git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
> >
> >       -c <name>=<value>
> >           Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will
> >           override values from configuration files. The <name> is expected in
> >           the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by
> >           dots).
> >
> >           Note that omitting the = in git -c foo.bar ...  is allowed and sets
> >           foo.bar to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would in a
> >           config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like
> >           git -c foo.bar= ...) sets foo.bar to the empty string which git
> >           config --type=bool will convert to false.
> >
> >       --exec-path[=<path>]
> >           Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can
> >           also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
> >           variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting
> >           and then exit.
> >
> >       --html-path
> >           Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
> >           documentation is installed and exit.
> >
> >       --man-path
> >           Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version
> >           of Git and exit.
> >
> >       --info-path
> >           Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of Git
> >           are installed and exit.
> >
> >       -p, --paginate
> >           Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is
> >           a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options
> >           (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).
> >
> >       -P, --no-pager
> >           Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
> >
> >       --git-dir=<path>
> >           Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
> >           setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
> >           path or relative path to current working directory.
> >
> >       --work-tree=<path>
> >           Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
> >           path relative to the current working directory. This can also be
> >           controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and
> >           the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
> >           config(1) for a more detailed discussion).
> >
> >       --namespace=<path>
> >           Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
> >           Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.
> >
> >       --super-prefix=<path>
> >           Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path
> >           from above a repository down to its root. One use is to give
> >           submodules context about the superproject that invoked it.
> >
> >       --bare
> >           Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment
> >           is not set, it is set to the current working directory.
> >
> >       --no-replace-objects
> >           Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-
> >           replace(1) for more information.
> >
> >       --literal-pathspecs
> >           Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
> >           This is equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment
> >           variable to 1.
> >
> >       --glob-pathspecs
> >           Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting the
> >           GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Disabling globbing on
> >           individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"
> >
> >       --noglob-pathspecs
> >           Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
> >           the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Enabling
> >           globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic
> >           ":(glob)"
> >
> >       --icase-pathspecs
> >           Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
> >           the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.
> >
> >       --no-optional-locks
> >           Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
> >           equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS to 0.
> >
> >       --list-cmds=group[,group...]
> >           List commands by group. This is an internal/experimental option and
> >           may change or be removed in the future. Supported groups are:
> >           builtins, parseopt (builtin commands that use parse-options), main
> >           (all commands in libexec directory), others (all other commands in
> >           $PATH that have git- prefix), list-<category> (see categories in
> >           command-list.txt), nohelpers (exclude helper commands), alias and
> >           config (retrieve command list from config variable
> >           completion.commands)
> >
> >GIT COMMANDS
> >       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
> >       ("plumbing") commands.
> >
> >HIGH-LEVEL COMMANDS (PORCELAIN)
> >       We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
> >       ancillary user utilities.
> >
> >   Main porcelain commands
> >       git-clone(1)
> >           Clone a repository into a new directory.
> >
> >       git-init(1)
> >           Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.
> >
> >       git-add(1)
> >           Add file contents to the index.
> >
> >       git-commit(1)
> >           Record changes to the repository.
> >
> >       git-diff(1)
> >           Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
> >
> >       git-status(1)
> >           Show the working tree status.
> >
> >       git-log(1)
> >           Show commit logs.
> >
> >       git-branch(1)
> >           List, create, or delete branches.
> >
> >       git-checkout(1)
> >           Switch branches or restore working tree files.
> >
> >       git-merge(1)
> >           Join two or more development histories together.
> >
> >       gitk(1)
> >           The Git repository browser.
> >
> >       git-pull(1)
> >           Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.
> >
> >       git-fetch(1)
> >           Download objects and refs from another repository.
> >
> >       git-format-patch(1)
> >           Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
> >
> >       git-bisect(1)
> >           Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.
> >
> >       git-reset(1)
> >           Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
> >
> >       git-rebase(1)
> >           Reapply commits on top of another base tip.
