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Cc: Junio C Hamano <>,
	Eric Sunshine <>,
	Jonathan Nieder <>,
	"Theodore Y. Ts'o" <>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list
Date: Mon, 11 Mar 2019 02:04:36 -0700	[thread overview]
Message-ID: <20190311090436.brdk7un7dto7rrhh@localhost> (raw)
In-Reply-To: <>

Hey Git people,

I didn't get a reply and I'm not sure what the appropriate ping
interval is, or when I should conclude that no one is interested.

There seemed to be some vaguely positive feedback before I embarked on
this project. At the same time I don't want to pester anyone into
applying patches in a disorganized fashion.

I'm not subscribed to the mailing list so I apologize if I'm out of
tune with a release cycle or current development thrust.



On Thu, Feb 21, 2019 at 10:05:22AM -0800, wrote:
>I realized that it would probably be easier to discuss this proposal
>if I attached the final command listing and the rendered manual page.
>Please find them attached to this message.
>Thank you,
>On Tue, Feb 19, 2019 at 09:54:12AM -0800, Frederick Eaton wrote:
>>This is a follow-up to my proposal to de-alphabetize the command
>>listings in the git(1) manual page, from 6 July 2018.
>>Some projects have manual page items listed in alphabetical order,
>>some don't. As I argued in my proposal, I find it easier to learn from
>>material which is not alphabetized. If this patch is accepted, I hope
>>that it will make the Git documentation more accessible to myself and
>>I produced the reordered command list in this patch using several
>>sources, as indicated by comments in the new command-list.txt file.
>>First, all the commands in the main part of "gittutorial(7)" appear in
>>order, then the commands in giteveryday(7). Then appear additional
>>commands from a friend's shell history, in reverse order of frequency.
>>Then gittutorial-2(7), then gitcore-tutorial(7). After that there is a
>>list of "guides", followed by about 100 commands not appearing in the
>>earlier lists. I kept the guides and the remaining commands in their
>>category groupings (guide, mainporcelain, ancillarymanipulators,
>>etc.), but ordered the commands within each category according to my
>>own judgment after skimming each manual page.
>>To verify that the new list is a permutation of the most recent list,
>>I use the following command (it should produce no output and exit 0):
>>   diff <(git show master:command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort ) <(cat command-list.txt | grep -v '^#' | sort)
>>Note this patch changes the order of commands appearing in the
>>generated file "command-list.h", which mostly seems to be used by
>>"help.c". Probably due to the various occurrences of QSORT in
>>"help.c", I think this reordering has no visible effect. I am willing
>>to do any additional testing which may be recommended to ensure that
>>this patch has no undesired consequences.
>>Frederick Eaton (1):
>> Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt.
>>   Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl.
>>Documentation/cmd-list.perl |   2 +-
>>command-list.txt            | 295 +++++++++++++++++++-----------------
>>2 files changed, 158 insertions(+), 139 deletions(-)

># Command classification list
># ---------------------------
># All supported commands, builtin or external, must be described in
># here. This info is used to list commands in various places. Each
># command is on one line followed by one or more attributes.
># The first attribute group is mandatory and indicates the command
># type. This group includes:
>#   mainporcelain
>#   ancillarymanipulators
>#   ancillaryinterrogators
>#   foreignscminterface
>#   plumbingmanipulators
>#   plumbinginterrogators
>#   synchingrepositories
>#   synchelpers
>#   purehelpers
># The type names are self explanatory. But if you want to see what
># command belongs to what group to get a better picture, have a look
># at "git" man page, "GIT COMMANDS" section.
># Commands of type mainporcelain can also optionally have one of these
># attributes:
>#   init
>#   worktree
>#   info
>#   history
>#   remote
># These commands are considered "common" and will show up in "git
># help" output in groups. Uncommon porcelain commands must not
># specify any of these attributes.
># "complete" attribute is used to mark that the command should be
># completable by git-completion.bash. Note that by default,
># mainporcelain commands are completable so you don't need this
># attribute.
># As part of the Git man page list, the man(5/7) guides are also
># specified here, which can only have "guide" attribute and nothing
># else.
># February 2019: This list had been sorted alphabetically but has been
># reordered to make it easier for people to learn from the main git(1)
># manual page. The new ordering is according to approximate usefulness
># / frequency of use / order of use, with some grouping by topic. The
># idea is to make it possible to read the manual page from beginning
># to end and see the most important commands first, rather than
># getting them in alphabetical order - in other words, to make the
># manual page more like a table of contents and less like an index.
># Please consider this when adding new commands.
