git@vger.kernel.org list mirror (unofficial, one of many)
 help / color / Atom feed
1d628baf3194426922aa0555650a26361e42684f blob 38335 bytes (raw)

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
 
Core GIT Tests
==============

This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools.  The
first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
and read their output.

When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
trying to fix or enhance.  The later part of this short document
describes how your test scripts should be organized.


Running Tests
-------------

The easiest way to run tests is to say "make".  This runs all
the tests.

    *** t0000-basic.sh ***
    ok 1 - .git/objects should be empty after git init in an empty repo.
    ok 2 - .git/objects should have 3 subdirectories.
    ok 3 - success is reported like this
    ...
    ok 43 - very long name in the index handled sanely
    # fixed 1 known breakage(s)
    # still have 1 known breakage(s)
    # passed all remaining 42 test(s)
    1..43
    *** t0001-init.sh ***
    ok 1 - plain
    ok 2 - plain with GIT_WORK_TREE
    ok 3 - plain bare

Since the tests all output TAP (see http://testanything.org) they can
be run with any TAP harness. Here's an example of parallel testing
powered by a recent version of prove(1):

    $ prove --timer --jobs 15 ./t[0-9]*.sh
    [19:17:33] ./t0005-signals.sh ................................... ok       36 ms
    [19:17:33] ./t0022-crlf-rename.sh ............................... ok       69 ms
    [19:17:33] ./t0024-crlf-archive.sh .............................. ok      154 ms
    [19:17:33] ./t0004-unwritable.sh ................................ ok      289 ms
    [19:17:33] ./t0002-gitfile.sh ................................... ok      480 ms
    ===(     102;0  25/?  6/?  5/?  16/?  1/?  4/?  2/?  1/?  3/?  1... )===

prove and other harnesses come with a lot of useful options. The
--state option in particular is very useful:

    # Repeat until no more failures
    $ prove -j 15 --state=failed,save ./t[0-9]*.sh

You can give DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove on the make command (or define it
in config.mak) to cause "make test" to run tests under prove.
GIT_PROVE_OPTS can be used to pass additional options, e.g.

    $ make DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove GIT_PROVE_OPTS='--timer --jobs 16' test

You can also run each test individually from command line, like this:

    $ sh ./t3010-ls-files-killed-modified.sh
    ok 1 - git update-index --add to add various paths.
    ok 2 - git ls-files -k to show killed files.
    ok 3 - validate git ls-files -k output.
    ok 4 - git ls-files -m to show modified files.
    ok 5 - validate git ls-files -m output.
    # passed all 5 test(s)
    1..5

You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
(or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
appropriately before running "make".

-v::
--verbose::
	This makes the test more verbose.  Specifically, the
	command being run and their output if any are also
	output.

--verbose-only=<pattern>::
	Like --verbose, but the effect is limited to tests with
	numbers matching <pattern>.  The number matched against is
	simply the running count of the test within the file.

-x::
	Turn on shell tracing (i.e., `set -x`) during the tests
	themselves. Implies `--verbose`.
	Ignored in test scripts that set the variable 'test_untraceable'
	to a non-empty value, unless it's run with a Bash version
	supporting BASH_XTRACEFD, i.e. v4.1 or later.

-d::
--debug::
	This may help the person who is developing a new test.
	It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
	The "trash" directory (used to store all temporary data
	during testing) is not deleted even if there are no
	failed tests so that you can inspect its contents after
	the test finished.

-i::
--immediate::
	This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
	failed test. Cleanup commands requested with
	test_when_finished are not executed if the test failed,
	in order to keep the state for inspection by the tester
	to diagnose the bug.

-l::
--long-tests::
	This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
	available), for more exhaustive testing.

-r::
--run=<test-selector>::
	Run only the subset of tests indicated by
	<test-selector>.  See section "Skipping Tests" below for
	<test-selector> syntax.

--valgrind=<tool>::
	Execute all Git binaries under valgrind tool <tool> and exit
	with status 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will
	only stop the test script when running under -i).

	Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
	not see any output, this option implies --verbose.  For
	convenience, it also implies --tee.

	<tool> defaults to 'memcheck', just like valgrind itself.
	Other particularly useful choices include 'helgrind' and
	'drd', but you may use any tool recognized by your valgrind
	installation.

	As a special case, <tool> can be 'memcheck-fast', which uses
	memcheck but disables --track-origins.  Use this if you are
	running tests in bulk, to see if there are _any_ memory
	issues.

	Note that memcheck is run with the option --leak-check=no,
	as the git process is short-lived and some errors are not
	interesting. In order to run a single command under the same
	conditions manually, you should set GIT_VALGRIND to point to
	the 't/valgrind/' directory and use the commands under
	't/valgrind/bin/'.

--valgrind-only=<pattern>::
	Like --valgrind, but the effect is limited to tests with
	numbers matching <pattern>.  The number matched against is
	simply the running count of the test within the file.

--tee::
	In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
	write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
	As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
	run the tests with this option in parallel.

-V::
--verbose-log::
	Write verbose output to the same logfile as `--tee`, but do
	_not_ write it to stdout. Unlike `--tee --verbose`, this option
	is safe to use when stdout is being consumed by a TAP parser
	like `prove`. Implies `--tee` and `--verbose`.

--with-dashes::
	By default tests are run without dashed forms of
	commands (like git-commit) in the PATH (it only uses
	wrappers from ../bin-wrappers).  Use this option to include
	the build directory (..) in the PATH, which contains all
	the dashed forms of commands.  This option is currently
	implied by other options like --valgrind and
	GIT_TEST_INSTALLED.

--no-bin-wrappers::
	By default, the test suite uses the wrappers in
	`../bin-wrappers/` to execute `git` and friends. With this option,
	`../git` and friends are run directly. This is not recommended
	in general, as the wrappers contain safeguards to ensure that no
	files from an installed Git are used, but can speed up test runs
	especially on platforms where running shell scripts is expensive
	(most notably, Windows).

--root=<directory>::
	Create "trash" directories used to store all temporary data during
	testing under <directory>, instead of the t/ directory.
	Using this option with a RAM-based filesystem (such as tmpfs)
	can massively speed up the test suite.

--chain-lint::
--no-chain-lint::
	If --chain-lint is enabled, the test harness will check each
	test to make sure that it properly "&&-chains" all commands (so
	that a failure in the middle does not go unnoticed by the final
	exit code of the test). This check is performed in addition to
	running the tests themselves. You may also enable or disable
	this feature by setting the GIT_TEST_CHAIN_LINT environment
	variable to "1" or "0", respectively.

--stress::
	Run the test script repeatedly in multiple parallel jobs until
	one of them fails.  Useful for reproducing rare failures in
	flaky tests.  The number of parallel jobs is, in order of
	precedence: the value of the GIT_TEST_STRESS_LOAD
	environment variable, or twice the number of available
	processors (as shown by the 'getconf' utility),	or 8.
	Implies `--verbose -x --immediate` to get the most information
	about the failure.  Note that the verbose output of each test
	job is saved to 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.stress-<nr>.out',
	and only the output of the failed test job is shown on the
	terminal.  The names of the trash directories get a
	'.stress-<nr>' suffix, and the trash directory of the failed
	test job is renamed to end with a '.stress-failed' suffix.

--stress-jobs=<N>::
	Override the number of parallel jobs. Implies `--stress`.

--stress-limit=<N>::
	When combined with --stress run the test script repeatedly
	this many times in each of the parallel jobs or until one of
	them fails, whichever comes first. Implies `--stress`.

You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
your built version instead.

When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.


Skipping Tests
--------------

In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
as pathnames.

You should be able to say something like

    $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh

and even:

    $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make

to omit such tests.  The value of the environment variable is a
SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
particular test to skip.

For an individual test suite --run could be used to specify that
only some tests should be run or that some tests should be
excluded from a run.