> >
> >       git-tag(1)
> >           Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.
> >
> >       git-push(1)
> >           Update remote refs along with associated objects.
> >
> >       git-am(1)
> >           Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.
> >
> >       git-revert(1)
> >           Revert some existing commits.
> >
> >       git-grep(1)
> >           Print lines matching a pattern.
> >
> >       git-show(1)
> >           Show various types of objects.
> >
> >       git-submodule(1)
> >           Initialize, update or inspect submodules.
> >
> >       git-cherry-pick(1)
> >           Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.
> >
> >       git-clean(1)
> >           Remove untracked files from the working tree.
> >
> >       git-stash(1)
> >           Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.
> >
> >       git-rm(1)
> >           Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
> >
> >       git-mv(1)
> >           Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
> >
> >       git-gui(1)
> >           A portable graphical interface to Git.
> >
> >       git-citool(1)
> >           Graphical alternative to git-commit.
> >
> >       git-archive(1)
> >           Create an archive of files from a named tree.
> >
> >       git-shortlog(1)
> >           Summarize git log output.
> >
> >       git-describe(1)
> >           Give an object a human readable name based on an available ref.
> >
> >       git-gc(1)
> >           Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.
> >
> >       git-notes(1)
> >           Add or inspect object notes.
> >
> >       git-worktree(1)
> >           Manage multiple working trees.
> >
> >       git-bundle(1)
> >           Move objects and refs by archive.
> >
> >       git-range-diff(1)
> >           Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch).
> >
> >   Ancillary Commands
> >       Manipulators:
> >
> >       git-config(1)
> >           Get and set repository or global options.
> >
> >       git-repack(1)
> >           Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
> >
> >       git-prune(1)
> >           Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.
> >
> >       git-reflog(1)
> >           Manage reflog information.
> >
> >       git-remote(1)
> >           Manage set of tracked repositories.
> >
> >       git-mergetool(1)
> >           Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.
> >
> >       git-filter-branch(1)
> >           Rewrite branches.
> >
> >       git-replace(1)
> >           Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.
> >
> >       git-fast-export(1)
> >           Git data exporter.
> >
> >       git-fast-import(1)
> >           Backend for fast Git data importers.
> >
> >       git-pack-refs(1)
> >           Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.
> >
> >       Interrogators:
> >
> >       git-help(1)
> >           Display help information about Git.
> >
> >       gitweb(1)
> >           Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).
> >
> >       git-show-branch(1)
> >           Show branches and their commits.
> >
> >       git-blame(1)
> >           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.
> >
> >       git-annotate(1)
> >           Annotate file lines with commit information.
> >
> >       git-instaweb(1)
> >           Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
> >
> >       git-rerere(1)
> >           Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
> >
> >       git-fsck(1)
> >           Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the
> >           database.
> >
> >       git-whatchanged(1)
> >           Show logs with difference each commit introduces.
> >
> >       git-difftool(1)
> >           Show changes using common diff tools.
> >
> >       git-merge-tree(1)
> >           Show three-way merge without touching index.
> >
> >       git-count-objects(1)
> >           Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
> >
> >       git-verify-commit(1)
> >           Check the GPG signature of commits.
> >
> >       git-verify-tag(1)
> >           Check the GPG signature of tags.
> >
> >   Interacting with Others
> >       These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people
> >       via patch over e-mail.
> >
> >       git-send-email(1)
> >           Send a collection of patches as emails.
> >
> >       git-request-pull(1)
> >           Generates a summary of pending changes.
> >
> >       git-cvsimport(1)
> >           Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
> >
> >       git-cvsserver(1)
> >           A CVS server emulator for Git.
> >
> >       git-cvsexportcommit(1)
> >           Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
> >
> >       git-svn(1)
> >           Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.
> >
> >       git-p4(1)
> >           Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.
> >
> >       git-quiltimport(1)
> >           Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
> >
> >       git-archimport(1)
> >           Import a GNU Arch repository into Git.
