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* [PATCH] clean up extern decl of functions
@ 2020-10-08 15:27 Junio C Hamano
  2020-10-09  1:55 ` Denton Liu
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 15+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2020-10-08 15:27 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Denton Liu

Among external function declarations, somehow only these two
functions that return pointer-to-function were declared with
"extern" in front.

Ideally, we should standardise to _have_ explicit "extern" in front
for all function (and data) decls, but let's make things uniform
first.  Bulk re-addition of extern can be done without any extra
difficulty with or without this change.

Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
---

 * A patch before morning coffee, could be totally off the mark with
   trivial thinko.

 git-compat-util.h | 4 ++--
 1 file changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

diff --git a/git-compat-util.h b/git-compat-util.h
index 7a0fb7a045..56e0e1e79d 100644
--- a/git-compat-util.h
+++ b/git-compat-util.h
@@ -491,9 +491,9 @@ static inline int const_error(void)
 
 void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
 void set_error_routine(void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
-extern void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *err, va_list params);
+void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *err, va_list params);
 void set_warn_routine(void (*routine)(const char *warn, va_list params));
-extern void (*get_warn_routine(void))(const char *warn, va_list params);
+void (*get_warn_routine(void))(const char *warn, va_list params);
 void set_die_is_recursing_routine(int (*routine)(void));
 
 int starts_with(const char *str, const char *prefix);

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] clean up extern decl of functions
  2020-10-08 15:27 [PATCH] clean up extern decl of functions Junio C Hamano
@ 2020-10-09  1:55 ` Denton Liu
  2020-10-09  2:47   ` Junio C Hamano
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 15+ messages in thread
From: Denton Liu @ 2020-10-09  1:55 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: git

Hi Junio,

On Thu, Oct 08, 2020 at 08:27:55AM -0700, Junio C Hamano wrote:
> Among external function declarations, somehow only these two
> functions that return pointer-to-function were declared with
> "extern" in front.
> 
> Ideally, we should standardise to _have_ explicit "extern" in front
> for all function (and data) decls, but let's make things uniform
> first.  Bulk re-addition of extern can be done without any extra
> difficulty with or without this change.

Why are we re-introducing an explicit "extern"? Since function decls are
extern by default, what do we gain by doing this?

You mentioned in the past[0]

	I think there is a push to drop the "extern " from decls of
	functions in *.h header files.

so are we reversing that push now?

> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>

The code part looks good to me. Good catch.

Thanks,
Denton

[0]: https://public-inbox.org/git/xmqqef67zz7u.fsf@gitster-ct.c.googlers.com/

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] clean up extern decl of functions
  2020-10-09  1:55 ` Denton Liu
@ 2020-10-09  2:47   ` Junio C Hamano
  2020-10-09 19:26     ` Junio C Hamano
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 15+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2020-10-09  2:47 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Denton Liu; +Cc: git

Denton Liu <liu.denton@gmail.com> writes:

> Hi Junio,
>
> On Thu, Oct 08, 2020 at 08:27:55AM -0700, Junio C Hamano wrote:
>> Among external function declarations, somehow only these two
>> functions that return pointer-to-function were declared with
>> "extern" in front.
>> 
>> Ideally, we should standardise to _have_ explicit "extern" in front
>> for all function (and data) decls, but let's make things uniform
>> first.  Bulk re-addition of extern can be done without any extra
>> difficulty with or without this change.
>
> Why are we re-introducing an explicit "extern"? Since function decls are
> extern by default, what do we gain by doing this?
>
> You mentioned in the past[0]
>
> 	I think there is a push to drop the "extern " from decls of
> 	functions in *.h header files.
>
> so are we reversing that push now?

That is certainly on the table.  Re-read what you quoted and realize
that I was not expressing my opinion on the "push"; it was just
stating that other reviewers seem to be in favor.

See my other response why I think the "push"  was a bad idea.


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [PATCH] clean up extern decl of functions
  2020-10-09  2:47   ` Junio C Hamano
@ 2020-10-09 19:26     ` Junio C Hamano
  2020-10-09 19:27       ` [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern" Junio C Hamano
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 15+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2020-10-09 19:26 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Denton Liu; +Cc: git

Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> writes:

>> Why are we re-introducing an explicit "extern"? Since function decls are
>> extern by default, what do we gain by doing this?
>>
>> You mentioned in the past[0]
>>
>> 	I think there is a push to drop the "extern " from decls of
>> 	functions in *.h header files.
>>
>> so are we reversing that push now?
>
> That is certainly on the table.  Re-read what you quoted and realize
> that I was not expressing my opinion on the "push"; it was just
> stating that other reviewers seem to be in favor.
>
> See my other response why I think the "push"  was a bad idea.

I'd elaborate a bit more.  A proposed update to CodingGuidelines
will be sent separately as a follow-up to this message.