>### command list (do not change this line, also do not change alignment)
># command name                          category [category] [category]
># From gittutorial
>git-help                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-config                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-clone                               mainporcelain           init
>git-init                                mainporcelain           init
>git-add                                 mainporcelain           worktree
>git-commit                              mainporcelain           history
>git-diff                                mainporcelain           history
>git-status                              mainporcelain           info
>git-log                                 mainporcelain           info
>git-branch                              mainporcelain           history
>git-checkout                            mainporcelain           history
>git-merge                               mainporcelain           history
>gitk                                    mainporcelain
>git-pull                                mainporcelain           remote
>git-fetch                               mainporcelain           remote
># From tutorial NEXT STEPS
>git-format-patch                        mainporcelain
>git-bisect                              mainporcelain           info
>giteveryday                             guide
>gitworkflows                            guide
>gitcvs-migration                        guide
># From giteveryday
>git-reset                               mainporcelain           worktree
>git-rebase                              mainporcelain           history
>git-tag                                 mainporcelain           history
>git-push                                mainporcelain           remote
>git-send-email                          foreignscminterface             complete
>git-request-pull                        foreignscminterface             complete
>git-am                                  mainporcelain
>git-revert                              mainporcelain
>git-daemon                              synchingrepositories
>git-shell                               synchelpers
>git-http-backend                        synchingrepositories
>gitweb                                  ancillaryinterrogators
># From user feedback
>git-grep                                mainporcelain           info
>git-show                                mainporcelain           info
>git-submodule                           mainporcelain
>git-cherry-pick                         mainporcelain
>git-clean                               mainporcelain
># From gittutorial-2
>git-cat-file                            plumbinginterrogators
>git-ls-tree                             plumbinginterrogators
>git-ls-files                            plumbinginterrogators
>gitcore-tutorial                        guide
>gitglossary                             guide
># From gitcore-tutorial
>git-update-index                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-diff-files                          plumbinginterrogators
>git-write-tree                          plumbingmanipulators
>git-read-tree                           plumbingmanipulators
>git-checkout-index                      plumbingmanipulators
>git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
>git-merge-index                         plumbingmanipulators
>git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-prune-packed                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-update-server-info                  synchingrepositories
>git-prune                               ancillarymanipulators
>git-cherry                              plumbinginterrogators          complete
># Guides, reordered
>gittutorial                             guide
>gittutorial-2                           guide
>gitrevisions                            guide
>gitignore                               guide
>gitcli                                  guide
>gitrepository-layout                    guide
>gitdiffcore                             guide
>gitmodules                              guide
>githooks                                guide
>gitnamespaces                           guide
>gitattributes                           guide
># All other commands, sorted by man page category and then by
># approximate priority
>git-stash                               mainporcelain
>git-rm                                  mainporcelain           worktree
>git-mv                                  mainporcelain           worktree
>git-gui                                 mainporcelain
>git-citool                              mainporcelain
>git-archive                             mainporcelain
>git-shortlog                            mainporcelain
>git-describe                            mainporcelain
>git-gc                                  mainporcelain
>git-notes                               mainporcelain
>git-worktree                            mainporcelain
>git-bundle                              mainporcelain
>git-range-diff                          mainporcelain
>git-stage                                                               complete
>git-reflog                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-remote                              ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-mergetool                           ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-filter-branch                       ancillarymanipulators
>git-replace                             ancillarymanipulators           complete
>git-fast-export                         ancillarymanipulators
>git-fast-import                         ancillarymanipulators
>git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
>git-cvsimport                           foreignscminterface
>git-cvsserver                           foreignscminterface
>git-cvsexportcommit                     foreignscminterface
>git-svn                                 foreignscminterface
>git-p4                                  foreignscminterface
>git-quiltimport                         foreignscminterface
>git-archimport                          foreignscminterface
>git-imap-send                           foreignscminterface
>git-apply                               plumbingmanipulators            complete
>git-merge-file                          plumbingmanipulators
>git-mktag                               plumbingmanipulators
>git-hash-object                         plumbingmanipulators
>git-update-ref                          plumbingmanipulators
>git-symbolic-ref                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-commit-tree                         plumbingmanipulators
>git-commit-graph                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-mktree                              plumbingmanipulators
>git-pack-objects                        plumbingmanipulators
>git-unpack-objects                      plumbingmanipulators
>git-index-pack                          plumbingmanipulators
>git-multi-pack-index                    plumbingmanipulators
>git-blame                               ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-annotate                            ancillaryinterrogators
>git-instaweb                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-rerere                              ancillaryinterrogators
>git-fsck                                ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-whatchanged                         ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-difftool                            ancillaryinterrogators          complete
>git-merge-tree                          ancillaryinterrogators
>git-count-objects                       ancillaryinterrogators
