From: "brian m. carlson" <email@example.com> To: <firstname.lastname@example.org> Cc: "Martin Ågren" <email@example.com> Subject: [PATCH 1/3] docs: explain why squash merges are broken with long-running branches Date: Sat, 12 Sep 2020 20:48:22 +0000 [thread overview] Message-ID: <firstname.lastname@example.org> (raw) In-Reply-To: <email@example.com> In many projects, squash merges are commonly used, primarily to keep a tidy history in the face of developers who do not use logically independent, bisectable commits. As common as this is, this tends to cause significant problems when squash merges are used to merge long-running branches due to the lack of any new merge bases. Even very experienced developers may make this mistakes, so let's add a FAQ entry explaining why this is problematic and explaining that regular merge commits should be used to merge two long-running branches. Signed-off-by: brian m. carlson <firstname.lastname@example.org> --- Documentation/gitfaq.txt | 33 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 1 file changed, 33 insertions(+) diff --git a/Documentation/gitfaq.txt b/Documentation/gitfaq.txt index 9cd7a592ac..550f4e30d6 100644 --- a/Documentation/gitfaq.txt +++ b/Documentation/gitfaq.txt @@ -241,6 +241,39 @@ How do I know if I want to do a fetch or a pull?:: ignore the upstream changes. A pull consists of a fetch followed immediately by either a merge or rebase. See linkgit:git-pull. +Merging and Rebasing +-------------------- + +[[long-running-squash-merge]] +What kinds of problems can occur when merging long-running branches with squash merges?:: + In general, there are a variety of problems that can occur when using squash + merges with long-running branches. These can include seeing extra commits in + `git log` output, with a GUI, or when using the `...` notation to express a + range, as well as the possibility of needing to re-resolve conflicts again and + again. ++ +When Git does a normal merge between two branches, it considers exactly three +points: the two branches and a third commit, called the _merge base_, which is +usually the common ancestor of the commits. The result of the merge is the sum +of the changes between the merge base and each head. When you merge two +long-running branches with a regular merge commit, this results in a new commit +which will end up as a merge base when they're merged again, because there is +now a new common ancestor. Git doesn't have to consider changes that occurred +before the merge base, so you don't have to re-resolve any conflicts you +resolved before. ++ +When you perform a squash merge, a merge commit isn't created; instead, the +changes from one side are applied as a regular commit to the other side. This +means that the merge base for these branches won't have changed, and so when Git +goes to perform its next merge, it considers all of the changes that it +considered the last time plus the new changes. That means any conflicts may +need to be re-resolved. Similarly, anything using the `...` notation in `git +diff`, `git log`, or a GUI will result in showing all of the changes since the +original merge base. ++ +As a consequence, if you want to merge two long-running branches, it's best to +always use a regular merge commit. + Hooks -----
next prev parent reply other threads:[~2020-09-12 20:52 UTC|newest] Thread overview: 13+ messages / expand[flat|nested] mbox.gz Atom feed top 2020-09-12 20:48 [PATCH 0/3] FAQ entries for merges and modified files brian m. carlson 2020-09-12 20:48 ` brian m. carlson [this message] 2020-09-13 15:05 ` [PATCH 1/3] docs: explain why squash merges are broken with long-running branches Martin Ågren 2020-09-13 17:12 ` brian m. carlson 2020-09-12 20:48 ` [PATCH 2/3] docs: explain why reverts are not always applied on merge brian m. carlson 2020-09-13 15:12 ` Martin Ågren 2020-09-12 20:48 ` [PATCH 3/3] docs: explain how to deal with files that are always modified brian m. carlson 2020-09-13 15:13 ` Martin Ågren 2020-09-12 21:48 ` [PATCH 0/3] FAQ entries for merges and modified files Junio C Hamano 2020-09-20 23:22 ` [PATCH v2 " brian m. carlson 2020-09-20 23:22 ` [PATCH v2 1/3] docs: explain why squash merges are broken with long-running branches brian m. carlson 2020-09-20 23:22 ` [PATCH v2 2/3] docs: explain why reverts are not always applied on merge brian m. carlson 2020-09-20 23:22 ` [PATCH v2 3/3] docs: explain how to deal with files that are always modified brian m. carlson
Reply instructions: You may reply publicly to this message via plain-text email using any one of the following methods: * Save the following mbox file, import it into your mail client, and reply-to-all from there: mbox Avoid top-posting and favor interleaved quoting: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posting_style#Interleaved_style List information: http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html * Reply using the --to, --cc, and --in-reply-to switches of git-send-email(1): git send-email \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --email@example.com \ --firstname.lastname@example.org \ --subject='Re: [PATCH 1/3] docs: explain why squash merges are broken with long-running branches' \ /path/to/YOUR_REPLY https://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-send-email.html * If your mail client supports setting the In-Reply-To header via mailto: links, try the mailto: link
Code repositories for project(s) associated with this inbox: https://80x24.org/mirrors/git.git This is a public inbox, see mirroring instructions for how to clone and mirror all data and code used for this inbox; as well as URLs for read-only IMAP folder(s) and NNTP newsgroup(s).