> >
> >       git-imap-send(1)
> >           Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.
> >
> >LOW-LEVEL COMMANDS (PLUMBING)
> >       Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands
> >       are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains.
> >       Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-
> >       index(1) and git-read-tree(1).
> >
> >       The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to
> >       these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than
> >       Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for
> >       scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are
> >       subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.
> >
> >       The following description divides the low-level commands into commands
> >       that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
> >       commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move
> >       objects and references between repositories.
> >
> >   Manipulation commands
> >       git-update-index(1)
> >           Register file contents in the working tree to the index.
> >
> >       git-write-tree(1)
> >           Create a tree object from the current index.
> >
> >       git-read-tree(1)
> >           Reads tree information into the index.
> >
> >       git-checkout-index(1)
> >           Copy files from the index to the working tree.
> >
> >       git-merge-index(1)
> >           Run a merge for files needing merging.
> >
> >       git-prune-packed(1)
> >           Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
> >
> >       git-apply(1)
> >           Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.
> >
> >       git-merge-file(1)
> >           Run a three-way file merge.
> >
> >       git-mktag(1)
> >           Creates a tag object.
> >
> >       git-hash-object(1)
> >           Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.
> >
> >       git-update-ref(1)
> >           Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
> >
> >       git-symbolic-ref(1)
> >           Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.
> >
> >       git-commit-tree(1)
> >           Create a new commit object.
> >
> >       git-commit-graph(1)
> >           Write and verify Git commit-graph files.
> >
> >       git-mktree(1)
> >           Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
> >
> >       git-pack-objects(1)
> >           Create a packed archive of objects.
> >
> >       git-unpack-objects(1)
> >           Unpack objects from a packed archive.
> >
> >       git-index-pack(1)
> >           Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.
> >
> >       git-multi-pack-index(1)
> >           Write and verify multi-pack-indexes.
> >
> >   Interrogation commands
> >       git-cat-file(1)
> >           Provide content or type and size information for repository
> >           objects.
> >
> >       git-ls-tree(1)
> >           List the contents of a tree object.
> >
> >       git-ls-files(1)
> >           Show information about files in the index and the working tree.
> >
> >       git-diff-files(1)
> >           Compares files in the working tree and the index.
> >
> >       git-name-rev(1)
> >           Find symbolic names for given revs.
> >
> >       git-cherry(1)
> >           Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.
> >
> >       git-var(1)
> >           Show a Git logical variable.
> >
> >       git-rev-list(1)
> >           Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
> >
> >       git-rev-parse(1)
> >           Pick out and massage parameters.
> >
> >       git-for-each-ref(1)
> >           Output information on each ref.
> >
> >       git-show-ref(1)
> >           List references in a local repository.
> >
> >       git-ls-remote(1)
> >           List references in a remote repository.
> >
> >       git-diff-tree(1)
> >           Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
> >
> >       git-diff-index(1)
> >           Compare a tree to the working tree or index.
> >
> >       git-merge-base(1)
> >           Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
> >
> >       git-verify-pack(1)
> >           Validate packed Git archive files.
> >
> >       git-pack-redundant(1)
> >           Find redundant pack files.
> >
> >       git-unpack-file(1)
> >           Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
> >
> >       git-show-index(1)
> >           Show packed archive index.
> >
> >       git-get-tar-commit-id(1)
> >           Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.
> >
> >       In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
> >       working tree.
> >
> >   Synching repositories
> >       git-daemon(1)
> >           A really simple server for Git repositories.
> >
> >       git-http-backend(1)
> >           Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.
> >
> >       git-update-server-info(1)
> >           Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.
> >
> >       git-send-pack(1)
> >           Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.
> >
> >       git-fetch-pack(1)
> >           Receive missing objects from another repository.
> >
> >       The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
> >       typically do not use them directly.
> >
> >       git-shell(1)
> >           Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.
> >
> >       git-parse-remote(1)
> >           Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.