The argument for --run is a list of individual test numbers or
ranges with an optional negation prefix that define what tests in
a test suite to include in the run.  A range is two numbers
separated with a dash and matches a range of tests with both ends
been included.  You may omit the first or the second number to
mean "from the first test" or "up to the very last test"
respectively.

Optional prefix of '!' means that the test or a range of tests
should be excluded from the run.

If --run starts with an unprefixed number or range the initial
set of tests to run is empty. If the first item starts with '!'
all the tests are added to the initial set.  After initial set is
determined every test number or range is added or excluded from
the set one by one, from left to right.

Individual numbers or ranges could be separated either by a space
or a comma.

For example, to run only tests up to a specific test (21), one
could do this:

    $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-21'

or this:

    $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-21'

Common case is to run several setup tests (1, 2, 3) and then a
specific test (21) that relies on that setup:

    $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1 2 3 21'

or:

    $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run=1,2,3,21

or:

    $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-3 21'

As noted above, the test set is built by going through the items
from left to right, so this:

    $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-4 !3'

will run tests 1, 2, and 4.  Items that come later have higher
precedence.  It means that this:

    $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!3 1-4'

would just run tests from 1 to 4, including 3.

You may use negation with ranges.  The following will run all
test in the test suite except from 7 up to 11:

    $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!7-11'

Some tests in a test suite rely on the previous tests performing
certain actions, specifically some tests are designated as
"setup" test, so you cannot _arbitrarily_ disable one test and
expect the rest to function correctly.

--run is mostly useful when you want to focus on a specific test
and know what setup is needed for it.  Or when you want to run
everything up to a certain test.


Running tests with special setups
---------------------------------

The whole test suite could be run to test some special features
that cannot be easily covered by a few specific test cases. These
could be enabled by running the test suite with correct GIT_TEST_
environment set.

GIT_TEST_GETTEXT_POISON=<non-empty?> turns all strings marked for
translation into gibberish if non-empty (think "test -n"). Used for
spotting those tests that need to be marked with a C_LOCALE_OUTPUT
prerequisite when adding more strings for translation. See "Testing
marked strings" in po/README for details.

GIT_TEST_SPLIT_INDEX=<boolean> forces split-index mode on the whole
test suite. Accept any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.

GIT_TEST_FULL_IN_PACK_ARRAY=<boolean> exercises the uncommon
pack-objects code path where there are more than 1024 packs even if
the actual number of packs in repository is below this limit. Accept
any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.

GIT_TEST_OE_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncommon pack-objects code path
where we do not cache object size in memory and read it from existing
packs on demand. This normally only happens when the object size is
over 2GB. This variable forces the code path on any object larger than
<n> bytes.

GIT_TEST_OE_DELTA_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncommon pack-objects code
path where deltas larger than this limit require extra memory
allocation for bookkeeping.

GIT_TEST_VALIDATE_INDEX_CACHE_ENTRIES=<boolean> checks that cache-tree
records are valid when the index is written out or after a merge. This
is mostly to catch missing invalidation. Default is true.

GIT_TEST_COMMIT_GRAPH=<boolean>, when true, forces the commit-graph to
be written after every 'git commit' command, and overrides the
'core.commitGraph' setting to true.

GIT_TEST_FSMONITOR=$PWD/t7519/fsmonitor-all exercises the fsmonitor
code path for utilizing a file system monitor to speed up detecting
new or changed files.

GIT_TEST_INDEX_VERSION=<n> exercises the index read/write code path
for the index version specified.  Can be set to any valid version
(currently 2, 3, or 4).

GIT_TEST_PACK_SPARSE=<boolean> if enabled will default the pack-objects
builtin to use the sparse object walk. This can still be overridden by
the --no-sparse command-line argument.

GIT_TEST_PRELOAD_INDEX=<boolean> exercises the preload-index code path
by overriding the minimum number of cache entries required per thread.

GIT_TEST_REBASE_USE_BUILTIN=<boolean>, when false, disables the
builtin version of git-rebase. See 'rebase.useBuiltin' in
git-config(1).

GIT_TEST_INDEX_THREADS=<n> enables exercising the multi-threaded loading
of the index for the whole test suite by bypassing the default number of
cache entries and thread minimums. Setting this to 1 will make the
index loading single threaded.