>git-verify-commit                       ancillaryinterrogators
>git-verify-tag                          ancillaryinterrogators
>git-send-pack                           synchingrepositories
>git-fetch-pack                          synchingrepositories
>git-parse-remote                        synchelpers
>git-receive-pack                        synchelpers
>git-upload-pack                         synchelpers
>git-upload-archive                      synchelpers
>git-http-fetch                          synchelpers
>git-http-push                           synchelpers
>git-var                                 plumbinginterrogators
>git-rev-list                            plumbinginterrogators
>git-rev-parse                           plumbinginterrogators
>git-for-each-ref                        plumbinginterrogators
>git-show-ref                            plumbinginterrogators
>git-ls-remote                           plumbinginterrogators
>git-diff-tree                           plumbinginterrogators
>git-diff-index                          plumbinginterrogators
>git-merge-base                          plumbinginterrogators
>git-verify-pack                         plumbinginterrogators
>git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
>git-unpack-file                         plumbinginterrogators
>git-show-index                          plumbinginterrogators
>git-get-tar-commit-id                   plumbinginterrogators
>git-merge-one-file                      purehelpers
>git-sh-setup                            purehelpers
>git-check-ref-format                    purehelpers
>git-check-ignore                        purehelpers
>git-check-attr                          purehelpers
>git-credential                          purehelpers
>git-credential-cache                    purehelpers
>git-credential-store                    purehelpers
>git-fmt-merge-msg                       purehelpers
>git-check-mailmap                       purehelpers
>git-mailsplit                           purehelpers
>git-mailinfo                            purehelpers
>git-interpret-trailers                  purehelpers
>git-column                              purehelpers
>git-stripspace                          purehelpers
>git-patch-id                            purehelpers
>git-sh-i18n                             purehelpers

>GIT(1)                            Git Manual                            GIT(1)
>       git - the stupid content tracker
>       git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
>           [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
>           [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
>           [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
>           [--super-prefix=<path>]
>           <command> [<args>]
>       Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
>       unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and
>       full access to internals.
>       See gittutorial(7) to get started, then see giteveryday(7) for a useful
>       minimum set of commands. The Git User's Manual[1] has a more in-depth
>       introduction.
>       After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page
>       to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual
>       Git commands with "git help command". gitcli(7) manual page gives you
>       an overview of the command-line command syntax.
>       A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can be
>       viewed at
>       --version
>           Prints the Git suite version that the git program came from.
>       --help
>           Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used commands.
>           If the option --all or -a is given then all available commands are
>           printed. If a Git command is named this option will bring up the
>           manual page for that command.
>           Other options are available to control how the manual page is
>           displayed. See git-help(1) for more information, because git --help
>           ...  is converted internally into git help ....
>       -C <path>
>           Run as if git was started in <path> instead of the current working
>           directory. When multiple -C options are given, each subsequent
>           non-absolute -C <path> is interpreted relative to the preceding -C
>           <path>.
>           This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir
>           and --work-tree in that their interpretations of the path names
>           would be made relative to the working directory caused by the -C
>           option. For example the following invocations are equivalent:
>               git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
>               git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
>       -c <name>=<value>
>           Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value given will
>           override values from configuration files. The <name> is expected in
>           the same format as listed by git config (subkeys separated by
>           dots).
>           Note that omitting the = in git -c ...  is allowed and sets
>  to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar would in a
>           config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like
>           git -c ...) sets to the empty string which git
>           config --type=bool will convert to false.
>       --exec-path[=<path>]
>           Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed. This can
>           also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH environment
>           variable. If no path is given, git will print the current setting
>           and then exit.
>       --html-path
>           Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
>           documentation is installed and exit.
>       --man-path
>           Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the man pages for this version
>           of Git and exit.
>       --info-path
>           Print the path where the Info files documenting this version of Git
>           are installed and exit.
>       -p, --paginate
>           Pipe all output into less (or if set, $PAGER) if standard output is
>           a terminal. This overrides the pager.<cmd> configuration options
>           (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section below).
>       -P, --no-pager
>           Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
>       --git-dir=<path>
>           Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
>           setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
>           path or relative path to current working directory.
>       --work-tree=<path>
>           Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path or a
>           path relative to the current working directory. This can also be
>           controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and
>           the core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in git-
>           config(1) for a more detailed discussion).
>       --namespace=<path>
>           Set the Git namespace. See gitnamespaces(7) for more details.
>           Equivalent to setting the GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.
>       --super-prefix=<path>
>           Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path
>           from above a repository down to its root. One use is to give
>           submodules context about the superproject that invoked it.
>       --bare
>           Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR environment
>           is not set, it is set to the current working directory.
>       --no-replace-objects
>           Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See git-
>           replace(1) for more information.