"Are we reversing that push now?"  That is not a question I can
unilaterally answer yes/no---I do not run dictatorship where I
cannot survive without telling all the contributors how to cross
their t's and dot their i's.  There are things in our coding
guidelines that tells me to do something differently from how I
would, but I can adjust and survive if the primary benefit of having
guidelines, i.e. making things uniform one way or the other, is net
win.  When a guideline turns out to be a bad idea, however, I can
propose to change it.  So can you or anybody else ;-)

In that message, I just told Emily that there is a push to omit
extern, in the sense that it was the opinion of the prevailing
louder voices.  Back then, I didn't have an opinion strong enough to
favor either way myself, and I was willing to go with the majority
if many contributors wanted to drop "extern" in the hope that it
will result in quality code.

But with the Makefile patch you posted with Dscho's review this
morning, it has become apparent to me that it wasn't a great idea
after all.  It caused you to spend your time to write the RFC patch
and come up with the regexp, and caused the project to spend
reviewer bandwidth on the patch.

Of course, how you spend your time is entirely up to you.  But if
you are going to contribute your time on this project, the project
appreciates if the time is spent on things that make the codebase
better.  And to me, unlike to me "in the past[0]", it is reasonably
clear that the push of omitting "extern" ended up wasting resources
without doing much good for the project.

Seeing that the pattern that were trying to be careful didn't catch
the decls fixed by the patch you were responding to in this thread
did not help improve my impression on the idea of omitting "extern".

I think these two decls I touched in this patch were left behind
when somebody, possibly you in b199d714 (*.[ch]: remove extern from
function declarations using sed, 2019-04-29), tried to "clean up"
the last time, because the pattern used in the conversion did not
catch it.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern"
  2020-10-09 19:26     ` Junio C Hamano
@ 2020-10-09 19:27       ` Junio C Hamano
  2020-10-09 19:57         ` Jeff King
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 15+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2020-10-09 19:27 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: git; +Cc: Denton Liu

The document recommends not to write "extern" in front of a function
declaration, with justification that a decl by default is extern.

While it is true that by default decls are extern unless marked with
"static", it does not justify the choice.  It only justifies why we
could omit it if we wanted to, but does not say anything about the
reason why we would want to omit it in the first place.

Recently we saw that past mechanical conversion attempts kept a few
function decls with "extern" in front.  It seems that it was left
because the mechanical conversion tried not to touch external
declaration of pointers to functions, but the pattern used was
faulty and excluded functions that return pointers to functions.

For example, a pointer to a function may look like this:

    extern void (*default_frotz_handler)(int frotz);

We must not omit "extern" from this decl, which says "There exists a
variable whose name is default_frotz_handler, which points at a
function that takes an integer and returns nothing."  It is not a
function declaration and if written without "extern" in front,
requires the "common" extension to be correctly built.

But a function that returns a pointer to a function looks similar:

    extern void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *message, ...);

which says "There is a get_error_routine() function that takes no
parameters, and it returns a pointer to a function that takes these
parameters and returns nothing".

The current rule tells us not to write "extern" in front, but the
earlier mechanical conversion missed it.  People when writing would
also miss it unless they are careful.

Instead of forcing contributors to spend time on on thinking if they
should or should not write "extern" in front of each of their decl
when they write new code, tell them that our external declarations
always say "extern" in front.  By doing so, we would also prevent a
mistake of not writing "extern" when we need to (i.e. decls of data
items, that are not functions) when less experienced developers try
to mimic how the existing surrounding declarations are written.

Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
---
 Documentation/CodingGuidelines | 10 ++++++----
 1 file changed, 6 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 45465bc0c9..eafe41bec8 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -433,10 +433,12 @@ For C programs:
  - Use Git's gettext wrappers to make the user interface
    translatable. See "Marking strings for translation" in po/README.
 
- - Variables and functions local to a given source file should be marked
-   with "static". Variables that are visible to other source files
-   must be declared with "extern" in header files. However, function
-   declarations should not use "extern", as that is already the default.
+ - Variables and functions local to a given source file should be
+   marked with "static". Variables that are visible to other source
+   files must be declared with "extern" in header files.  External
+   function declarations should also use "extern", while external
+   function definition should not, to make it easier to visually tell
+   them apart.
 
  - You can launch gdb around your program using the shorthand GIT_DEBUGGER.
    Run `GIT_DEBUGGER=1 ./bin-wrappers/git foo` to simply use gdb as is, or
-- 
2.29.0-rc1-92-g713508e020


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern"
  2020-10-09 19:27       ` [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern" Junio C Hamano
@ 2020-10-09 19:57         ` Jeff King
  2020-10-09 20:33           ` Junio C Hamano
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 15+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2020-10-09 19:57 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: git, Denton Liu

On Fri, Oct 09, 2020 at 12:27:28PM -0700, Junio C Hamano wrote:

> The document recommends not to write "extern" in front of a function
> declaration, with justification that a decl by default is extern.
> 
> While it is true that by default decls are extern unless marked with
> "static", it does not justify the choice.  It only justifies why we
> could omit it if we wanted to, but does not say anything about the
> reason why we would want to omit it in the first place.