GIT_TEST_MULTI_PACK_INDEX=<boolean>, when true, forces the multi-pack-
index to be written after every 'git repack' command, and overrides the
'core.multiPackIndex' setting to true.

GIT_TEST_SIDEBAND_ALL=<boolean>, when true, overrides the
'uploadpack.allowSidebandAll' setting to true, and when false, forces
fetch-pack to not request sideband-all (even if the server advertises
sideband-all).

GIT_TEST_ABBREVIATED_OPTIONS=<boolean>, when false (which is
the default when running tests), errors out when an abbreviated option
is used. Overrides the core.abbreviatedOptions setting.

Naming Tests
------------

The test files are named as:

	tNNNN-commandname-details.sh

where N is a decimal digit.

First digit tells the family:

	0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
	1 - the basic commands concerning database
	2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
	3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
	4 - the diff commands
	5 - the pull and exporting commands
	6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
	7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
	8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
	9 - the git tools

Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.

Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
we are testing.

If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
pattern.  The Makefile here considers all such files as the
top-level test script and tries to run all of them.  Care is
especially needed if you are creating a common test library
file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
not be suitable for standalone execution.


Writing Tests
-------------

The test script is written as a shell script.  It should start
with the standard "#!/bin/sh", and an
assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:

	#!/bin/sh

	test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)

	This test registers the following structure in the cache
	and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'


Source 'test-lib.sh'
--------------------

After assigning test_description, the test script should source
test-lib.sh like this:

	. ./test-lib.sh

This test harness library does the following things:

 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
   (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.

 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects database
   and chdir(2) into it.  This directory is 't/trash
   directory.$test_name_without_dotsh', with t/ subject to change by
   the --root option documented above, and a '.stress-<N>' suffix
   appended by the --stress option.

 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
   use.  These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
   consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
   --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.

Do's & don'ts
-------------

Here are a few examples of things you probably should and shouldn't do
when writing tests.

Here are the "do's:"

 - Put all code inside test_expect_success and other assertions.

   Even code that isn't a test per se, but merely some setup code
   should be inside a test assertion.

 - Chain your test assertions

   Write test code like this:

	git merge foo &&
	git push bar &&
	test ...

   Instead of:

	git merge hla
	git push gh
	test ...

   That way all of the commands in your tests will succeed or fail. If
   you must ignore the return value of something, consider using a
   helper function (e.g. use sane_unset instead of unset, in order
   to avoid unportable return value for unsetting a variable that was
   already unset), or prepending the command with test_might_fail or
   test_must_fail.

 - Check the test coverage for your tests. See the "Test coverage"
   below.

   Don't blindly follow test coverage metrics; if a new function you added
   doesn't have any coverage, then you're probably doing something wrong,
   but having 100% coverage doesn't necessarily mean that you tested
   everything.

   Tests that are likely to smoke out future regressions are better
   than tests that just inflate the coverage metrics.

 - When a test checks for an absolute path that a git command generated,
   construct the expected value using $(pwd) rather than $PWD,
   $TEST_DIRECTORY, or $TRASH_DIRECTORY. It makes a difference on
   Windows, where the shell (MSYS bash) mangles absolute path names.
   For details, see the commit message of 4114156ae9.

 - Remember that inside the <script> part, the standard output and
   standard error streams are discarded, and the test harness only
   reports "ok" or "not ok" to the end user running the tests. Under
   --verbose, they are shown to help debug the tests.

And here are the "don'ts:"

 - Don't exit() within a <script> part.

   The harness will catch this as a programming error of the test.
   Use test_done instead if you need to stop the tests early (see
   "Skipping tests" below).

 - Don't use '! git cmd' when you want to make sure the git command
   exits with failure in a controlled way by calling "die()".  Instead,
   use 'test_must_fail git cmd'.  This will signal a failure if git
   dies in an unexpected way (e.g. segfault).

