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Git pack format
===============

== pack-*.pack files have the following format:

   - A header appears at the beginning and consists of the following:

     4-byte signature:
         The signature is: {'P', 'A', 'C', 'K'}

     4-byte version number (network byte order):
	 Git currently accepts version number 2 or 3 but
         generates version 2 only.

     4-byte number of objects contained in the pack (network byte order)

     Observation: we cannot have more than 4G versions ;-) and
     more than 4G objects in a pack.

   - The header is followed by number of object entries, each of
     which looks like this:

     (undeltified representation)
     n-byte type and length (3-bit type, (n-1)*7+4-bit length)
     compressed data

     (deltified representation)
     n-byte type and length (3-bit type, (n-1)*7+4-bit length)
     20-byte base object name if OBJ_REF_DELTA or a negative relative
	 offset from the delta object's position in the pack if this
	 is an OBJ_OFS_DELTA object
     compressed delta data

     Observation: length of each object is encoded in a variable
     length format and is not constrained to 32-bit or anything.

  - The trailer records 20-byte SHA-1 checksum of all of the above.

=== Object types

Valid object types are:

- OBJ_COMMIT (1)
- OBJ_TREE (2)
- OBJ_BLOB (3)
- OBJ_TAG (4)
- OBJ_OFS_DELTA (6)
- OBJ_REF_DELTA (7)

Type 5 is reserved for future expansion. Type 0 is invalid.

=== Deltified representation

Conceptually there are only four object types: commit, tree, tag and
blob. However to save space, an object could be stored as a "delta" of
another "base" object. These representations are assigned new types
ofs-delta and ref-delta, which is only valid in a pack file.

Both ofs-delta and ref-delta store the "delta" to be applied to
another object (called 'base object') to reconstruct the object. The
difference between them is, ref-delta directly encodes 20-byte base
object name. If the base object is in the same pack, ofs-delta encodes
the offset of the base object in the pack instead.

The base object could also be deltified if it's in the same pack.
Ref-delta can also refer to an object outside the pack (i.e. the
so-called "thin pack"). When stored on disk however, the pack should
be self contained to avoid cyclic dependency.

The delta data is a sequence of instructions to reconstruct an object
from the base object. If the base object is deltified, it must be
converted to canonical form first. Each instruction appends more and
more data to the target object until it's complete. There are two
supported instructions so far: one for copy a byte range from the
source object and one for inserting new data embedded in the
instruction itself.

Each instruction has variable length. Instruction type is determined
by the seventh bit of the first octet. The following diagrams follow
the convention in RFC 1951 (Deflate compressed data format).

==== Instruction to copy from base object

  +----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+
  | 1xxxxxxx | offset1 | offset2 | offset3 | offset4 | size1 | size2 | size3 |
  +----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+

This is the instruction format to copy a byte range from the source
object. It encodes the offset to copy from and the number of bytes to
copy. Offset and size are in little-endian order.

All offset and size bytes are optional. This is to reduce the
instruction size when encoding small offsets or sizes. The first seven
bits in the first octet determines which of the next seven octets is
present. If bit zero is set, offset1 is present. If bit one is set
offset2 is present and so on.

Note that a more compact instruction does not change offset and size
encoding. For example, if only offset2 is omitted like below, offset3
still contains bits 16-23. It does not become offset2 and contains
bits 8-15 even if it's right next to offset1.

  +----------+---------+---------+
  | 10000101 | offset1 | offset3 |
  +----------+---------+---------+

In its most compact form, this instruction only takes up one byte
(0x80) with both offset and size omitted, which will have default
values zero. There is another exception: size zero is automatically
converted to 0x10000.

==== Instruction to add new data

  +----------+============+
  | 0xxxxxxx |    data    |
  +----------+============+

This is the instruction to construct target object without the base
object. The following data is appended to the target object. The first
seven bits of the first octet determines the size of data in
bytes. The size must be non-zero.

==== Reserved instruction

  +----------+============
  | 00000000 |
  +----------+============

This is the instruction reserved for future expansion.

== Original (version 1) pack-*.idx files have the following format:

  - The header consists of 256 4-byte network byte order
    integers.  N-th entry of this table records the number of
    objects in the corresponding pack, the first byte of whose
    object name is less than or equal to N.  This is called the
    'first-level fan-out' table.

  - The header is followed by sorted 24-byte entries, one entry
    per object in the pack.  Each entry is:

    4-byte network byte order integer, recording where the
    object is stored in the packfile as the offset from the
    beginning.

    20-byte object name.

  - The file is concluded with a trailer:

    A copy of the 20-byte SHA-1 checksum at the end of
    corresponding packfile.

    20-byte SHA-1-checksum of all of the above.