>       --literal-pathspecs
>           Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
>           This is equivalent to setting the GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment
>           variable to 1.
>       --glob-pathspecs
>           Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting the
>           GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Disabling globbing on
>           individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic ":(literal)"
>       --noglob-pathspecs
>           Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
>           the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1. Enabling
>           globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec magic
>           ":(glob)"
>       --icase-pathspecs
>           Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
>           the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.
>       --no-optional-locks
>           Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
>           equivalent to setting the GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS to 0.
>       --list-cmds=group[,group...]
>           List commands by group. This is an internal/experimental option and
>           may change or be removed in the future. Supported groups are:
>           builtins, parseopt (builtin commands that use parse-options), main
>           (all commands in libexec directory), others (all other commands in
>           $PATH that have git- prefix), list-<category> (see categories in
>           command-list.txt), nohelpers (exclude helper commands), alias and
>           config (retrieve command list from config variable
>           completion.commands)
>       We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
>       ("plumbing") commands.
>       We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
>       ancillary user utilities.
>   Main porcelain commands
>       git-clone(1)
>           Clone a repository into a new directory.
>       git-init(1)
>           Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one.
>       git-add(1)
>           Add file contents to the index.
>       git-commit(1)
>           Record changes to the repository.
>       git-diff(1)
>           Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
>       git-status(1)
>           Show the working tree status.
>       git-log(1)
>           Show commit logs.
>       git-branch(1)
>           List, create, or delete branches.
>       git-checkout(1)
>           Switch branches or restore working tree files.
>       git-merge(1)
>           Join two or more development histories together.
>       gitk(1)
>           The Git repository browser.
>       git-pull(1)
>           Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch.
>       git-fetch(1)
>           Download objects and refs from another repository.
>       git-format-patch(1)
>           Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
>       git-bisect(1)
>           Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug.
>       git-reset(1)
>           Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
>       git-rebase(1)
>           Reapply commits on top of another base tip.
>       git-tag(1)
>           Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG.
>       git-push(1)
>           Update remote refs along with associated objects.
>       git-am(1)
>           Apply a series of patches from a mailbox.
>       git-revert(1)
>           Revert some existing commits.
>       git-grep(1)
>           Print lines matching a pattern.
>       git-show(1)
>           Show various types of objects.
>       git-submodule(1)
>           Initialize, update or inspect submodules.
>       git-cherry-pick(1)
>           Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits.
>       git-clean(1)
>           Remove untracked files from the working tree.
>       git-stash(1)
>           Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away.
>       git-rm(1)
>           Remove files from the working tree and from the index.
>       git-mv(1)
>           Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
>       git-gui(1)
>           A portable graphical interface to Git.
>       git-citool(1)
>           Graphical alternative to git-commit.
>       git-archive(1)
>           Create an archive of files from a named tree.
>       git-shortlog(1)
>           Summarize git log output.
>       git-describe(1)
>           Give an object a human readable name based on an available ref.
>       git-gc(1)
>           Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository.
>       git-notes(1)
>           Add or inspect object notes.
>       git-worktree(1)
>           Manage multiple working trees.
>       git-bundle(1)
>           Move objects and refs by archive.
>       git-range-diff(1)
>           Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch).
>   Ancillary Commands
>       Manipulators:
>       git-config(1)
>           Get and set repository or global options.
>       git-repack(1)
>           Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
>       git-prune(1)
>           Prune all unreachable objects from the object database.
>       git-reflog(1)
>           Manage reflog information.
>       git-remote(1)
>           Manage set of tracked repositories.
>       git-mergetool(1)
>           Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts.
>       git-filter-branch(1)
>           Rewrite branches.
>       git-replace(1)
>           Create, list, delete refs to replace objects.
>       git-fast-export(1)
>           Git data exporter.
>       git-fast-import(1)
>           Backend for fast Git data importers.
>       git-pack-refs(1)
>           Pack heads and tags for efficient repository access.
>       Interrogators:
>       git-help(1)
>           Display help information about Git.
>       gitweb(1)
>           Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories).
>       git-show-branch(1)
>           Show branches and their commits.
>       git-blame(1)
>           Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file.
>       git-annotate(1)
>           Annotate file lines with commit information.
>       git-instaweb(1)
>           Instantly browse your working repository in gitweb.
>       git-rerere(1)
>           Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted merges.
>       git-fsck(1)
>           Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the
>           database.
>       git-whatchanged(1)
>           Show logs with difference each commit introduces.
>       git-difftool(1)
>           Show changes using common diff tools.
>       git-merge-tree(1)
>           Show three-way merge without touching index.
>       git-count-objects(1)
>           Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
>       git-verify-commit(1)
>           Check the GPG signature of commits.