True, but I think that is perhaps a failing of the document, not of the
original motivation. The reason to have _a_ standard is that it is
confusing when some functions say "extern" and some do not (and it was a
continued source of review friction when people pointed out
inconsistencies). But the reason to standardize on omitting it is that
it clutters the line, making it longer and harder to read.

The argument for including it is less clear to me. You say below:

> [...]By doing so, we would also prevent a
> mistake of not writing "extern" when we need to (i.e. decls of data
> items, that are not functions) when less experienced developers try
> to mimic how the existing surrounding declarations are written.

but to my recollection that has not been a big problem. And it's one
that's usually easily caught by the compiler. A missing "extern" on a
variable will usually get you a multiple-definition warning at
link-time (if you manage to also omit the actual definition you won't
see that, though "make sparse" will warn that your variable ought to be
static).

So I have a mild preference to omit it, if we were starting from
scratch. But starting form where we are now, without "extern", my
preference is even stronger, because I don't want to waste submitter or
reviewer time switching all of the existing cases.

> But a function that returns a pointer to a function looks similar:
> 
>     extern void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *message, ...);

IMHO the real problem here is that C's syntax for returning a function
pointer is so horrendous. How about this (on top of your earlier patch
to drop the extern from that declaration)?

-- >8 --
Subject: [PATCH] usage: define a type for a reporting function

The usage, die, warning, and error routines all work with a function
pointer that takes the message to be reported. We usually just mention
the function's full type inline. But this makes the use of these
pointers hard to read, especially because C's syntax for returning a
function pointer is so awful:

  void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *err, va_list params);

Unless you read it very carefully, this looks like a function pointer
declaration. Let's instead use a single typedef to define a reporting
function, which is the same for all four types.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
I wondered if the compiler would complain about attaching a noreturn
attribute to an already-typedef'd pointer (rather than including it in
the typedef). gcc seems to be fine with it, but we could also define two
types, one with noreturn and one without.

 git-compat-util.h | 12 +++++++-----
 usage.c           | 18 +++++++++---------
 2 files changed, 16 insertions(+), 14 deletions(-)

diff --git a/git-compat-util.h b/git-compat-util.h
index 56e0e1e79d..adfea06897 100644
--- a/git-compat-util.h
+++ b/git-compat-util.h
@@ -489,11 +489,13 @@ static inline int const_error(void)
 #define error_errno(...) (error_errno(__VA_ARGS__), const_error())
 #endif
 
-void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
-void set_error_routine(void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
-void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *err, va_list params);
-void set_warn_routine(void (*routine)(const char *warn, va_list params));
-void (*get_warn_routine(void))(const char *warn, va_list params);
+typedef void (*report_fn)(const char *, va_list params);
+
+void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR report_fn routine);
+void set_error_routine(report_fn routine);
+report_fn get_error_routine(void);
+void set_warn_routine(report_fn routine);
+report_fn get_warn_routine(void);
 void set_die_is_recursing_routine(int (*routine)(void));
 
 int starts_with(const char *str, const char *prefix);
diff --git a/usage.c b/usage.c
index 58fb5fff5f..06665823a2 100644
--- a/usage.c
+++ b/usage.c
@@ -108,33 +108,33 @@ static int die_is_recursing_builtin(void)
 
 /* If we are in a dlopen()ed .so write to a global variable would segfault
  * (ugh), so keep things static. */
-static NORETURN_PTR void (*usage_routine)(const char *err, va_list params) = usage_builtin;
-static NORETURN_PTR void (*die_routine)(const char *err, va_list params) = die_builtin;
-static void (*error_routine)(const char *err, va_list params) = error_builtin;
-static void (*warn_routine)(const char *err, va_list params) = warn_builtin;
+static NORETURN_PTR report_fn usage_routine = usage_builtin;
+static NORETURN_PTR report_fn die_routine = die_builtin;
+static report_fn error_routine = error_builtin;
+static report_fn warn_routine = warn_builtin;
 static int (*die_is_recursing)(void) = die_is_recursing_builtin;
 
-void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params))
+void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR report_fn routine)
 {
 	die_routine = routine;
 }
 
-void set_error_routine(void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params))
+void set_error_routine(report_fn routine)
 {
 	error_routine = routine;
 }
 
-void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *err, va_list params)
+report_fn get_error_routine(void)
 {
 	return error_routine;
 }
 
-void set_warn_routine(void (*routine)(const char *warn, va_list params))
+void set_warn_routine(report_fn routine)
 {
 	warn_routine = routine;
 }
 