   On the other hand, don't use test_must_fail for running regular
   platform commands; just use '! cmd'.  We are not in the business
   of verifying that the world given to us sanely works.

 - Don't feed the output of a git command to a pipe, as in:

     git -C repo ls-files |
     xargs -n 1 basename |
     grep foo

   which will discard git's exit code and may mask a crash. In the
   above example, all exit codes are ignored except grep's.

   Instead, write the output of that command to a temporary
   file with ">" or assign it to a variable with "x=$(git ...)" rather
   than pipe it.

 - Don't use command substitution in a way that discards git's exit
   code. When assigning to a variable, the exit code is not discarded,
   e.g.:

     x=$(git cat-file -p $sha) &&
     ...

   is OK because a crash in "git cat-file" will cause the "&&" chain
   to fail, but:

     test "refs/heads/foo" = "$(git symbolic-ref HEAD)"

   is not OK and a crash in git could go undetected.

 - Don't use perl without spelling it as "$PERL_PATH". This is to help
   our friends on Windows where the platform Perl often adds CR before
   the end of line, and they bundle Git with a version of Perl that
   does not do so, whose path is specified with $PERL_PATH. Note that we
   provide a "perl" function which uses $PERL_PATH under the hood, so
   you do not need to worry when simply running perl in the test scripts
   (but you do, for example, on a shebang line or in a sub script
   created via "write_script").

 - Don't use sh without spelling it as "$SHELL_PATH", when the script
   can be misinterpreted by broken platform shell (e.g. Solaris).

 - Don't chdir around in tests.  It is not sufficient to chdir to
   somewhere and then chdir back to the original location later in
   the test, as any intermediate step can fail and abort the test,
   causing the next test to start in an unexpected directory.  Do so
   inside a subshell if necessary.

 - Don't save and verify the standard error of compound commands, i.e.
   group commands, subshells, and shell functions (except test helper
   functions like 'test_must_fail') like this:

     ( cd dir && git cmd ) 2>error &&
     test_cmp expect error

   When running the test with '-x' tracing, then the trace of commands
   executed in the compound command will be included in standard error
   as well, quite possibly throwing off the subsequent checks examining
   the output.  Instead, save only the relevant git command's standard
   error:

     ( cd dir && git cmd 2>../error ) &&
     test_cmp expect error

 - Don't break the TAP output

   The raw output from your test may be interpreted by a TAP harness. TAP
   harnesses will ignore everything they don't know about, but don't step
   on their toes in these areas:

   - Don't print lines like "$x..$y" where $x and $y are integers.

   - Don't print lines that begin with "ok" or "not ok".

   TAP harnesses expect a line that begins with either "ok" and "not
   ok" to signal a test passed or failed (and our harness already
   produces such lines), so your script shouldn't emit such lines to
   their output.

   You can glean some further possible issues from the TAP grammar
   (see https://metacpan.org/pod/TAP::Parser::Grammar#TAP-GRAMMAR)
   but the best indication is to just run the tests with prove(1),
   it'll complain if anything is amiss.


Skipping tests
--------------

If you need to skip tests you should do so by using the three-arg form
of the test_* functions (see the "Test harness library" section
below), e.g.:

    test_expect_success PERL 'I need Perl' '
        perl -e "hlagh() if unf_unf()"
    '

The advantage of skipping tests like this is that platforms that don't
have the PERL and other optional dependencies get an indication of how
many tests they're missing.

If the test code is too hairy for that (i.e. does a lot of setup work
outside test assertions) you can also skip all remaining tests by
setting skip_all and immediately call test_done:

	if ! test_have_prereq PERL
	then
	    skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
	    test_done
	fi

The string you give to skip_all will be used as an explanation for why
the test was skipped.

End with test_done
------------------

Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
from the test harness library.  At the end of the script, call
'test_done'.


Test harness library
--------------------

There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
library for your script to use.

 - test_expect_success [<prereq>] <message> <script>

   Usually takes two strings as parameters, and evaluates the
   <script>.  If it yields success, test is considered
   successful.  <message> should state what it is testing.