>       git-verify-tag(1)
>           Check the GPG signature of tags.
>   Interacting with Others
>       These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people
>       via patch over e-mail.
>       git-send-email(1)
>           Send a collection of patches as emails.
>       git-request-pull(1)
>           Generates a summary of pending changes.
>       git-cvsimport(1)
>           Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
>       git-cvsserver(1)
>           A CVS server emulator for Git.
>       git-cvsexportcommit(1)
>           Export a single commit to a CVS checkout.
>       git-svn(1)
>           Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git.
>       git-p4(1)
>           Import from and submit to Perforce repositories.
>       git-quiltimport(1)
>           Applies a quilt patchset onto the current branch.
>       git-archimport(1)
>           Import a GNU Arch repository into Git.
>       git-imap-send(1)
>           Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder.
>       Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands
>       are sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains.
>       Developers of such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-
>       index(1) and git-read-tree(1).
>       The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to
>       these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than
>       Porcelain level commands, because these commands are primarily for
>       scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands on the other hand are
>       subject to change in order to improve the end user experience.
>       The following description divides the low-level commands into commands
>       that manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree),
>       commands that interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move
>       objects and references between repositories.
>   Manipulation commands
>       git-update-index(1)
>           Register file contents in the working tree to the index.
>       git-write-tree(1)
>           Create a tree object from the current index.
>       git-read-tree(1)
>           Reads tree information into the index.
>       git-checkout-index(1)
>           Copy files from the index to the working tree.
>       git-merge-index(1)
>           Run a merge for files needing merging.
>       git-prune-packed(1)
>           Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
>       git-apply(1)
>           Apply a patch to files and/or to the index.
>       git-merge-file(1)
>           Run a three-way file merge.
>       git-mktag(1)
>           Creates a tag object.
>       git-hash-object(1)
>           Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.
>       git-update-ref(1)
>           Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
>       git-symbolic-ref(1)
>           Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.
>       git-commit-tree(1)
>           Create a new commit object.
>       git-commit-graph(1)
>           Write and verify Git commit-graph files.
>       git-mktree(1)
>           Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted text.
>       git-pack-objects(1)
>           Create a packed archive of objects.
>       git-unpack-objects(1)
>           Unpack objects from a packed archive.
>       git-index-pack(1)
>           Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.
>       git-multi-pack-index(1)
>           Write and verify multi-pack-indexes.
>   Interrogation commands
>       git-cat-file(1)
>           Provide content or type and size information for repository
>           objects.
>       git-ls-tree(1)
>           List the contents of a tree object.
>       git-ls-files(1)
>           Show information about files in the index and the working tree.
>       git-diff-files(1)
>           Compares files in the working tree and the index.
>       git-name-rev(1)
>           Find symbolic names for given revs.
>       git-cherry(1)
>           Find commits yet to be applied to upstream.
>       git-var(1)
>           Show a Git logical variable.
>       git-rev-list(1)
>           Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order.
>       git-rev-parse(1)
>           Pick out and massage parameters.
>       git-for-each-ref(1)
>           Output information on each ref.
>       git-show-ref(1)
>           List references in a local repository.
>       git-ls-remote(1)
>           List references in a remote repository.
>       git-diff-tree(1)
>           Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects.
>       git-diff-index(1)
>           Compare a tree to the working tree or index.
>       git-merge-base(1)
>           Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge.
>       git-verify-pack(1)
>           Validate packed Git archive files.
>       git-pack-redundant(1)
>           Find redundant pack files.
>       git-unpack-file(1)
>           Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents.
>       git-show-index(1)
>           Show packed archive index.
>       git-get-tar-commit-id(1)
>           Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-archive.
>       In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the
>       working tree.
>   Synching repositories
>       git-daemon(1)
>           A really simple server for Git repositories.
>       git-http-backend(1)
>           Server side implementation of Git over HTTP.
>       git-update-server-info(1)
>           Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers.
>       git-send-pack(1)
>           Push objects over Git protocol to another repository.
>       git-fetch-pack(1)
>           Receive missing objects from another repository.
>       The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
>       typically do not use them directly.
>       git-shell(1)
>           Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access.
>       git-parse-remote(1)
>           Routines to help parsing remote repository access parameters.
>       git-receive-pack(1)
>           Receive what is pushed into the repository.
>       git-upload-pack(1)
>           Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack.
>       git-upload-archive(1)
>           Send archive back to git-archive.
>       git-http-fetch(1)
>           Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP.
>       git-http-push(1)
>           Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another repository.
>   Internal helper commands
>       These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users
>       typically do not use them directly.
>       git-merge-one-file(1)
>           The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index.
>       git-sh-setup(1)
>           Common Git shell script setup code.