-void (*get_warn_routine(void))(const char *warn, va_list params)
+report_fn get_warn_routine(void)
 {
 	return warn_routine;
 }
-- 
2.29.0.rc1.559.g850010a3b3


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern"
  2020-10-09 19:57         ` Jeff King
@ 2020-10-09 20:33           ` Junio C Hamano
  2020-10-09 23:00             ` Denton Liu
                               ` (2 more replies)
  0 siblings, 3 replies; 15+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2020-10-09 20:33 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git, Denton Liu

Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:

> The argument for including it is less clear to me. You say below:
>
>> [...]By doing so, we would also prevent a
>> mistake of not writing "extern" when we need to (i.e. decls of data
>> items, that are not functions) when less experienced developers try
>> to mimic how the existing surrounding declarations are written.
>
> but to my recollection that has not been a big problem. And it's one
> that's usually easily caught by the compiler. A missing "extern" on a
> variable will usually get you a multiple-definition warning at
> link-time (if you manage to also omit the actual definition you won't
> see that, though "make sparse" will warn that your variable ought to be
> static).

Not really, that is where the "common" extension comes in, to help
us with it hurt others without it, unknowingly X-<.

        $ cat >a.c <<\EOF
        #include <stdio.h>
        #include "c.h"

        int common = 47;

        int main(int ac, char **av)
        {
            printf("%d\n", common + other);
            return 0;
        }
        EOF
        $ cat >b.c <<\EOF
        #include "c.h"

        int other = 22;
        EOF
        $ cat >c.h <<\EOF
        int common;
        int other;
        EOF
        $ gcc -Wall -o c a.c b.c; ./c
        59

And I have a strong preference, after thinking about it, to have
"extern" in front in the declarations.  It gives another clue for
patterns I feed to "git grep" to latch onto, and help my eyes to
scan and tell decls and defns apart in the output.  The benefit
alone is worth the extra 7 columns in front spent, which you call
"clutter".

> IMHO the real problem here is that C's syntax for returning a function
> pointer is so horrendous. How about this (on top of your earlier patch
> to drop the extern from that declaration)?

In general, I like a typedef for callback function that shortens the
decl of a function that takes such a callback, so I think

> +void set_error_routine(report_fn routine);
> +void set_warn_routine(report_fn routine);
> +report_fn get_error_routine(void);
> +report_fn get_warn_routine(void);

these are good, but they are better with "extern" in front in a
header file to make it clear they are declarations and not
definitions when they appear in "git grep" output.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern"
  2020-10-09 20:33           ` Junio C Hamano
@ 2020-10-09 23:00             ` Denton Liu
  2020-10-09 23:05               ` Junio C Hamano
  2020-10-10  0:37             ` Đoàn Trần Công Danh
  2020-10-15  1:36             ` Jeff King
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 15+ messages in thread
From: Denton Liu @ 2020-10-09 23:00 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: Jeff King, git

Hi Junio,

On Fri, Oct 09, 2020 at 01:33:39PM -0700, Junio C Hamano wrote:
> Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:
> 
> > The argument for including it is less clear to me. You say below:
> >
> >> [...]By doing so, we would also prevent a
> >> mistake of not writing "extern" when we need to (i.e. decls of data
> >> items, that are not functions) when less experienced developers try
> >> to mimic how the existing surrounding declarations are written.
> >
> > but to my recollection that has not been a big problem. And it's one
> > that's usually easily caught by the compiler. A missing "extern" on a
> > variable will usually get you a multiple-definition warning at
> > link-time (if you manage to also omit the actual definition you won't
> > see that, though "make sparse" will warn that your variable ought to be
> > static).
> 
> Not really, that is where the "common" extension comes in, to help
> us with it hurt others without it, unknowingly X-<.

I'm not really sure what you mean by the "common" extension. 

>         $ cat >a.c <<\EOF
>         #include <stdio.h>
>         #include "c.h"
> 
>         int common = 47;
> 
>         int main(int ac, char **av)
>         {
>             printf("%d\n", common + other);
>             return 0;
>         }
>         EOF
>         $ cat >b.c <<\EOF
>         #include "c.h"
> 
>         int other = 22;
>         EOF
>         $ cat >c.h <<\EOF
>         int common;
>         int other;
>         EOF
>         $ gcc -Wall -o c a.c b.c; ./c
>         59

On gcc 10.2.0, it errors out successfully. Although on clang 10.0.1, it
compiles successfully and produces "69". That being said, I think extern
variables are relatively rare in our codebase and, when it happens, they
usually come as part of lists of other extern variables so a developer
who's mimicking the surrounding code would be able to copy it
successfully. Otherwise, the decl usually pops out in header files as it
is quite unusual.