   Example:

	test_expect_success \
	    'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
	    'tree=$(git-write-tree)'

   If you supply three parameters the first will be taken to be a
   prerequisite; see the test_set_prereq and test_have_prereq
   documentation below:

	test_expect_success TTY 'git --paginate rev-list uses a pager' \
	    ' ... '

   You can also supply a comma-separated list of prerequisites, in the
   rare case where your test depends on more than one:

	test_expect_success PERL,PYTHON 'yo dawg' \
	    ' test $(perl -E 'print eval "1 +" . qx[python -c "print 2"]') == "4" '

 - test_expect_failure [<prereq>] <message> <script>

   This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
   to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage.  Unlike
   the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
   success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
   success and "still broken" on failure.  Failures from these
   tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.

   Like test_expect_success this function can optionally use a three
   argument invocation with a prerequisite as the first argument.

 - test_debug <script>

   This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
   when the test script is started with --debug command line
   argument.  This is primarily meant for use during the
   development of a new test script.

 - debug <git-command>

   Run a git command inside a debugger. This is primarily meant for
   use when debugging a failing test script.

 - test_done

   Your test script must have test_done at the end.  Its purpose
   is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
   exit with an appropriate error code.

 - test_tick

   Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
   committer times to defined state.  Subsequent calls will
   advance the times by a fixed amount.

 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]

   Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
   file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
   message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
   string as name).  Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
   reproducible.

 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>

   Merges the given rev using the given message.  Like test_commit,
   creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.

 - test_set_prereq <prereq>

   Set a test prerequisite to be used later with test_have_prereq. The
   test-lib will set some prerequisites for you, see the
   "Prerequisites" section below for a full list of these.

   Others you can set yourself and use later with either
   test_have_prereq directly, or the three argument invocation of
   test_expect_success and test_expect_failure.

 - test_have_prereq <prereq>

   Check if we have a prerequisite previously set with test_set_prereq.
   The most common way to use this explicitly (as opposed to the
   implicit use when an argument is passed to test_expect_*) is to skip
   all the tests at the start of the test script if we don't have some
   essential prerequisite:

	if ! test_have_prereq PERL
	then
	    skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
	    test_done
	fi

 - test_external [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>

   Execute a <script> with an <external> interpreter (like perl). This
   was added for tests like t9700-perl-git.sh which do most of their
   work in an external test script.

	test_external \
	    'GitwebCache::*FileCache*' \
	    perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9503/test_cache_interface.pl

   If the test is outputting its own TAP you should set the
   test_external_has_tap variable somewhere before calling the first
   test_external* function. See t9700-perl-git.sh for an example.

	# The external test will outputs its own plan
	test_external_has_tap=1

 - test_external_without_stderr [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>

   Like test_external but fail if there's any output on stderr,
   instead of checking the exit code.

	test_external_without_stderr \
	    'Perl API' \
	    perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9700/test.pl

 - test_expect_code <exit-code> <command>

   Run a command and ensure that it exits with the given exit code.
   For example:

	test_expect_success 'Merge with d/f conflicts' '
		test_expect_code 1 git merge "merge msg" B master
	'

 - test_must_fail [<options>] <git-command>

   Run a git command and ensure it fails in a controlled way.  Use
   this instead of "! <git-command>".  When git-command dies due to a
   segfault, test_must_fail diagnoses it as an error; "! <git-command>"
   treats it as just another expected failure, which would let such a
   bug go unnoticed.

   Accepts the following options:

     ok=<signal-name>[,<...>]:
       Don't treat an exit caused by the given signal as error.
       Multiple signals can be specified as a comma separated list.
       Currently recognized signal names are: sigpipe, success.
       (Don't use 'success', use 'test_might_fail' instead.)

 - test_might_fail [<options>] <git-command>

   Similar to test_must_fail, but tolerate success, too.  Use this
   instead of "<git-command> || :" to catch failures due to segv.

   Accepts the same options as test_must_fail.

 - test_cmp <expected> <actual>

   Check whether the content of the <actual> file matches the
   <expected> file.  This behaves like "cmp" but produces more
   helpful output when the test is run with "-v" option.