Pack Idx file:

	--  +--------------------------------+
fanout	    | fanout[0] = 2 (for example)    |-.
table	    +--------------------------------+ |
	    | fanout[1]                      | |
	    +--------------------------------+ |
	    | fanout[2]                      | |
	    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ |
	    | fanout[255] = total objects    |---.
	--  +--------------------------------+ | |
main	    | offset                         | | |
index	    | object name 00XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX | | |
table	    +--------------------------------+ | |
	    | offset                         | | |
	    | object name 00XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX | | |
	    +--------------------------------+<+ |
	  .-| offset                         |   |
	  | | object name 01XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX |   |
	  | +--------------------------------+   |
	  | | offset                         |   |
	  | | object name 01XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX |   |
	  | ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~   |
	  | | offset                         |   |
	  | | object name FFXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX |   |
	--| +--------------------------------+<--+
trailer	  | | packfile checksum              |
	  | +--------------------------------+
	  | | idxfile checksum               |
	  | +--------------------------------+
          .-------.
                  |
Pack file entry: <+

     packed object header:
	1-byte size extension bit (MSB)
	       type (next 3 bit)
	       size0 (lower 4-bit)
        n-byte sizeN (as long as MSB is set, each 7-bit)
		size0..sizeN form 4+7+7+..+7 bit integer, size0
		is the least significant part, and sizeN is the
		most significant part.
     packed object data:
        If it is not DELTA, then deflated bytes (the size above
		is the size before compression).
	If it is REF_DELTA, then
	  20-byte base object name SHA-1 (the size above is the
		size of the delta data that follows).
          delta data, deflated.
	If it is OFS_DELTA, then
	  n-byte offset (see below) interpreted as a negative
		offset from the type-byte of the header of the
		ofs-delta entry (the size above is the size of
		the delta data that follows).
	  delta data, deflated.

     offset encoding:
	  n bytes with MSB set in all but the last one.
	  The offset is then the number constructed by
	  concatenating the lower 7 bit of each byte, and
	  for n >= 2 adding 2^7 + 2^14 + ... + 2^(7*(n-1))
	  to the result.



== Version 2 pack-*.idx files support packs larger than 4 GiB, and
   have some other reorganizations.  They have the format:

  - A 4-byte magic number '\377tOc' which is an unreasonable
    fanout[0] value.

  - A 4-byte version number (= 2)

  - A 256-entry fan-out table just like v1.

  - A table of sorted 20-byte SHA-1 object names.  These are
    packed together without offset values to reduce the cache
    footprint of the binary search for a specific object name.

  - A table of 4-byte CRC32 values of the packed object data.
    This is new in v2 so compressed data can be copied directly
    from pack to pack during repacking without undetected
    data corruption.

  - A table of 4-byte offset values (in network byte order).
    These are usually 31-bit pack file offsets, but large
    offsets are encoded as an index into the next table with
    the msbit set.

  - A table of 8-byte offset entries (empty for pack files less
    than 2 GiB).  Pack files are organized with heavily used
    objects toward the front, so most object references should
    not need to refer to this table.

  - The same trailer as a v1 pack file:

    A copy of the 20-byte SHA-1 checksum at the end of
    corresponding packfile.

    20-byte SHA-1-checksum of all of the above.

== midx-*.midx files have the following format:

The meta-index files refer to multiple pack-files and loose objects.

In order to allow extensions that add extra data to the MIDX, we organize
the body into "chunks" and provide a lookup table at the beginning of the
body. The header includes certain length values, such as the number of packs,
the number of base MIDX files, hash lengths and types.

All 4-byte numbers are in network order.

HEADER:

	4-byte signature:
	    The signature is: {'M', 'I', 'D', 'X'}

	1-byte version number:
	    Git only writes or recognizes version 1

	1-byte Object Id Version
	    Git only writes or recognizes verion 1 (SHA-1)

	1-byte number (C) of "chunks"

	1-byte number (I) of base multi-pack-index files:
	    This value is currently always zero.

	4-byte number (P) of pack files

CHUNK LOOKUP:

	(C + 1) * 12 bytes providing the chunk offsets:
	    First 4 bytes describe chunk id. Value 0 is a terminating label.
	    Other 8 bytes provide offset in current file for chunk to start.
	    (Chunks are provided in file-order, so you can infer the length
	    using the next chunk position if necessary.)

	The remaining data in the body is described one chunk at a time, and
	these chunks may be given in any order. Chunks are required unless
	otherwise specified.

CHUNK DATA:

	(This section intentionally left incomplete.)

TRAILER:

	H-byte HASH-checksum of all of the above.
debug log:

solving 17666b4bfc ...
found 17666b4bfc in https://public-inbox.org/git/20180607140338.32440-3-dstolee@microsoft.com/
found 70a99fd142 in https://80x24.org/mirrors/git.git
preparing index
index prepared:
100644 70a99fd1423894255f5e0e8cdbb345276620ffde	Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt

applying [1/1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20180607140338.32440-3-dstolee@microsoft.com/
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
index 70a99fd142..17666b4bfc 100644

Checking patch Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt...
Applied patch Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt cleanly.

index at:
100644 17666b4bfcc70a0253964498f9e344a98ce739fb	Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt

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