> And I have a strong preference, after thinking about it, to have
> "extern" in front in the declarations.  It gives another clue for
> patterns I feed to "git grep" to latch onto, and help my eyes to
> scan and tell decls and defns apart in the output.  The benefit
> alone is worth the extra 7 columns in front spent, which you call
> "clutter".

To be honest, I do not have any preference between having the explicit
extern or not. I do have a strong preference, however, for having a
codebase that's consistently written. When I was doing the refactor, I
wouldn't have minded introducing extern everywhere although that wasn't
suggested as an alternative.

I agree that these are all benefits of declaring functions explicitly as
extern. However, I don't think they're worth the cost of either another
huge rewrite or an inconsistent codebase.

> > IMHO the real problem here is that C's syntax for returning a function
> > pointer is so horrendous. How about this (on top of your earlier patch
> > to drop the extern from that declaration)?
> 
> In general, I like a typedef for callback function that shortens the
> decl of a function that takes such a callback, so I think
> 
> > +void set_error_routine(report_fn routine);
> > +void set_warn_routine(report_fn routine);
> > +report_fn get_error_routine(void);
> > +report_fn get_warn_routine(void);
> 
> these are good, but they are better with "extern" in front in a
> header file to make it clear they are declarations and not
> definitions when they appear in "git grep" output.

I agree that this looks a lot better, with or without the extern.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern"
  2020-10-09 23:00             ` Denton Liu
@ 2020-10-09 23:05               ` Junio C Hamano
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 15+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2020-10-09 23:05 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Denton Liu; +Cc: Jeff King, git

Denton Liu <liu.denton@gmail.com> writes:

>> And I have a strong preference, after thinking about it, to have
>> "extern" in front in the declarations.  It gives another clue for
>> patterns I feed to "git grep" to latch onto, and help my eyes to
>> scan and tell decls and defns apart in the output.  The benefit
>> alone is worth the extra 7 columns in front spent, which you call
>> "clutter".
>
> To be honest, I do not have any preference between having the explicit
> extern or not. I do have a strong preference, however, for having a
> codebase that's consistently written. When I was doing the refactor, I
> wouldn't have minded introducing extern everywhere although that wasn't
> suggested as an alternative.
>
> I agree that these are all benefits of declaring functions explicitly as
> extern. However, I don't think they're worth the cost of either another
> huge rewrite or an inconsistent codebase.

Yes, there is a cost associated with having made a mistake in the
past.  Biting the bullet now, perhaps as the first tree-wide change
immediately after the upcoming release, while the tree is quiescent,
would help us in the longer term, than having to live without extern
on declarations.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern"
  2020-10-09 20:33           ` Junio C Hamano
  2020-10-09 23:00             ` Denton Liu
@ 2020-10-10  0:37             ` Đoàn Trần Công Danh
  2020-10-15  1:36             ` Jeff King
  2 siblings, 0 replies; 15+ messages in thread
From: Đoàn Trần Công Danh @ 2020-10-10  0:37 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: Jeff King, git, Denton Liu

On 2020-10-09 13:33:39-0700, Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> wrote:
> Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:
> 
> > The argument for including it is less clear to me. You say below:
> >
> >> [...]By doing so, we would also prevent a
> >> mistake of not writing "extern" when we need to (i.e. decls of data
> >> items, that are not functions) when less experienced developers try
> >> to mimic how the existing surrounding declarations are written.
> >
> > but to my recollection that has not been a big problem. And it's one
> > that's usually easily caught by the compiler. A missing "extern" on a
> > variable will usually get you a multiple-definition warning at
> > link-time (if you manage to also omit the actual definition you won't
> > see that, though "make sparse" will warn that your variable ought to be
> > static).
> 
> Not really, that is where the "common" extension comes in, to help
> us with it hurt others without it, unknowingly X-<.

Yes, that's where tentative definition jumpes in.
But, tentative definition is known to cause headache to compiler optimization.
And from GCC 10, gcc change to `-fno-common` by default.

We can enable `-fno-common` now if we can detect our compiler is gcc,
but, I don't think it worth to fiddle with Makefile to add that logic.

> 
>         $ cat >a.c <<\EOF
>         #include <stdio.h>
>         #include "c.h"
> 
>         int common = 47;
> 
>         int main(int ac, char **av)
>         {
>             printf("%d\n", common + other);
>             return 0;
>         }
>         EOF
>         $ cat >b.c <<\EOF
>         #include "c.h"
> 
>         int other = 22;
>         EOF
>         $ cat >c.h <<\EOF
>         int common;
>         int other;
>         EOF
>         $ gcc -Wall -o c a.c b.c; ./c
>         59
> 
> And I have a strong preference, after thinking about it, to have
> "extern" in front in the declarations.  It gives another clue for
> patterns I feed to "git grep" to latch onto, and help my eyes to
> scan and tell decls and defns apart in the output.


With this argument, I think adding "extern" is worth it.
It could help people find the code better.