>       git-check-ref-format(1)
>           Ensures that a reference name is well formed.
>       git-check-ignore(1)
>           Debug gitignore / exclude files.
>       git-check-attr(1)
>           Display gitattributes information.
>       git-credential(1)
>           Retrieve and store user credentials.
>       git-credential-cache(1)
>           Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory.
>       git-credential-store(1)
>           Helper to store credentials on disk.
>       git-fmt-merge-msg(1)
>           Produce a merge commit message.
>       git-check-mailmap(1)
>           Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts.
>       git-mailsplit(1)
>           Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
>       git-mailinfo(1)
>           Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message.
>       git-interpret-trailers(1)
>           add or parse structured information in commit messages.
>       git-column(1)
>           Display data in columns.
>       git-stripspace(1)
>           Remove unnecessary whitespace.
>       git-patch-id(1)
>           Compute unique ID for a patch.
>       git-sh-i18n(1)
>           Git's i18n setup code for shell scripts.
>       Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
>       repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like
>       this:
>           #
>           # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
>           #
>           ; core variables
>           [core]
>                   ; Don't trust file modes
>                   filemode = false
>           ; user identity
>           [user]
>                   name = "Junio C Hamano"
>                   email = ""
>       Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their
>       operation accordingly. See git-config(1) for a list and more details
>       about the configuration mechanism.
>       <object>
>           Indicates the object name for any type of object.
>       <blob>
>           Indicates a blob object name.
>       <tree>
>           Indicates a tree object name.
>       <commit>
>           Indicates a commit object name.
>       <tree-ish>
>           Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
>           <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <tree> object
>           but automatically dereferences <commit> and <tag> objects that
>           point at a <tree>.
>       <commit-ish>
>           Indicates a commit or tag object name. A command that takes a
>           <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on a <commit>
>           object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects that point at a
>           <commit>.
>       <type>
>           Indicates that an object type is required. Currently one of: blob,
>           tree, commit, or tag.
>       <file>
>           Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the root of the
>           tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
>       Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
>       symbolic notation:
>       HEAD
>           indicates the head of the current branch.
>       <tag>
>           a valid tag name (i.e. a refs/tags/<tag> reference).
>       <head>
>           a valid head name (i.e. a refs/heads/<head> reference).
>       For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
>       REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions(7).
>       Please see the gitrepository-layout(5) document.
>       Read githooks(5) for more details about each hook.
>       Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
>       $GIT_DIR.
>       Please see gitglossary(7).
>       Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
>   The Git Repository
>       These environment variables apply to all core Git commands. Nb: it is
>       worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git
>       so take care if using a foreign front-end.
>           This environment allows the specification of an alternate index
>           file. If not specified, the default of $GIT_DIR/index is used.
>           This environment variable allows the specification of an index
>           version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index files.
>           By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See git-update-
>           index(1) for more information.
>           If the object storage directory is specified via this environment
>           variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
>           otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.
>           Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
>           archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
>           specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list of Git
>           object directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New
>           objects will not be written to these directories.
>           Entries that begin with " (double-quote) will be interpreted as
>           C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing double-quotes
>           and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
>           "path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path has two paths:
>           path-with-"-and-:-in-it and vanilla-path.
>       GIT_DIR
>           If the GIT_DIR environment variable is set then it specifies a path
>           to use instead of the default .git for the base of the repository.
>           The --git-dir command-line option also sets this value.
>           Set the path to the root of the working tree. This can also be
>           controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and the
>           core.worktree configuration variable.
>           Set the Git namespace; see gitnamespaces(7) for details. The
>           --namespace command-line option also sets this value.
>           This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If set, it
>           is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up into while
>           looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
>           slow-loading network directories). It will not exclude the current
>           working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the
>           environment. Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and
>           resolve any symlink that might be present in order to compare them
>           with the current directory. However, if even this access is slow,
>           you can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
>           subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved; e.g.,
>           GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink.
>           When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
>           directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
>           directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
>           does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can
>           be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries.
>           Like GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit
>           repository directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.
>           If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
>           normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path instead.
>           Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from
>           $GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
>           details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
>           variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
>   Git Commits
>           see git-commit-tree(1)
>   Git Diffs
>           Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the number of
>           context lines shown when a unified diff is created. This takes
>           precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option value passed on the
>           Git diff command line.
>           When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the program
>           named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation described
>           above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
>           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 7 parameters:
>               path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
>           where:
>       <old|new>-file
>           are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the contents of
>           <old|new>,
>       <old|new>-hex
>           are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
>       <old|new>-mode
>           are the octal representation of the file modes.
>           The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g.