 - test_cmp_rev <expected> <actual>

   Check whether the <expected> rev points to the same commit as the
   <actual> rev.

 - test_line_count (= | -lt | -ge | ...) <length> <file>

   Check whether a file has the length it is expected to.

 - test_path_is_file <path> [<diagnosis>]
   test_path_is_dir <path> [<diagnosis>]
   test_path_is_missing <path> [<diagnosis>]

   Check if the named path is a file, if the named path is a
   directory, or if the named path does not exist, respectively,
   and fail otherwise, showing the <diagnosis> text.

 - test_when_finished <script>

   Prepend <script> to a list of commands to run to clean up
   at the end of the current test.  If some clean-up command
   fails, the test will not pass.

   Example:

	test_expect_success 'branch pointing to non-commit' '
		git rev-parse HEAD^{tree} >.git/refs/heads/invalid &&
		test_when_finished "git update-ref -d refs/heads/invalid" &&
		...
	'

 - test_write_lines <lines>

   Write <lines> on standard output, one line per argument.
   Useful to prepare multi-line files in a compact form.

   Example:

	test_write_lines a b c d e f g >foo

   Is a more compact equivalent of:
	cat >foo <<-EOF
	a
	b
	c
	d
	e
	f
	g
	EOF


 - test_pause

	This command is useful for writing and debugging tests and must be
	removed before submitting. It halts the execution of the test and
	spawns a shell in the trash directory. Exit the shell to continue
	the test. Example:

	test_expect_success 'test' '
		git do-something >actual &&
		test_pause &&
		test_cmp expected actual
	'

 - test_ln_s_add <path1> <path2>

   This function helps systems whose filesystem does not support symbolic
   links. Use it to add a symbolic link entry to the index when it is not
   important that the file system entry is a symbolic link, i.e., instead
   of the sequence

	ln -s foo bar &&
	git add bar

   Sometimes it is possible to split a test in a part that does not need
   the symbolic link in the file system and a part that does; then only
   the latter part need be protected by a SYMLINKS prerequisite (see below).

 - test_oid_init

   This function loads facts and useful object IDs related to the hash
   algorithm(s) in use from the files in t/oid-info.

 - test_oid_cache

   This function reads per-hash algorithm information from standard
   input (usually a heredoc) in the format described in
   t/oid-info/README.  This is useful for test-specific values, such as
   object IDs, which must vary based on the hash algorithm.

   Certain fixed values, such as hash sizes and common placeholder
   object IDs, can be loaded with test_oid_init (described above).

 - test_oid <key>

   This function looks up a value for the hash algorithm in use, based
   on the key given.  The value must have been loaded using
   test_oid_init or test_oid_cache.  Providing an unknown key is an
   error.

 - yes [<string>]

   This is often seen in modern UNIX but some platforms lack it, so
   the test harness overrides the platform implementation with a
   more limited one.  Use this only when feeding a handful lines of
   output to the downstream---unlike the real version, it generates
   only up to 99 lines.


Prerequisites
-------------

These are the prerequisites that the test library predefines with
test_have_prereq.

See the prereq argument to the test_* functions in the "Test harness
library" section above and the "test_have_prereq" function for how to
use these, and "test_set_prereq" for how to define your own.

 - PYTHON

   Git wasn't compiled with NO_PYTHON=YesPlease. Wrap any tests that
   need Python with this.

 - PERL

   Git wasn't compiled with NO_PERL=YesPlease.

   Even without the PERL prerequisite, tests can assume there is a
   usable perl interpreter at $PERL_PATH, though it need not be
   particularly modern.

 - POSIXPERM

   The filesystem supports POSIX style permission bits.

 - BSLASHPSPEC

   Backslashes in pathspec are not directory separators. This is not
   set on Windows. See 6fd1106a for details.

 - EXECKEEPSPID

   The process retains the same pid across exec(2). See fb9a2bea for
   details.

 - PIPE

   The filesystem we're on supports creation of FIFOs (named pipes)
   via mkfifo(1).