-- 
Danh

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern"
  2020-10-09 20:33           ` Junio C Hamano
  2020-10-09 23:00             ` Denton Liu
  2020-10-10  0:37             ` Đoàn Trần Công Danh
@ 2020-10-15  1:36             ` Jeff King
  2020-10-15 17:15               ` Junio C Hamano
  2 siblings, 1 reply; 15+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2020-10-15  1:36 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: git, Denton Liu

On Fri, Oct 09, 2020 at 01:33:39PM -0700, Junio C Hamano wrote:

> >> [...]By doing so, we would also prevent a
> >> mistake of not writing "extern" when we need to (i.e. decls of data
> >> items, that are not functions) when less experienced developers try
> >> to mimic how the existing surrounding declarations are written.
> >
> > but to my recollection that has not been a big problem. And it's one
> > that's usually easily caught by the compiler. A missing "extern" on a
> > variable will usually get you a multiple-definition warning at
> > link-time (if you manage to also omit the actual definition you won't
> > see that, though "make sparse" will warn that your variable ought to be
> > static).
> 
> Not really, that is where the "common" extension comes in, to help
> us with it hurt others without it, unknowingly X-<.

As others noted, gcc 10 actually does complain about this. And we can
easily stick -fno-common into the DEVELOPER knobs, if it's something we
want to catch (I had actually forgotten it wasn't the default).

That said....

> And I have a strong preference, after thinking about it, to have
> "extern" in front in the declarations.  It gives another clue for
> patterns I feed to "git grep" to latch onto, and help my eyes to
> scan and tell decls and defns apart in the output.  The benefit
> alone is worth the extra 7 columns in front spent, which you call
> "clutter".

I still don't like it, and I'm convinced spending any effort to switch
between the two styles is a waste of time. But it's absolutely not the
hill I want to die on, so if you feel strongly, go for it.

> > +void set_error_routine(report_fn routine);
> > +void set_warn_routine(report_fn routine);
> > +report_fn get_error_routine(void);
> > +report_fn get_warn_routine(void);
> 
> these are good, but they are better with "extern" in front in a
> header file to make it clear they are declarations and not
> definitions when they appear in "git grep" output.

I see you picked up my patch as jk/report-fn-typedef, but applied it
directly on v2.28, and not on top of your "drop these extra externs"
patch. That makes sense if we're not going to remove them, but then your
conflict resolution shows my patch as removing them. :)

If we're going to keep them, it should probably leave them in the
existing spots? Or I guess it is OK as-is if you're planning to add them
back in to all of the functions shortly after, not just the ones that
already had extern on them.

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern"
  2020-10-15  1:36             ` Jeff King
@ 2020-10-15 17:15               ` Junio C Hamano
  2020-10-15 19:28                 ` Jeff King
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 15+ messages in thread
From: Junio C Hamano @ 2020-10-15 17:15 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Jeff King; +Cc: git, Denton Liu

Jeff King <peff@peff.net> writes:

> On Fri, Oct 09, 2020 at 01:33:39PM -0700, Junio C Hamano wrote:
>
>> >> [...]By doing so, we would also prevent a
>> >> mistake of not writing "extern" when we need to (i.e. decls of data
>> >> items, that are not functions) when less experienced developers try
>> >> to mimic how the existing surrounding declarations are written.
>> >
>> > but to my recollection that has not been a big problem. And it's one
>> > that's usually easily caught by the compiler. A missing "extern" on a
>> > variable will usually get you a multiple-definition warning at
>> > link-time (if you manage to also omit the actual definition you won't
>> > see that, though "make sparse" will warn that your variable ought to be
>> > static).
>> 
>> Not really, that is where the "common" extension comes in, to help
>> us with it hurt others without it, unknowingly X-<.
>
> As others noted, gcc 10 actually does complain about this. And we can
> easily stick -fno-common into the DEVELOPER knobs, if it's something we
> want to catch (I had actually forgotten it wasn't the default).

Yup, that is a good thing to do regardless.  I am mostly interested
in seeing "extern" in front of all extern decls (not defns) from
human readers' point of view, though.

> I see you picked up my patch as jk/report-fn-typedef, but applied it
> directly on v2.28, and not on top of your "drop these extra externs"
> patch. That makes sense if we're not going to remove them, but then your
> conflict resolution shows my patch as removing them. :)

I think the patch rearranged that way shows why the new typedef
shines.

It makes it immediately recognisable that set_die_routine() and
friends are functions, not pointers to functions, and because the
reason why "extern" was in front of them was because the last person
who "cleaned up" the header failed to recoginise that they are
functions without the help from this new typedef.

All of that depends on the fact that everybody understands that the
current rule is not to write "extern" in front of external
declaration of functions, so perhaps we may want to update the log
message to mention why "extern" were removed from these two.