> >
> >       git-receive-pack(1)
> >           Receive what is pushed into the repository.
> >
> >       git-upload-pack(1)
> >           Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.
> >
> >       git-upload-archive(1)
> >           Send archive back to git-archive.
> >
> >       git-http-fetch(1)
> >           Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.
> >
> >       git-http-push(1)
> >           Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.
> >
> >   Internal helper commands
> >       These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users
> >       typically do not use them directly.
> >
> >       git-merge-one-file(1)
> >           The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.
> >
> >       git-sh-setup(1)
> >           Common Git shell script setup code.
> >
> >       git-check-ref-format(1)
> >           Ensures that a reference name is well formed.
> >
> >       git-check-ignore(1)
> >           Debug gitignore / exclude files.
> >
> >       git-check-attr(1)
> >           Display gitattributes information.
> >
> >       git-credential(1)
> >           Retrieve and store user credentials.
> >
> >       git-credential-cache(1)
> >           Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.
> >
> >       git-credential-store(1)
> >           Helper to store credentials on disk.
> >
> >       git-fmt-merge-msg(1)
> >           Produce a merge commit message.
> >
> >       git-check-mailmap(1)
> >           Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.
> >
> >       git-mailsplit(1)
> >           Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
> >
> >       git-mailinfo(1)
> >           Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.
> >
> >       git-interpret-trailers(1)
> >           add or parse structured information in commit messages.
> >
> >       git-column(1)
> >           Display data in columns.
> >
> >       git-stripspace(1)
> >           Remove unnecessary whitespace.
> >
> >       git-patch-id(1)
> >           Compute unique ID for a patch.
> >
> >       git-sh-i18n(1)
> >           Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.
> >
> >CONFIGURATION MECHANISM
> >       Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
> >       repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like
> >       this:
> >
> >           #
> >           # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
> >           #
> >
> >           ; core variables
> >           [core]
> >                   ; Don't trust file modes
> >                   filemode = false
> >
> >           ; user identity
> >           [user]
> >                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
> >                   email = "gitster@pobox.com"
> >
> >       Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their
> >       operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details
> >       about the configuration mechanism.
> >
> >IDENTIFIER TERMINOLOGY
> >       <object>
> >           Indicates the object name for any type of object.
> >
> >       <blob>
> >           Indicates a blob object name.
> >
> >       <tree>
> >           Indicates a tree object name.
> >
> >       <commit>
> >           Indicates a commit object name.
> >
> >       <tree-ish>
> >           Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
> >           <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree> object
> >           but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that
> >           point at a <tree>.
> >
> >       <commit-ish>
> >           Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
> >           <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit>
> >           object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a
> >           <commit>.
> >
> >       <type>
> >           Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob,
> >           tree, commit, or tag.
> >
> >       <file>
> >           Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the
> >           tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
> >
> >SYMBOLIC IDENTIFIERS
> >       Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
> >       symbolic notation:
> >
> >       HEAD
> >           indicates the head of the current branch.
> >
> >       <tag>
> >           a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).
> >
> >       <head>
> >           a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).
> >
> >       For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
> >       REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).
> >
> >FILE/DIRECTORY STRUCTURE
> >       Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.
> >
> >       Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.
> >
> >       Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
> >       $GIT_DIR.
> >
> >TERMINOLOGY
> >       Please see gitglossary(7).
> >
> >ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
> >       Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
> >
> >   The Git Repository
> >       These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is
> >       worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git
> >       so take care if using a foreign front-end.
> >
> >       GIT_INDEX_FILE
> >           This environment allows the specification of an alternate index
> >           file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.
> >
> >       GIT_INDEX_VERSION
> >           This environment variable allows the specification of an index
> >           version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index files.
> >           By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-
> >           index(1) for more information.
> >
> >       GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY
> >           If the object storage directory is specified via this environment
> >           variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
> >           otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.