>           new-file in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null (e.g.  old-file when a new
>           file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.  old-file in the index).
>           GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about unlinking the temporary
>           file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.
>           For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with 1
>           parameter, <path>.
>           For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called, two environment
>           variables, GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER and GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL are set.
>           A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
>           The total number of paths.
>   other
>           A number controlling the amount of output shown by the recursive
>           merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See git-merge(1)
>       GIT_PAGER
>           This environment variable overrides $PAGER. If it is set to an
>           empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch a pager.
>           See also the core.pager option in git-config(1).
>       GIT_EDITOR
>           This environment variable overrides $EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used
>           by several Git commands when, on interactive mode, an editor is to
>           be launched. See also git-var(1) and the core.editor option in git-
>           config(1).
>           If either of these environment variables is set then git fetch and
>           git push will use the specified command instead of ssh when they
>           need to connect to a remote system. The command-line parameters
>           passed to the configured command are determined by the ssh variant.
>           See ssh.variant option in git-config(1) for details.
>       + $GIT_SSH_COMMAND takes precedence over $GIT_SSH, and is interpreted
>       by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
>       $GIT_SSH on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which
>       can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).
>       + Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
>       personal .ssh/config file. Please consult your ssh documentation for
>       further details.
>           If this environment variable is set, it overrides Git's
>           autodetection whether GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/core.sshCommand refer
>           to OpenSSH, plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the
>           config setting ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.
>           If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need
>           to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
>           authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as
>           command-line argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See
>           also the core.askPass option in git-config(1).
>           If this environment variable is set to 0, git will not prompt on
>           the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
>           Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
>           $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can be used
>           along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a predictable
>           environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
>           avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone
>           with sufficient permissions to fix it.
>       GIT_FLUSH
>           If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such as
>           git blame (in incremental mode), git rev-list, git log, git
>           check-attr and git check-ignore will force a flush of the output
>           stream after each record have been flushed. If this variable is set
>           to "0", the output of these commands will be done using completely
>           buffered I/O. If this environment variable is not set, Git will
>           choose buffered or record-oriented flushing based on whether stdout
>           appears to be redirected to a file or not.
>       GIT_TRACE
>           Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
>           command execution and external command execution.
>           If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison is case
>           insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.
>           If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower
>           than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open
>           file descriptor and will try to write the trace messages into this
>           file descriptor.
>           Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting
>           with a / character), Git will interpret this as a file path and
>           will try to append the trace messages to it.
>           Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or "false"
>           (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
>           Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension. See
>           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
>           Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
>           access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is recorded.
>           This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related
>           performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
>           options.
>           Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a given
>           program. This can help with debugging object negotiation or other
>           protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with
>           "PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See GIT_TRACE for
>           available trace output options.
>           Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a given program.
>           Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no headers, and
>           no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct into
>           a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack) rather than
>           displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
>           Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of
>           clones and fetches.
>           Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
>           time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
>           options.
>           Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
>           working directory after Git has completed its setup phase. See
>           GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
>           Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching / cloning
>           of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
>           options.
>           Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
>           including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
>           This is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command line.
>           This option overrides setting the GIT_CURL_VERBOSE environment
>           variable. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
>           When a curl trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), do not
>           dump data (that is, only dump info lines and headers).
>           This can be set to a comma-separated list of strings. When a curl
>           trace is enabled (see GIT_TRACE_CURL above), whenever a "Cookies:"
>           header sent by the client is dumped, values of cookies whose key is
>           in that list (case-sensitive) are redacted.
>           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs
>           literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example, running
>           GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search for commits
>           that touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob *.c matches.
>           You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to Git (e.g.,
>           paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw diff output,
>           etc).
>           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
>           glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
>           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
>           literal (aka "literal" magic).
>           Setting this variable to 1 will cause Git to treat all pathspecs as
>           case-insensitive.
>           When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep track of
>           the reason why the ref was updated (which is typically the name of
>           the high-level command that updated the ref), in addition to the
>           old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command can use
>           set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its name
>           to this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
>           end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
>           If set to 1, include broken or badly named refs when iterating over
>           lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this does
>           nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and abort some
>           operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable
>           automatically when performing destructive operations like git-
>           prune(1). You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to
>           be paranoid about making sure an operation has touched every ref
>           (e.g., because you are cloning a repository to make a backup).
>           If set to a colon-separated list of protocols, behave as if
>           protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the listed protocols
>           has protocol.<name>.allow set to always (overriding any existing
>           configuration). In other words, any protocol not mentioned will be
>           disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See the
>           description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more details.
>           Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by fetch/push/clone which are
>           configured to the user state. This is useful to restrict recursive
>           submodule initialization from an untrusted repository or for
>           programs which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
>           git-config(1) for more details.