 - SYMLINKS

   The filesystem we're on supports symbolic links. E.g. a FAT
   filesystem doesn't support these. See 704a3143 for details.

 - SANITY

   Test is not run by root user, and an attempt to write to an
   unwritable file is expected to fail correctly.

 - PCRE

   Git was compiled with support for PCRE. Wrap any tests
   that use git-grep --perl-regexp or git-grep -P in these.

 - LIBPCRE1

   Git was compiled with PCRE v1 support via
   USE_LIBPCRE1=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
   reason need v1 of the PCRE library instead of v2 in these.

 - LIBPCRE2

   Git was compiled with PCRE v2 support via
   USE_LIBPCRE2=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
   reason need v2 of the PCRE library instead of v1 in these.

 - CASE_INSENSITIVE_FS

   Test is run on a case insensitive file system.

 - UTF8_NFD_TO_NFC

   Test is run on a filesystem which converts decomposed utf-8 (nfd)
   to precomposed utf-8 (nfc).

 - PTHREADS

   Git wasn't compiled with NO_PTHREADS=YesPlease.

Tips for Writing Tests
----------------------

As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
source of the information.  However, do _not_ emulate
t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests.  The test is special in
that it tries to validate the very core of GIT.  For example, it
knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
40-byte string.  This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
drastically.  For these people, after making certain changes,
not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure.  And
such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
an update to t0000-basic.sh.

However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
knowledge of the core GIT internals.  If all the test scripts
hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
validation in one place.  Your test also ends up needing
updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.

Test coverage
-------------

You can use the coverage tests to find code paths that are not being
used or properly exercised yet.

To do that, run the coverage target at the top-level (not in the t/
directory):

    make coverage

That'll compile Git with GCC's coverage arguments, and generate a test
report with gcov after the tests finish. Running the coverage tests
can take a while, since running the tests in parallel is incompatible
with GCC's coverage mode.

After the tests have run you can generate a list of untested
functions:

    make coverage-untested-functions

You can also generate a detailed per-file HTML report using the
Devel::Cover module. To install it do:

   # On Debian or Ubuntu:
   sudo aptitude install libdevel-cover-perl

   # From the CPAN with cpanminus
   curl -L http://cpanmin.us | perl - --sudo --self-upgrade
   cpanm --sudo Devel::Cover

Then, at the top-level:

    make cover_db_html

That'll generate a detailed cover report in the "cover_db_html"
directory, which you can then copy to a webserver, or inspect locally
in a browser.
debug log:

solving 1d628baf31 ...
found 1d628baf31 in https://public-inbox.org/git/20190325202329.26033-2-avarab@gmail.com/
found 9ed3051a1c in https://80x24.org/mirrors/git.git
preparing index
index prepared:
100644 9ed3051a1cc662208cd84afbd4817f1abbc7f5f5	t/README

applying [1/1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20190325202329.26033-2-avarab@gmail.com/
diff --git a/t/README b/t/README
index 9ed3051a1c..1d628baf31 100644

Checking patch t/README...
Applied patch t/README cleanly.

index at:
100644 1d628baf3194426922aa0555650a26361e42684f	t/README

git@vger.kernel.org list mirror (unofficial, one of many)

Archives are clonable:
	git clone --mirror https://public-inbox.org/git
	git clone --mirror http://ou63pmih66umazou.onion/git
	git clone --mirror http://czquwvybam4bgbro.onion/git
	git clone --mirror http://hjrcffqmbrq6wope.onion/git

Example config snippet for mirrors

Newsgroups are available over NNTP:
	nntp://news.public-inbox.org/inbox.comp.version-control.git
	nntp://ou63pmih66umazou.onion/inbox.comp.version-control.git
	nntp://czquwvybam4bgbro.onion/inbox.comp.version-control.git
	nntp://hjrcffqmbrq6wope.onion/inbox.comp.version-control.git
	nntp://news.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git

 note: .onion URLs require Tor: https://www.torproject.org/

AGPL code for this site: git clone https://public-inbox.org/public-inbox.git