> >
> >       GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES
> >           Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
> >           archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
> >           specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git
> >           object directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New
> >           objects will not be written to these directories.
> >
> >           Entries that begin with " (double-quote) will be interpreted as
> >           C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing double-quotes
> >           and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
> >           "path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path has two paths:
> >           path-with-"-and-:-in-it and vanilla-path.
> >
> >       GIT_DIR
> >           If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path
> >           to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
> >           The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.
> >
> >       GIT_WORK_TREE
> >           Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be
> >           controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the
> >           core.worktree configuration variable.
> >
> >       GIT_NAMESPACE
> >           Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
> >           --namespace command-line option also sets this value.
> >
> >       GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES
> >           This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it
> >           is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into while
> >           looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
> >           slow-loading network directories). It will not exclude the current
> >           working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the
> >           environment. Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and
> >           resolve any symlink that might be present in order to compare them
> >           with the current directory. However, if even this access is slow,
> >           you can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
> >           subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,
> >           GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink.
> >
> >       GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM
> >           When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
> >           directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
> >           directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
> >           does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can
> >           be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries.
> >           Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit
> >           repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.
> >
> >       GIT_COMMON_DIR
> >           If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
> >           normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path instead.
> >           Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from
> >           $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
> >           details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
> >           variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
> >
> >   Git Commits
> >       GIT_AUTHOR_NAME, GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME,
> >       GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE, EMAIL
> >           see git-commit-tree(1)
> >
> >   Git Diffs
> >       GIT_DIFF_OPTS
> >           Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of
> >           context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
> >           precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the
> >           Git diff command line.
> >
> >       GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
> >           When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program
> >           named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation described
> >           above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
> >           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:
> >
> >               path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
> >
> >           where:
> >
> >       <old|new>-file
> >           are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of
> >           <old|new>,
> >
> >       <old|new>-hex
> >           are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
> >
> >       <old|new>-mode
> >           are the octal representation of the file modes.
> >
> >           The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g.
> >           new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.  old-file when a new
> >           file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the index).
> >           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary
> >           file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.
> >
> >           For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
> >           parameter, <path>.
> >
> >           For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment
> >           variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.
> >
> >       GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER
> >           A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
> >
> >       GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL
> >           The total number of paths.
> >
> >   other
> >       GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY
> >           A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive
> >           merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)
> >
> >       GIT_PAGER
> >           This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an
> >           empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch a pager.
> >           See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).
> >
> >       GIT_EDITOR
> >           This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used
> >           by several Git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor is to
> >           be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-
> >           config(1).
> >
> >       GIT_SSH, GIT_SSH_COMMAND
> >           If either of these environment variables is set then git fetch and
> >           git push will use the specified command instead of ssh when they
> >           need to connect to a remote system. The command-line parameters
> >           passed to the configured command are determined by the ssh variant.
> >           See ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.
> >
> >       + $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted
> >       by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
> >       $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which
> >       can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).
> >
> >       + Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
> >       personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation for
> >       further details.
> >
> >       GIT_SSH_VARIANT
> >           If this environment variable is set, it overrides Git's
> >           autodetection whether GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand refer
> >           to OpenSSH, plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the
> >           config setting ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.
> >
> >       GIT_ASKPASS
> >           If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need
> >           to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
> >           authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as
> >           command-line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See
> >           also the core.askPass option in git-config(1).
> >
> >       GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT
> >           If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not prompt on
> >           the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
> >
> >       GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM
> >           Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
> >           $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used
> >           along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable
> >           environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
> >           avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone
> >           with sufficient permissions to fix it.
> >
> >       GIT_FLUSH
> >           If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as
> >           git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git
> >           check-attr and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output
> >           stream after each record have been flushed. If this variable is set
> >           to "0", the output of these commands will be done using completely
> >           buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set, Git will
> >           choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on whether stdout
> >           appears to be redirected to a file or not.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE
> >           Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
> >           command execution and external command execution.