>           For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
>           Contains a colon : separated list of keys with optional values
>           key[=value]. Presence of unknown keys and values must be ignored.
>           If set to 0, Git will complete any requested operation without
>           performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a lock.
>           For example, this will prevent git status from refreshing the index
>           as a side effect. This is useful for processes running in the
>           background which do not want to cause lock contention with other
>           operations on the repository. Defaults to 1.
>           Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
>           handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
>           particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
>           canonical way to pass standard handles via CreateProcess() is not
>           an option because it would require the handles to be marked
>           inheritable (and consequently every spawned process would inherit
>           them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The primary
>           intended use case is to use named pipes for communication (e.g.
>           \\.\pipe\my-git-stdin-123).
>           Two special values are supported: off will simply close the
>           corresponding standard handle, and if GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR is 2>&1,
>           standard error will be redirected to the same handle as standard
>           output.
>       GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS (deprecated)
>           If set to yes, print an ellipsis following an (abbreviated) SHA-1
>           value. This affects indications of detached HEADs (git-checkout(1))
>           and the raw diff output (git-diff(1)). Printing an ellipsis in the
>           cases mentioned is no longer considered adequate and support for it
>           is likely to be removed in the foreseeable future (along with the
>           variable).
>       More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter
>       of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7).
>       A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
>       subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
>       things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
>       of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
>       contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
>       as tags and branch heads.
>       The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
>       hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
>       directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
>       and some number of parent commits.
>       The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
>       "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
>       represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
>       parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
>       All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
>       written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
>       The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
>       just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
>       purpose.
>       When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
>       efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
>       Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
>       may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref.
>       Refs with names beginning ref/head/ contain the SHA-1 name of the most
>       recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
>       tags of interest are stored under ref/tags/. A special ref named HEAD
>       contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
>       The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
>       path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
>       the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
>       attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
>       corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
>       working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
>       be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
>       content stored in the index.
>       The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
>       for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
>       unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
>       See the references in the "description" section to get started using
>       Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a
>       first-time user.
>       The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual[2] and gitcore-tutorial(7)
>       both provide introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
>       See gitworkflows(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.
>       See also the howto[3] documents for some useful examples.
>       The internals are documented in the Git API documentation[4].
>       Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration(7).
>       Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
>       C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
>       <[5]>.
> gives you a more
>       complete list of contributors.
>       If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog(1)
>       and git-blame(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the
>       project.
>       Report bugs to the Git mailing list <[5]> where the
>       development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
>       subscribed to the list to send a message there. See the list archive at
> for previous bug reports and other
>       discussions.
>       Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to the
>       Git Security mailing list <[6]>.
>       gittutorial(7), gittutorial-2(7), giteveryday(7), gitcvs-migration(7),
>       gitglossary(7), gitcore-tutorial(7), gitcli(7), The Git User's
>       Manual[1], gitworkflows(7)
>       Part of the git(1) suite
>        1. Git User's Manual
>           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html
>        2. Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
>           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/user-manual.html#git-concepts
>        3. howto
>           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/howto-index.html
>        4. Git API documentation
>           file:///home/frederik/share/doc/git-doc/technical/api-index.html
>        5.
>        6.
>Git 2.21.0.rc1.9.g3f              02/18/2019                            GIT(1)

  reply	other threads:[~2019-03-11  9:04 UTC|newest]

Thread overview: 17+ messages / expand[flat|nested]  mbox.gz  Atom feed  top
2018-07-06 20:04 de-alphabetizing the documentation frederik
2018-07-06 21:16 ` Jonathan Nieder
2018-07-06 21:18   ` Jonathan Nieder
2018-07-06 23:21     ` frederik
2018-07-06 23:47       ` Jonathan Nieder
2018-07-08  1:09         ` frederik
2018-07-24 19:52           ` frederik
2018-07-24 21:11             ` Jonathan Nieder
2018-08-11  2:30               ` frederik
2018-08-13 18:17                 ` Junio C Hamano
2019-02-19 17:54                   ` [PATCH 0/1] de-alphabetize command list Frederick Eaton
2019-02-21 18:05                     ` frederik
2019-03-11  9:04                       ` frederik [this message]
2019-03-11 14:38                         ` Jacob Keller
2019-02-19 17:54                   ` [PATCH] Prioritize list of commands appearing in git(1), via command-list.txt. Don't invoke 'sort' in Documentation/cmd-list.perl Frederick Eaton
2018-07-07  4:25       ` de-alphabetizing the documentation Theodore Y. Ts'o
2018-07-06 21:32   ` Eric Sunshine

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