Thanks.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* Re: [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern"
  2020-10-15 17:15               ` Junio C Hamano
@ 2020-10-15 19:28                 ` Jeff King
  2020-10-15 19:30                   ` [PATCH v2 1/2] usage: define a type for a reporting function Jeff King
  2020-10-15 19:30                   ` [PATCH v2 2/2] config.mak.dev: build with -fno-common Jeff King
  0 siblings, 2 replies; 15+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2020-10-15 19:28 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: git, Denton Liu

On Thu, Oct 15, 2020 at 10:15:42AM -0700, Junio C Hamano wrote:

> > As others noted, gcc 10 actually does complain about this. And we can
> > easily stick -fno-common into the DEVELOPER knobs, if it's something we
> > want to catch (I had actually forgotten it wasn't the default).
> 
> Yup, that is a good thing to do regardless.  I am mostly interested
> in seeing "extern" in front of all extern decls (not defns) from
> human readers' point of view, though.

OK, patch incoming.

> > I see you picked up my patch as jk/report-fn-typedef, but applied it
> > directly on v2.28, and not on top of your "drop these extra externs"
> > patch. That makes sense if we're not going to remove them, but then your
> > conflict resolution shows my patch as removing them. :)
> 
> I think the patch rearranged that way shows why the new typedef
> shines.
> 
> It makes it immediately recognisable that set_die_routine() and
> friends are functions, not pointers to functions, and because the
> reason why "extern" was in front of them was because the last person
> who "cleaned up" the header failed to recoginise that they are
> functions without the help from this new typedef.
> 
> All of that depends on the fact that everybody understands that the
> current rule is not to write "extern" in front of external
> declaration of functions, so perhaps we may want to update the log
> message to mention why "extern" were removed from these two.

I added:

  Note that this also removes the "extern" from these declarations to
  match the surrounding functions. They were missed in 554544276a
  (*.[ch]: remove extern from function declarations using spatch,
  2019-04-29) presumably because of the unusual syntax.

which I think clarifies it.

Here's that patch re-rolled, plus the DEVELOPER one.

  [1/2]: usage: define a type for a reporting function
  [2/2]: config.mak.dev: build with -fno-common

 config.mak.dev    |  1 +
 git-compat-util.h | 12 +++++++-----
 usage.c           | 18 +++++++++---------
 3 files changed, 17 insertions(+), 14 deletions(-)

-Peff

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v2 1/2] usage: define a type for a reporting function
  2020-10-15 19:28                 ` Jeff King
@ 2020-10-15 19:30                   ` Jeff King
  2020-10-15 19:30                   ` [PATCH v2 2/2] config.mak.dev: build with -fno-common Jeff King
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 15+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2020-10-15 19:30 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: git, Denton Liu

The usage, die, warning, and error routines all work with a function
pointer that takes the message to be reported. We usually just mention
the function's full type inline. But this makes the use of these
pointers hard to read, especially because C's syntax for returning a
function pointer is so awful:

  void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *err, va_list params);

Unless you read it very carefully, this looks like a function pointer
declaration. Let's instead use a single typedef to define a reporting
function, which is the same for all four types.

Note that this also removes the "extern" from these declarations to
match the surrounding functions. They were missed in 554544276a (*.[ch]:
remove extern from function declarations using spatch, 2019-04-29)
presumably because of the unusual syntax.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
This replaces the tip of jk/report-fn-typedef.

 git-compat-util.h | 12 +++++++-----
 usage.c           | 18 +++++++++---------
 2 files changed, 16 insertions(+), 14 deletions(-)

diff --git a/git-compat-util.h b/git-compat-util.h
index 7a0fb7a045..adfea06897 100644
--- a/git-compat-util.h
+++ b/git-compat-util.h
@@ -489,11 +489,13 @@ static inline int const_error(void)
 #define error_errno(...) (error_errno(__VA_ARGS__), const_error())
 #endif
 
-void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
-void set_error_routine(void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
-extern void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *err, va_list params);
-void set_warn_routine(void (*routine)(const char *warn, va_list params));
-extern void (*get_warn_routine(void))(const char *warn, va_list params);
+typedef void (*report_fn)(const char *, va_list params);
+
+void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR report_fn routine);
+void set_error_routine(report_fn routine);
+report_fn get_error_routine(void);
+void set_warn_routine(report_fn routine);
+report_fn get_warn_routine(void);
 void set_die_is_recursing_routine(int (*routine)(void));
 
 int starts_with(const char *str, const char *prefix);
diff --git a/usage.c b/usage.c
index 58fb5fff5f..06665823a2 100644
--- a/usage.c
+++ b/usage.c
@@ -108,33 +108,33 @@ static int die_is_recursing_builtin(void)
 