> >
> >           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
> >           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.
> >
> >           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower
> >           than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open
> >           file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this
> >           file descriptor.
> >
> >           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting
> >           with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and
> >           will try to append the trace messages to it.
> >
> >           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
> >           (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE_FSMONITOR
> >           Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension. See
> >           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS
> >           Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
> >           access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded.
> >           This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related
> >           performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
> >           options.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE_PACKET
> >           Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given
> >           program. This can help with debugging object negotiation or other
> >           protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with
> >           "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for
> >           available trace output options.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE
> >           Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program.
> >           Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers, and
> >           no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into
> >           a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than
> >           displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
> >
> >           Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of
> >           clones and fetches.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE
> >           Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
> >           time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
> >           options.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE_SETUP
> >           Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
> >           working directory after Git has completed its setup phase. See
> >           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW
> >           Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning
> >           of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
> >           options.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE_CURL
> >           Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
> >           including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
> >           This is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command line.
> >           This option overrides setting the GIT_CURL_VERBOSE environment
> >           variable. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
> >
> >       GIT_TRACE_CURL_NO_DATA
> >           When a curl trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), do not
> >           dump data (that is, only dump info lines and headers).
> >
> >       GIT_REDACT_COOKIES
> >           This can be set to a comma-separated list of strings. When a curl
> >           trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), whenever a "Cookies:"
> >           header sent by the client is dumped, values of cookies whose key is
> >           in that list (case-sensitive) are redacted.
> >
> >       GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS
> >           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
> >           literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, running
> >           GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits
> >           that touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob *.c matches.
> >           You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g.,
> >           paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output,
> >           etc).
> >
> >       GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS
> >           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
> >           glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
> >
> >       GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS
> >           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
> >           literal (aka "literal" magic).
> >
> >       GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS
> >           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
> >           case-insensitive.
> >
> >       GIT_REFLOG_ACTION
> >           When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of
> >           the reason why the ref was updated (which is typically the name of
> >           the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the
> >           old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use
> >           set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name
> >           to this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
> >           end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
> >
> >       GIT_REF_PARANOIA
> >           If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over
> >           lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this does
> >           nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some
> >           operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable
> >           automatically when performing destructive operations like git-
> >           prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to
> >           be paranoid about making sure an operation has touched every ref
> >           (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).
> >
> >       GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL
> >           If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as if
> >           protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the listed protocols
> >           has protocol.<name>.allow set to always (overriding any existing
> >           configuration). In other words, any protocol not mentioned will be
> >           disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See the
> >           description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more details.
> >
> >       GIT_PROTOCOL_FROM_USER
> >           Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone which are
> >           configured to the user state. This is useful to restrict recursive
> >           submodule initialization from an untrusted repository or for
> >           programs which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
> >           git-config(1) for more details.
> >
> >       GIT_PROTOCOL
> >           For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
> >           Contains a colon : separated list of keys with optional values
> >           key[=value]. Presence of unknown keys and values must be ignored.
> >
> >       GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS
> >           If set to 0, Git will complete any requested operation without
> >           performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a lock.
> >           For example, this will prevent git status from refreshing the index
> >           as a side effect. This is useful for processes running in the
> >           background which do not want to cause lock contention with other
> >           operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.
> >
> >       GIT_REDIRECT_STDIN, GIT_REDIRECT_STDOUT, GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR
> >           Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
> >           handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
> >           particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
> >           canonical way to pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not
> >           an option because it would require the handles to be marked
> >           inheritable (and consequently every spawned process would inherit
> >           them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The primary
> >           intended use case is to use named pipes for communication (e.g.
> >           \\.\pipe\my-git-stdin-123).
> >
> >           Two special values are supported: off will simply close the
> >           corresponding standard handle, and if GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is 2>&1,
> >           standard error will be redirected to the same handle as standard
> >           output.
> >
> >       GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
> >           If set to yes, print an ellipsis following an (abbreviated) SHA-1
> >           value. This affects indications of detached HEADs (git-checkout(1))
> >           and the raw diff output (git-diff(1)). Printing an ellipsis in the
> >           cases mentioned is no longer considered adequate and support for it
> >           is likely to be removed in the foreseeable future (along with the
> >           variable).
> >
> >DISCUSSION
> >       More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter
> >       of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7).
> >
> >       A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
> >       subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
> >       things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
> >       of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
> >       contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
> >       as tags and branch heads.
> >
> >       The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
> >       hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
> >       directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
> >       and some number of parent commits.
> >
> >       The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
> >       "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
> >       represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
> >       parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
> >
> >       All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
> >       written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
> >       The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
> >       just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
> >       purpose.
> >
> >       When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
> >       efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
> >
> >       Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
> >       may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref.
> >       Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most
> >       recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
> >       tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD
> >       contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
> >
> >       The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
> >       path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
> >       the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
> >       attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
> >       corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
> >       working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
> >       be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
> >       content stored in the index.
> >
> >       The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
> >       for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
> >       unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
> >
> >FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
> >       See the references in the "description" section to get started using
> >       Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a
> >       first-time user.
> >
> >       The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7)
> >       both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
> >
> >       See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.
> >
> >       See also the howto[3] documents for some useful examples.
> >
> >       The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[4].
> >
> >       Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).
> >
> >AUTHORS
> >       Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
> >       C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
> >       <git@vger.kernel.org[5]>.
> >       http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary gives you a more
> >       complete list of contributors.
> >
> >       If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1)
> >       and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the
> >       project.
> >
> >REPORTING BUGS
> >       Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org[5]> where the
> >       development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
> >       subscribed to the list to send a message there. See the list archive at
> >       https://public-inbox.org/git for previous bug reports and other
> >       discussions.
> >
> >       Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to the
> >       Git Security mailing list <git-security@googlegroups.com[6]>.
> >
> >SEE ALSO
> >       gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7),
> >       gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's
> >       Manual[1], gitworkflows(7)
> >
> >GIT
> >       Part of the git(1) suite
> >
> >NOTES
> >        1. Git User's Manual
> >           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html
> >
> >        2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
> >           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html#git-concepts
> >
> >        3. howto
> >           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/howto-index.html
> >
> >        4. Git API documentation
> >           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/technical/api-index.html
> >
> >        5. git@vger.kernel.org
> >           mailto:git@vger.kernel.org
> >
> >        6. git-security@googlegroups.com
> >           mailto:git-security@googlegroups.com
> >
> >Git 2.21.0.rc1.9.g3f              02/18/2019                            GIT(1)
>

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 17+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2019-03-11 14:38 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 17+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2018-07-06 20:04 de-alphabetizing the documentation frederik
2018-07-06 21:16 ` Jonathan Nieder
2018-07-06 21:18   ` Jonathan Nieder
2018-07-06 23:21     ` frederik
2018-07-06 23:47       ` Jonathan Nieder
2018-07-08  1:09         ` frederik
2018-07-24 19:52           ` frederik
2018-07-24 21:11             ` Jonathan Nieder
2018-08-11  2:30               ` frederik
2018-08-13 18:17                 ` Junio C Hamano
2019-02-19 17:54                   ` [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list Frederick Eaton
2019-02-21 18:05                     ` frederik
2019-03-11  9:04                       ` frederik
2019-03-11 14:38                         ` Jacob Keller
2019-02-19 17:54                   ` [PATCH] Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt. Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl Frederick Eaton
2018-07-07  4:25       ` de-alphabetizing the documentation Theodore Y. Ts'o
2018-07-06 21:32   ` Eric Sunshine

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	https://80x24.org/mirrors/git.git

AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git