 /* If we are in a dlopen()ed .so write to a global variable would segfault
  * (ugh), so keep things static. */
-static NORETURN_PTR void (*usage_routine)(const char *err, va_list params) = usage_builtin;
-static NORETURN_PTR void (*die_routine)(const char *err, va_list params) = die_builtin;
-static void (*error_routine)(const char *err, va_list params) = error_builtin;
-static void (*warn_routine)(const char *err, va_list params) = warn_builtin;
+static NORETURN_PTR report_fn usage_routine = usage_builtin;
+static NORETURN_PTR report_fn die_routine = die_builtin;
+static report_fn error_routine = error_builtin;
+static report_fn warn_routine = warn_builtin;
 static int (*die_is_recursing)(void) = die_is_recursing_builtin;
 
-void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params))
+void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR report_fn routine)
 {
 	die_routine = routine;
 }
 
-void set_error_routine(void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params))
+void set_error_routine(report_fn routine)
 {
 	error_routine = routine;
 }
 
-void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *err, va_list params)
+report_fn get_error_routine(void)
 {
 	return error_routine;
 }
 
-void set_warn_routine(void (*routine)(const char *warn, va_list params))
+void set_warn_routine(report_fn routine)
 {
 	warn_routine = routine;
 }
 
-void (*get_warn_routine(void))(const char *warn, va_list params)
+report_fn get_warn_routine(void)
 {
 	return warn_routine;
 }
-- 
2.29.0.rc1.562.g7bd9bc8902


^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

* [PATCH v2 2/2] config.mak.dev: build with -fno-common
  2020-10-15 19:28                 ` Jeff King
  2020-10-15 19:30                   ` [PATCH v2 1/2] usage: define a type for a reporting function Jeff King
@ 2020-10-15 19:30                   ` Jeff King
  1 sibling, 0 replies; 15+ messages in thread
From: Jeff King @ 2020-10-15 19:30 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Junio C Hamano; +Cc: git, Denton Liu

It's an easy mistake to define a variable in a header with "int x;" when
you really meant to only declare the variable as "extern int x;"
instead. Clang and gcc will both allow this when building with
"-fcommon"; they put these "tentative definitions" in a common block
which the linker is able to resolve.

This is the default in clang and was the default in gcc until gcc-10,
since it helps some legacy code. However, we would prefer not to rely on
this because:

  - using "extern" makes the intent more clear (so it's a style issue,
    but it's one the compiler can help us catch)

  - according to the gcc manpage, it may yield a speed and code size
    penalty

So let's build explicitly with -fno-common when the DEVELOPER knob is
set, which will let developers using clang and older versions of gcc
notice these problems.

I didn't bother making this conditional on a particular version of gcc.
As far as I know, this option has been available forever in both gcc and
clang, so old versions don't need to avoid it. And we already expect gcc
and clang options throughout config.mak.dev, so it's unlikely anybody
setting the DEVELOPER knob is using anything else. It's a noop on
gcc-10, of course, but it's not worth trying to exclude it there.

Note that there's nothing to fix in the code; we already don't have any
issues here. But if you want to test the patch, you can add a bare "int
x;" into cache.h, which will cause the link step to fail.

Signed-off-by: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
---
New in this version. It could be queued separately from the first.

 config.mak.dev | 1 +
 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+)

diff --git a/config.mak.dev b/config.mak.dev
index 89b218d11a..89fefacd94 100644
--- a/config.mak.dev
+++ b/config.mak.dev
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@ DEVELOPER_CFLAGS += -Wpointer-arith
 DEVELOPER_CFLAGS += -Wstrict-prototypes
 DEVELOPER_CFLAGS += -Wunused
 DEVELOPER_CFLAGS += -Wvla
+DEVELOPER_CFLAGS += -fno-common
 
 ifndef COMPILER_FEATURES
 COMPILER_FEATURES := $(shell ./detect-compiler $(CC))
-- 
2.29.0.rc1.562.g7bd9bc8902

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 15+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2020-10-15 19:30 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 15+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2020-10-08 15:27 [PATCH] clean up extern decl of functions Junio C Hamano
2020-10-09  1:55 ` Denton Liu
2020-10-09  2:47   ` Junio C Hamano
2020-10-09 19:26     ` Junio C Hamano
2020-10-09 19:27       ` [RFC] CodingGuidelines: mark external declarations with "extern" Junio C Hamano
2020-10-09 19:57         ` Jeff King
2020-10-09 20:33           ` Junio C Hamano
2020-10-09 23:00             ` Denton Liu
2020-10-09 23:05               ` Junio C Hamano
2020-10-10  0:37             ` Đoàn Trần Công Danh
2020-10-15  1:36             ` Jeff King
2020-10-15 17:15               ` Junio C Hamano
2020-10-15 19:28                 ` Jeff King
2020-10-15 19:30                   ` [PATCH v2 1/2] usage: define a type for a reporting function Jeff King
2020-10-15 19:30                   ` [PATCH v2 2/2] config.mak.dev: build with -fno-common Jeff King

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